Tennessee State University

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tennessee State University
Tennessee State University seal.svg
Former names
Tennessee A & I College
Tennessee Normal School for Negroes
MottoThink. Work. Serve
TypePublic historically black land-grant university
EstablishedJune 19, 1912; 109 years ago (1912-06-19)
Academic affiliation
Endowment$63.0 million (2020)[1]
PresidentGlenda Glover
ProvostMichael Harris (Interim)
Academic staff
377 Full-time & 114 Part-time[2]
Students8,081 (Fall 2020)[3]
Undergraduates5,875 (Fall 2020)
Postgraduates2,206(Fall 2020)
Location, ,
United States

36°10′00″N 86°49′50″W / 36.16667°N 86.83056°W / 36.16667; -86.83056Coordinates: 36°10′00″N 86°49′50″W / 36.16667°N 86.83056°W / 36.16667; -86.83056
CampusUrban, 903 acres (4 km²)
ColorsTSU Blue and White[4]
AthleticsNCAA Division IOVC
Tennessee State University logo.svg
Tennessee State University Historic District
WTN PeepHoles 052.JPG
Location3500 John A. Merritt Blvd
Nashville, Tennessee, United States
ArchitectMarr & Holman, et al.
NRHP reference No.96000677
Added to NRHPJune 14, 1996

Tennessee State University (Tennessee State, Tenn State, or TSU) is a public historically black land-grant university in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1912, it is the only state-funded historically black university in Tennessee. It is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund.[5] Tennessee State University offers 41 bachelor’s degrees, 23 master's degrees, and eight doctoral degrees.[6][7] It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".[8]


The university was established as the Tennessee Agricultural & Industrial State Normal School for Negroes in 1912.[9][10] Its dedication was held on January 16, 1913.[9] It changed its name to Tennessee Agricultural & Industrial State Normal College in 1925.[9] Two years later, in 1927, it became known as Tennessee Agricultural & Industrial State College.[9]

In 1941, the Tennessee General Assembly directed the Board of Education to upgrade the educational program of the college. Three years later the first master's degrees were awarded and by 1946 the college was fully accredited the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.[11]

Significant expansion occurred during the presidency of Walter S. Davis between 1943 and 1968, including the construction of "70 percent of the school's facilities" and the establishment of the graduate school and four other schools.[12]

In 1968, the college officially changed its name to Tennessee State University, and in 1979, the University of Tennessee at Nashville merged into Tennessee State due to a court mandate.[11]

Today, Tennessee State University is divided into eight schools and colleges and has seen steady growth since its inception. It remains the only public university in Nashville and its health science program is the largest in the state and one of the largest in the nation.[13]

Aligned with the Tennessee Board of Regents, it is currently governed by an institutional Board of Trustees.


The 500 acres (2.0 km2) main campus has more than 65 buildings, and is located in a residential setting at 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd in Nashville, Tennessee. Tennessee State's main campus has the most acres of any college campus in Nashville. The Avon Williams campus is located downtown, near the center of the Nashville business and government district. Tennessee State offers on-campus housing to students. There are on-campus dorms and two apartment complexes for upperclassmen. On-campus facilities include dormitories Wilson Hall, Watson Hall, Eppse Hall, Boyd Hall, Rudolph Hall, Hale Hall, as well as the Ford Complex and New Residence Complex, TSU's two on-campus apartment complexes.


Academic rankings
U.S. News & World Report[16] #34 (tie) in Historically Black Colleges and Universities and #293-#381 in National Universities [14]
Washington Monthly[17] #100 [15]

The university is currently accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) to award 38 baccalaureate degrees, 24 master's degrees, and doctoral degrees in seven areas (Biological Sciences, Computer Information Systems Engineering, Psychology, Public Administration, Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Administration and Supervision, and Physical Therapy), as well as two Associate of Science degree programs, one in nursing and one in dental hygiene.[18]

Tennessee State is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity."[19]

The university is organized into the following colleges:

  • College of Agriculture, Human, and Natural Sciences[20]
  • College of Business[21]
  • College of Education[22]
  • College of Engineering[23]
  • College of Health Sciences[24]
  • College of Liberal Arts[25]
  • College of Life and Physical Sciences[26]
  • College of Public Service[27]

The University Honors College (UHC) is an exclusive academic program founded in 1964 that caters to select academically talented and highly motivated undergraduate students.[28]

The College of Business is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). It was the first institution in Nashville to earn the accreditation of both its undergraduate and graduate business programs in 1994. The Psychology program is accredited by the American Psychological Association and the Teacher Education program by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

The College of Engineering has developed corporate partnerships with NASA, Raytheon, and General Motors and is accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the National Association of Industrial Technology (NAIT).

