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Panayanon Sulud
Total population
18,000 in 17 communities[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Philippines (Western Visayas)
Sulodnon, Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a, Aklanon, Filipino, English
Traditional religion and Folk Christianity (Roman Catholic).
Related ethnic groups
Visayan people, other Filipino peoples, other Austronesian peoples

The Suludnon,[2] also known as the Tumandok, Panay-Bukidnon, or Panayanon Sulud, are an indigenous Visayan group of people who reside in the Capiz-Lambunao mountainous area of Panay in the Visayan islands of the Philippines. They are the only culturally indigenous group of Visayan language-speakers in the Western Visayas.[3][4]

Although they were once culturally related to the speakers of the Kinaray-a, Aklanon, and Hiligaynon languages, all of whom inhabit the lowlands of Panay, their isolation from Spanish rule resulted in the continuation of a pre-Hispanic culture and beliefs. They speak the Igbok language (also known as Ligbok or Sulod language), a member of the West Visayan subdivision of the Visayan languages under the Austronesian language family.

The Sulud/Tumandok are known for their Binanog dance, which mimics the flight of the Philippine eagle, accompanied by an agung ensemble. Another dance of the same name is also performed by the Bukidnon Lumad of Mindanao, suggesting a cultural connection between the people of the Western Visayas and northern Mindanao in ancient times.[5][6] Apart from this, they also practice the use of bamboo musical instruments, which they use to express themselves in traditional songs, dances, and epics.[7] They are also known for their detailed embroidery, known as panubok. The heritage of the panubok is celebrated in the Tinubkan fashion show in Iloilo City. The Sulud are also known for their traditional practices on the mysticism of the binukot and nabukot.[8]

Currently, the Sulud/Tumandok faces several challenges in their existence although the local governments of Panay have realized their importance and have begun establishing several projects that help preserve their culture[9][10]


  1. ^ "Sustained military exercises since the 1970s up to the present have continued to disrupt the lives of the 18,000 tumandoks in 17 communities in the upland villages. The Philippine Army obliged the tumandoks to pay the tumado or land rent for them to be able to stay and till their land" Tumandok people's struggle for their ancestral lands, 09/09/2009.[1]
  2. ^ Sulod: A language of Philippines. Ethnologue.
  3. ^ Binukot: Revisiting the Western Visayas only indigenous group.
  4. ^ Tumandok people's struggle for their ancestral lands
  5. ^ Video of the Binanog dance of the Tumandok, Iloilo, Philippines.
  6. ^ A Tumandok Binanog dance presentation from Barangay Tapaz.
  7. ^ Muyco, Maria Christine M. (Re)Opening a Cultural Memory: The Bamboo Instruments of the Panay Bukidnon. Vol. 5, No. 1 & 2 (2008).
  8. ^ Panay-Bukidnon embroidery enters fashion scene. The News Today. Iloilo City. May 25, 2009.
  9. ^ Preservation of Panay Bukidnon culture gets boost. The News Today. Iloilo City. September 20, 2007.
  10. ^ Basco, Nony. Panay-Bukidnon celebrates Indigenous People's Day. ABS-CBN News. Iloilo City. 11/01/2008.