President of Syria
|President of the Syrian Arab Republic |
رئيس الجمهورية العربية السورية
|Residence||Presidential Palace |
|Term length||Seven years, renewable once consecutively|
|Inaugural holder||Subhi Barakat (French Mandate) |
Shukri al-Quwatli (current constitution)
|Formation||17 April 1946|
|Deputy||Vice President of Syria|
The president of Syria, officially the president of the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: رئيس سوريا), is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic. They are vested with sweeping powers that may be delegated, at their sole discretion, to their vice presidents. They appoint and dismiss the prime minister and other members of the Council of Ministers (the cabinet) and military officers. Bashar al-Assad is the 19th and current president of Syria. Bashar Al-Assad is the son of former president, Hafez al-Assad, who was the longest-serving president serving 29 years. Al-Assad is currently the second longest-serving president marking the 22nd year of his presidency in 2022 when he entered the post on 17 July 2000.
Term of office
Article 88 of the 2012 constitution states that the president serves a seven year term and "can be elected for only one more successive term." Article 155 states that Article 88 applies to the president "as of the next presidential elections."
On 31 January 1973, Hafez al-Assad implemented a new constitution, which led to a national crisis. Unlike previous constitutions, this one did not require that the president of Syria must be a Muslim, leading to fierce demonstrations in Hama, Homs and Aleppo organized by the Muslim Brotherhood and the ulama. They labeled Assad as the "enemy of God" and called for a jihad against his rule. Robert D. Kaplan has compared Assad's coming to power to "an untouchable becoming maharajah in India or a Jew becoming tsar in Russia—an unprecedented development shocking to the Sunni majority population which had monopolized power for so many centuries." The main objection to the constitution from demonstrators was that Islam was not specified as the state religion. In response to riots, the Syrian Constitution of 1973 was amended to stipulate that Islam was the religion of the president.
- Be at least 40 years old
- Be Syrian by birth, of parents who are Syrians by birth
- Enjoy civil and political rights and not convicted of a dishonorable felony, even if he was reinstated
- Not be married to a non-Syrian wife
- Have lived in Syria for 10 years continuously upon nomination
Further eligibility requirements in the 2012 constitution include:
- The religion of the President of the Republic is Islam; Islamic jurisprudence shall be a major source of legislation; The State shall respect all religions, and ensure the freedom to perform all the rituals that do not prejudice public order; The personal status of religious communities shall be protected and respected. (Article 3, which describes the office of the presidency. The requirements in the section including the age requirement are from the section on the requirements for nomination.)
- A candidate must be supported by at least 35 members of the People's Assembly (Article 85)
- The President cannot carry another nationality (Article 152)
Powers and removal
- Commander in Chief of the army and armed forces
- Representing Syria in international relations
- Developing and implementing national policy
- Appointing and dismissing the Prime Minister and Ministers
- Creating and overseeing the implementation of general state policy
- Vetoing or accepting laws
- Declaring a state of emergency
- Concluding international treaties
- Granting amnesty
- Granting honors and medals
- Dissolving the People’s Assembly
- Passing laws when the legislature is not in session or in emergency situations
- Submitting matters to binding national referendum
- Drafting laws
- Upon submission of resignation to the People’s Assembly
- At the end of 7-year term if not nominated for re-election, or second 7-year term if re-elected
- In the case of permanent incapacity or death
- Upon conviction for high treason by the Constitutional Court after proposal by one-third of Assembly and approval by two-thirds
List of presidents
|Bashar al-Assad||Ba'ath Party||13,540,860||95.19|
|Mahmoud Ahmad Marei||Democratic Arab Socialist Union||470,276||3.31|
|Abdullah Sallum Abdullah||Socialist Unionist Party||213,968||1.50|
|Source: Syrian Arab News Agency|
- Article 88 of the Syrian Constitution
- "Syria - The President and the Cabinet".
- "Syrian Arab Republic's Constitution of 2012" (PDF). ConstituteProject.org. February 26, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- "Qordoba - Translation of the Syrian Constitution Modifications 15-2-2012 | Citizenship | Presidents Of The United States". Scribd. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
- Alianak 2007, p. 55. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAlianak2007 (help)
- Kaplan, Robert (February 1993). "Syria: Identity Crisis". The Atlantic.
- "Further rioting in Syria reported". The New York Times. February 28, 1973.
- MacFarquhar, Neil; Cowell, Alan (February 27, 2012). "Syrians Said to Approve Charter as Battles Go On". The New York Times.
- "Constitutional history of Syria". constitutionniet.org. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
- "Dr. Bashar al-Assad elected President of the Syrian Arab Republic with the majority of votes". Syrian Arab News Agency. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.