The College of Health Sciences (formerly the School of Allied Health) includes such programs as the Masters in Physical Therapy and the Bachelor of Health Sciences. The Master of Public Health program was accredited in 2015 by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).[29]

Student activities[edit]


Tennessee State University sponsors seven men's and eight women's teams in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sanctioned sports and has a rivalry with Kentucky State University.[30] The school competes in the NCAA's Division I Football Championship Subdivision and is a member of the Ohio Valley Conference. Tennessee State is one of three Division I HBCUs that are not members of the MEAC or SWAC, the others being Hampton University and North Carolina A&T State University of the Big South Conference.

Student Organizations[edit]

There are over 60 registered student organizations on campus.[31]

Notable alumni[edit]


Name Class year Notability References
U. L. "Rip" Gooch Commercial Pilot (20,000+ hours) and Certified Flight Instructor; FAA-Designated Flight Examiner; Owner/President, Aero Services, Inc., Wichita, Kansas; regional distributor (Kansas and adjacent), Mooney Aircraft; Member, Wichita Airport Authority; Member, Aviation Advisory Committee, Kansas Dept. of Transportation; 1993 Kansas Governor's Aviation Honor Award; Inductee, Black Aviation Hall of Fame [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]

Civil rights[edit]

Name Class year Notability References
Xernona Clayton 1952 Civil rights activist [41]
U. L. "Rip" Gooch Civil rights activist; Commissioner, Kansas Commission on Civil Rights; (also see : "Politics" below) [32][34][35][42]


Name Class year Notability References
Glenda Glover 1974 Eighth president of Tennessee State University [43]
Andrew P. Torrence 1948 Third president of Tennessee State University [44]


Name Class year Notability References
Jimmy Blanton Jazz Musician [45]
Young Buck Hip Hop Star [citation needed]
Hank Crawford Jazz Musician [46]
Moses Gunn Actor [47]
Lee Summers 1980 Broadway Original Dreamgirls/actor/writer [48]
Carla Thomas Singer [citation needed]
Leon Thomas Jazz Singer (attended two years) [49]
Rufus Thomas Singer (attended one semester) [citation needed]
Key Wane 2012 Hip Hop Record Producer [50]
Oprah Winfrey 1987 Talk Show Host/Actress/Entrepreneur [51]


Name Class year Notability References
James Clayborne, Jr. 1985 Member of the Illinois Senate [52]
Harold Ford, Sr. Member of the U.S. Congress [53]
John Ford Member of the Tennessee Senate [citation needed]
Mark Funkhouser Former mayor of Kansas City, Missouri [54]
Howard Gentry, Jr. Politician [55]
U. L. "Rip" Gooch Member, Kansas Senate (oldest serving Kansas state senator at 2004 retirement); Member, City Council of Wichita, Kansas; (also see : "Civil Rights" above) [32][34][35][42][56][57][58]
Thelma Harper Member of the Tennessee Senate [59]
Harvey Johnson, Jr. Mayor of Jackson, Mississippi [60]
Dr. C. O. Simpkins, Sr. Dentist in Shreveport, civil rights activist, and member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1992 to 1996 [61]
A C Wharton Mayor of Memphis, Tennessee [62]
Vincent Dixie Representative in the Tennessee House of Representatives [63]

Science and technology[edit]

Name Class year Notability References
Leonard Jordan Acting chief of the Natural Resources Conservation Service, an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture responsible for cultivating public-private partnerships that result in good land and water management practices.
Dorothy McClendon American microbiologist who developed methods to protect stored goods, notably fuel, from degradation due to biological agents. [64]
Dorothy J. Phillips 1966 American chemist and Director-at-Large at the American Chemical Society
Jesse Russell Electrical engineer and wireless communications pioneer
Carla Walker-Miller Engineer and founder and CEO of Walker-Miller Energy Services


