|Group:||Group V ((−)ssRNA)|
Sangassou virus (SANGV) is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus hantavirus in the Bunyaviridae family. It was first isolated in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) in the forest in Guinea, West Africa in 2010. It is named for the village near where the mouse was trapped. It is the first indigenous Murinae-associated African hantavirus to be discovered.
The virus genome consists of three segments of negative-stranded RNA; the large (L) segment encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the medium (M) segment encodes the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc (cotranslationally cleaved from a glycoprotein precursor), and the small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein.
In rodents, hantavirus produces a chronic infection with no adverse sequelae. In humans, hantavirus produces two major clinical syndromes: hemorrhagic fever or pulmonary syndrome. European, Asian, and African rodent-borne hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever. The pulmonary syndrome, caused by the species Sin Nombre virus, has not been found anywhere other than the United States where deer mice are the natural hosts. It was discovered in 1993 during an outbreak in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States.
Natural reservoirs for this hantavirus species include the split faced bat, moles, and shrews. Rodent-borne hantaviruses form three major evolutionary clades corresponding to the subfamilies of their rodent hosts. HTNV, SEOV, and DOBV are examples of Murinae-associated hantaviruses. PUUV and Tula virus (TULV) belong to the Arvicolinae-associated hantaviruses, and SNV and ANDV are representatives of Neotominae- and Sigmodontinae-associated hantaviruses.
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