Template:Infobox silicon

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Silicon
14Si
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (other metals)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (other metals)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (other metals)
Tin (other metals)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (other metals)
Lead (other metals)
Bismuth (other metals)
Polonium (other metals)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
C

Si

Ge
aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
Silicon in the periodic table
Appearance
crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces


Spectral lines of Silicon
General properties
Name, symbol, number silicon, Si, 14
Pronunciation /ˈsɪlɨkən/ SIL-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɨkɒn/ SIL-ə-kon
Element category metalloid
Group, period, block 14, 3, p
Standard atomic weight 28.085(1)
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
2, 8, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 2.3290 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.57 g·cm−3
Melting point 1687 K, 1414 °C, 2577 °F
Boiling point 3538 K, 3265 °C, 5909 °F
Heat of fusion 50.21 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 383 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[1] -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Silicon has a diamond cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 103[3]Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 149 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 8433 m·s−1
Young's modulus 130-188[4] GPa
Shear modulus 51-80[4] GPa
Bulk modulus 97.6[4] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.064 - 0.28[4]
Mohs hardness 7
CAS registry number 7440-21-3
Band gap energy at 300 K 1.12 eV
History
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
Discovery Jöns Jacob Berzelius[5][6] (1823)
First isolation Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named by Thomas Thomson (1817)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of silicon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable with 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable with 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable with 16 neutrons
32Si trace 153 y β 13.020 32P
· references

References

  1. ^ Ram, R. S. et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD". J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. 
  2. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  3. ^ Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  4. ^ a b c d Hopcroft, Matthew A.; Nix, William D.; Kenny, Thomas W. (2010). "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?". Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 19 (2): 229. doi:10.1109/JMEMS.2009.2039697. 
  5. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1386–1412. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1386W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1386. 
  6. ^ Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397.