Name Class year Notability References
Joe Adams CFL football player [65]
Brent Alexander NFL football player [66]
Hubbard Alexander American football player
Bennie Anderson 1999 NFL football player [67]
Dick Barnett 1959 NBA basketball player [68]
Ralph Boston Olympic athlete; three time medal winning long jumper [69]
Sam Bowers Gridiron football player [70]
Waymond Bryant NFL football player [71]
Chandra Cheeseborough Olympic runner; gold and silver medalist
Robert Covington 2013 NBA Basketball Player
Dave Davis NFL football player [72]
Richard Dent NFL football player and member of Pro Football Hall of Fame [73]
Lamar Divens NFL football player [74]
Larry Tharpe NFL football player [75]
Cleveland Elam NFL football player [76]
Charley Ferguson AFL football player [77]
Sean Foley golf instructor to PGA Tour players [78]
Ryan Fann Paralympic Runner [79]
Randy Fuller NFL football player [80]
Rogers Gaines NFL football player [81]
Joe Gilliam NFL football player [82]
W. C. Gorden 1952 former head football coach at Jackson State University from 1976 to 1991. Member of College Football Hall of Fame [83][84]
Mike Hegman NFL football player [85]
Jarrick Hillery American football player [86]
Claude Humphrey NFL football player and member of Pro Football Hall of Fame [87]
Daniel Johnson NFL football player [citation needed]
Ed "Too Tall" Jones NFL football player [88]
Joe "Turkey" Jones NFL football player [89]
Larry Kinnebrew NFL football player [90]
Anthony Levine NFL football player [91]
Madeline Manning Olympic runner; gold medalist [92]
Anthony Mason NBA basketball player [93]
Edith McGuire Olympic runner; gold and two silver medalist [94]
Steve Moore NFL football player [95]
Lloyd Neal NBA basketball player [96]
Brian Ransom NFL football player [97]
Leonard "Truck" Robinson NBA basketball player [98]
Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie NFL football player [99]
Carlos Rogers 1994 former NBA basketball player [100]
Wilma Rudolph Olympic runner; first woman of color to win three gold medals in a single Olympics [101]
Simon Shanks NFL football player [102]
Nate Simpson NFL football player [103]
Ahmaad Smith American football player [104]
Ollie Smith NFL football player [105]
Wyomia Tyus Olympic runner; first person to retain the Olympic title in the 100 m. [106]
Charlie Wade NFL football player [107]
Carl Wafer NFL football player [108]
Willye White 1950's Olympic track and field athlete; two silver medalist [109]
Javarris Williams NFL football player [110]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  2. ^ "College Navigator - Tennessee State University".
  3. ^ https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/?q=Tennessee+State+University&s=all&id=221838
  4. ^ Tennessee State University Style Guide (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  5. ^ "Member-Schools". Thurgood Marshall College Fund. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  6. ^ "Undergraduate Programs". Tennessee State University. 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Tennessee State University - Graduate Degrees and Programs". collegetuitioncompare.com. College Tuition Compare. 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Center for Postsecondary Education. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d Lovett, Bobby L. "Tennessee State University". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of HIstory and Culture. Tennessee Historical Society and the University of Tennessee Press. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
  10. ^ Lamon, Lester C. (Spring 1973). "The Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial Normal School: Public Higher Education for Black Tennesseans". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 32 (1): 42–58. JSTOR 42623357.
  11. ^ a b "Tennessee State University (1912- ) - The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". www.blackpast.org.
  12. ^ "Black History Month: Walter Davis helped build TSU while president". The Tennessean. February 11, 2015. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
  13. ^ University, Tennessee State. "Academic Programs". www.tnstate.edu.
  14. ^ "Tennessee State University". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  15. ^ "2018 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  16. ^ "2021 Best National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  17. ^ "2020 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  18. ^ "Division of Academic Affairs". Tennessee State University. 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  19. ^ "Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education". Indiana University. 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  20. ^ "College of Agriculture". Tennessee State University. 2018-06-04. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  21. ^ "College of Business". Tennessee State University. 2018-08-01. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  22. ^ "College of Education". Tennessee State University. 2018-07-30. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  23. ^ "College of Engineering". Tennessee State University. 