|Historic range of big-leaf mahogany in South America|
|Current range of big-leaf mahogany in South America|
Swietenia macrophylla, commonly known as mahogany, Honduran mahogany, Honduras mahogany, big-leaf mahogany, or West Indian mahogany, is a species of plant in the Meliaceae family. It is one of three species that yields genuine mahogany timber, the others being Swietenia mahagoni and Swietenia humilis. It is native to South America and Mexico, but naturalized in the Philippines, Singapore and Hawaii, and cultivated in plantations and wind-breaks elsewhere.
Unlike mahogany sourced from its native locations, plantation mahogany grown in Asia is not restricted in trade. The mahogany timber grown in these Asian plantations is the major source of international trade in genuine mahogany today. The Asian countries which grow the majority of Swietenia macrophylla are India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Fiji, Philippines, Singapore, and some others, with India and Fiji being the major world suppliers. The tree is also planted in Laos PDR.
The species is also known under other common names, including bastard mahogany, broad-leaved mahogany, Brazilian mahogany, large-leaved mahogany, genuine mahogany, tropical American mahogany, and sky fruit, among others.
- English - big leaf mahogany, large-leaved mahogany, Brazilian mahogany
- French - Acajou à grandes feuilles, acajou du Honduras
- Spanish - caoba, mara, mogno
- Malayalam - mahagony
- Tamil - Thenkani (தேன்கனி)
- Telugu - mahagani, peddakulamaghani
- Sinhala - mahogani (මහෝගනි)
Historic distribution of mahogany from Mexico to southeastern Amazonia according to Lamb (1966). From Martinez et al. 2008.
Revised historic distribution of mahogany in South America based on expert surveys. From Martinez et al. 2008.
Historic distribution of mahogany in Mexico and Central America. From Calvo et al. 2000.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- "Swietenia macrophylla". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Swietenia macrophylla". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Free, Chris (2012). "Home". SwietKing.ofrg. SwietKing Research. Retrieved 2015-01-22.
- Elevitch, C.R.; Wilkinson, K.M. (2000), Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands, Permanent Agriculture Resources, p. 57, ISBN 9780970254405CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Cernansky, Rachel (29 August 2018). "How to plant a trillion trees". Nature. 560 (7720): 542–544. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-06031-x. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Flowers of India: Big-leaf mahogany