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  24. ^ "College of Health Sciences". Tennessee State University. 2018-07-10. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  25. ^ "College of Liberal Arts". Tennessee State University. 2018-07-05. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  26. ^ "College of Life and Physical Sciences". Tennessee State University. 2018-04-17. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  27. ^ "College of Public Service". Tennessee State University. 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  28. ^ "University Honors Program". Tennessee State University. 1995-10-31. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  29. ^ "Master of Public Health Program at Tennessee State University Receives Full Accreditation". Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  30. ^ "Official Site of Tennessee State Athletics". TSUTigers.com. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  31. ^ "Student Organizations". www.tnstate.edu.
  32. ^ a b c Senate Resolution No.1770: A Resolution congratulating and commending Senator Ulysses Lee "Rip" Gooch, Kansas State Senate, 2013
  33. ^ "Gooch and Johnson honored as aviators," Sept. 6, 2001, Wichita Business Journal
  34. ^ a b c Gooch, U.L. "Rip" with Glen Sharp, Black Horizons: One Aviator's Experience in the Post-Tuskeegee Era,2006, Aviation Business Consultants, Wichita, KS. (Self-published autobiography, partially published online at Google Books, and distributed by Amazon.com
  35. ^ a b c U.L. "Rip" Gooch - Legislator, aviator and activist, website of the Kansas African American Affairs Commission, Office of the Governor, State of Kansas, Sept. 13, 2013 (retrieved Oct.29, 2014).
  36. ^ Noble. Horace - "Jayhawk at Skyhook 2014; Senator U.L. "Rip" Gooch attends Skyhook 2014", Sept. 2014, BPA ATIS newsletter, Black Pilots of America, Pine Bluff, Arkansas; notation that Gooch was an original member of the black aviation organization "Negro Aviation International, Inc.," before transferring to the BPA, and notes his attendance at "Skyhook 2014" "the premier event of Black aviation." Reports his May 2014 election as Sergeant-at-Arms of the Jayhawk Chapter of the BPA.
  37. ^ "Salina bankers deny claim they discriminate against minorities,", "Salina Journal, June 6, 1971, page 8, (retrieved Oct.29, 2014 from "Newspapers.com"); includes TEXT identifying "U.L. "Rip" Gooch, president of Aero Services Co., Wichita," as one of the speakers.
  38. ^ Chance, Carl, ed., "Kansas Governors Aviation Honor Awards: U. L. 'RIP' GOOCH,", WingsOverKansas.com, Nov. 12, 1993
  39. ^ Campbell, Jim, ed., "Who Is Rip Gooch And Why Do We Owe Him? 80-Year Old Aviation Pioneer Feted In Wichita,"Aero-News Network online, Sep 15, 2003
  40. ^ Weems, Robert E., Jr., "Commentary: Past and Present Wichita's Black Entrepreneurs", KMUW-FM radio (public radio station at Wichita State University), Feb. 6, 2013
  41. ^ Malone, Janice (July 28, 2005). "TSU To Honor Media Pioneer Xernona Clayton". The Tennessee Tribune. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2013. (subscription required)
  42. ^ a b Associated Press, State Rights Commission Aggressive Force, Garden City Telegram, May 6, 1971, page 3
  43. ^ "Glenda Glover". Tnstate.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  44. ^ "Dr. Andrew Torrence, 3rd TSU President, Dies". The Tennessean. June 12, 1980. pp. 6, 18 – via Newspapers.com.
  45. ^ "Jimmy Blanton". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  46. ^ "Hank Crawford". All About Jazz. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  47. ^ "Moses Gunn". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  48. ^ "Lee Summers". IMDb.
  49. ^ Perrone, Pierre (June 2, 1999). "Obituary: Leon Thomas". The Independent. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  50. ^ Latimore, Marshall (13 December 2012). "For Detroit's KeY Wane, Graduation Has Two Degrees of Success". Black Enterprise. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  51. ^ "Oprah Winfrey". Stanford News. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  52. ^ "Biography". Senatorclayborne.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-08. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  53. ^ "Harold Ford, Sr". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  54. ^ "KC Mayor". 2013 City of Memphis. Retrieved 17 September 2016.[permanent dead link]
  55. ^ "Howard Gentry, Jr". League of Women Voters of California Education Fund. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  56. ^ Associated Press, Oldest state senator leaving post Archived 2015-12-09 at the Wayback Machine, December 20, 2003, Topeka Capital-Journal,
  57. ^ Associated Press (John Hanna), "Legislature ends session with nod to senator,", May 30, 2003, Lawrence Journal-World
  58. ^ Associated Press, "Senate Honors Oldest Member Before 2003 Adjournment", May 30, 2003, Salina Journal, page 3
  59. ^ "Thelma Harper". Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  60. ^ "Harvey Johnson, Jr". 1995-2010 City of Jackson, MS. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  61. ^ "Louisiana: Simpkins, C. O.", Who's Who in American Politics, 2003-2004, 19th ed., Vol. 1 (Alabama-Montana) (Marquis Who's Who: New Providence, New Jersey, 2003), p. 794
  62. ^ "A C Wharton". 2013 City of Memphis. Archived from the original on 2013-03-28. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  63. ^ "Sponsor List". State of Tennessee. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  64. ^ Wini Warren (1999). Black Women Scientists in the United States. Indiana University Press. p. 198. ISBN 0-253-33603-1.
  65. ^ "100 Moments: "747" Lights Up the Skies". tsutigers.com. August 24, 2012. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  66. ^ "Brent Alexander". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  67. ^ "Bennie Anderson". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  68. ^ "TSUs Dick Barnett and John McLen". Ibcsports.com. 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  69. ^ "Ralph Boston". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  70. ^ "SAM BOWERS". profootballarchives.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  71. ^ "Waymond Bryant". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  72. ^ "David Glenn Davis". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  73. ^ "Richard Dent". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2006. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  74. ^ "Lamar Divens". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  75. ^ "Larry Tharpe". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  76. ^ "Cleveland Elam". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  77. ^ "Charley Ferguson". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  78. ^ "Sean Foley". TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  79. ^ "Ryan Fann". Amputee Blade Runners. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  80. ^ "Randy Fuller". NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  81. ^ "Rogers Gaines". NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  82. ^ "Joe Gilliam". 3 Sports Reference LLC. All rights reserved. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  83. ^ W. C. Gorden at the College Football Hall of Fame
  84. ^ "W. C. Gorden". The Black College Football Museum. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  85. ^ "Mike Hegman". NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  86. ^ "Jarrick Hillery". arenafan.com. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  87. ^ "Claude Humphrey". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  88. ^ "Ed Jones". Sports Reference LLC. All rights reserved. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  89. ^ "Joe Jones". Sports Reference LLC. All rights reserved. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  90. ^ "Larry Kinnebrew". Sports Reference LLC. All rights reserved. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  91. ^ "Anthony Levine". NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  92. ^ "Madeline Manning". 2001-2013 USA Track & Field, Inc. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  93. ^ "Anthony Mason". 2003 NBA Media Ventures, LLC. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  94. ^ "Edith McGuire". the Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  95. ^ "Steve Moore". 2000-2013 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  96. ^ "Lloyd Neal". 2013 NBA Media Ventures, LLC. Archived from the original on 2012-10-17. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  97. ^ "NFL Players". tnstate.edu. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  98. ^ "Truck Robinson". 2000-2013 Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  99. ^ "Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie". 2013 Philadelphia Eagles. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  100. ^ "Carlos Rogers". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  101. ^ Ashley, Dwayne; Williams, Juan; Ingrum, Adrienne (2009). I'll find a way or make one: a tribute to historically Black colleges and universities. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-197693-3. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
  102. ^ "Simon Shanks". 2000-2013 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  103. ^ "Nate Simpson". 2000-2013 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  104. ^ "Ahmaad Smith". gocatawbaindians.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  105. ^ "Ollie Smith". 2000-2013 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  106. ^ "Wyomia Tyus". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  107. ^ "Charlie Wade". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
  108. ^ "Carl Wafer". NFL Enterprises LLc. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  109. ^ Litsky, Frank. "Willye B. White, the First 5-Time U.S. Track Olympian, Dies at 67". nytimes.com.
  110. ^ "Archived copy". NFL.com. Archived from the original on 2012-08-13. Retrieved 21 March 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]