Mount Krakatoa, Lampung Province
|Motto: "Sai Bumi Ruwa Jurai"|
Location of Lampung in Indonesia
|• Governor||Royal Family of Lampung|
|• Total||35,376 km2 (13,659 sq mi)|
|• Density||230/km2 (580/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups||Javanese (62%), Sundanese (9%), Lampung (25%), Malay (4%), Bantenese (3%) |
|• Religion||Muslim (92%), Protestant (1.8%), Catholic (0.8%), Hinduism (1.7%), Buddhist (0.3%)|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
Lampung is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra and borders the provinces of Bengkulu and South Sumatra which lie to the north. Lampung is the original home of the Lampung people, who speak their own language and have their own alphabet. Its capital is Bandar Lampung.
The province had a population of 7,596,115 at the 2010 census; the latest official estimate (as at January 2014) is 7,972,246. Three quarters of the current population of Lampung is descended from migrants from Java, Madura, and Bali. These migrants came on their initiative, in search of more land than was available on the more densely populated islands, and as part of the national government's transmigration program, for which Lampung was one of the earliest and most significant transmigration destinations.
Lampung is commonly known for its geological instability in terms of earthquakes and volcanoes. On 10 May 2005, an earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale struck the province. The historical volcano blast of Krakatau which occurred in 1883, had disastrous consequences.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010|
Lampung Province is subdivided into twelve regencies (kabupaten) and two autonomous cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and at the most recent (January 2014) estimates. A thirteenth regency - West Pesisir Regency - was formed on 25 October 2012 from part of West Lampung Regency, but no separate statistics are yet available.
|Bandar Lampung City||118.50||879,651||923,970||Bandar Lampung|
|South Lampung Regency
|East Lampung Regency
|North Lampung Regency
|Pesawaran Regency||2,243.51||397,294||417,921||Gedong Tataan|
|Central Lampung Regency
|Tanggamus Regency||3,356.61||534,595||562,274||Kota Agung|
|Tulang Bawang Regency||6,851.32||397,079||416,934||Menggala|
|Way Kanan Regency||3,921.63||406,735||425,544||Blambangan Umpu|
|West Lampung Regency
|West Pesisir Regency
|West Tulang Bawang Regency
(Tulang Bawang Barat)
|Total Province||34,623.80||7,596,115||7,972,246||Bandar Lampung|
* - The area and population for West Pesisir Regency are included in the figures for West Lampung Residency given above.
Some of the major produce in the country includes robusta Coffee beans, Cocoa beans, coconuts and cloves. This has resulted in a thriving agricultural sector with companies like Nestlé procuring coffee beans from the region. This agriculture has included illegal growing in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. In addition, Nata de Coco is also manufactured in the region by domestic companies like Wong Coco.
Up until the 1920s, Lampung had a rich and varied weaving tradition. Lampung weaving used a supplementary weft technique which enabled coloured silk or cotton threads to be superimposed on a plainer cotton background. The most prominent Lampung textile was the Palepai, ownership of which was restricted to the Lampung aristocracy of the Kalianda Bay area. There were two types of smaller cloths, known as tatibin and tampan, which could be owned and used by all levels of Lampungese society. Weaving technologies were spread throughout Lampung. High quality weavings were produced by the Paminggir, Krui, Abung and Pesisir peoples. Production was particularly prolific among the people of the Kalianda Bay area in the south and the Krui aristocracy in the north.
The oldest surviving examples of Lampung textiles date back to the eighteenth century, but some scholars believe that weaving may date back to the first millennium AD when Sumatra first came under Indian cultural influence.[who?] The prevalence of Buddhist motifs, such as diamonds, suggests that the weaving traditions were already active in the time when Lampung came under the Buddhist Srivijayan rule. There are similarities between Lampung weaving and weaving traditions in some parts of modern-day Thailand that experienced cultural contact with Sriwijaya.
Lampung textiles, Palepai, tatebin and tampan were called 'ship cloths' because ships are a common motif. The ship motif represents the transition from one realm of life to the next, for instances from boyhood to manhood or from being single to married and also represents the final transition to the afterlife.
Traditionally, Lampung textiles were used as part of religious ceremonies such as weddings and circumcisions. For instance, the Palepai cloths were used as long ceremonial wall-hangings behind the bridal party in aristocratic marriages. The smaller, more humble tampan cloths were exchanged between families at the time of weddings.
Production of many fine cloths blossomed in the late nineteenth century as Lampung grew rich on pepper production, but the devastating eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 destroyed many weaving villages in the Kalianda area. By the 1920s the increasing importance of Islam and the collapse of the pepper trade brought production to a halt  Today Lampung textiles are highly prized by collectors.
A 270 kilometer long rail track is planned from Tanjung Enim to Lampung. This rail track would be used for coal transportation to boost coal exports.
Tourism is not Lampung Province's main income, although the administration will boost tourism by organising a tourism event, Flamboyant Tanjung Setia, to draw tourists visit to Tanjung Setia Beach which has natural panoramic view and challenging waves for surfing. Another tourist attraction is the "Way Kambas" elephants park, which is popular with local tourists. In 2010, there were 400,000 tourists who visited Lampung Province, including 10,000 foreign tourists who mainly came from Australia and New Zealand.
In the recent years, the province has been largely popular for snorkeling and diving. Many domestic tourists as well as international ones from various diving communities had been visiting the different spots the province offers, such as: Pantai Ringgung, Pulau Tegal, Pulau Pahawang, Pulau Kelagian, Pulau Balak, Pulau Mahitam, and Tanjung Putus.
- Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
- Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
- Lampung Arms
- Claire Leow. Nestlé to scrutinize Indonesia coffee amid wildlife-endangerment fears, International Herald Tribune.
- "Ceremonial Hanging (palepai)". Pacific Islands art. Dallas Museum of Art. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Gittinger, M. Splendid Symbols, Textiles and Tradition in Indonesia. Textile Museum, Washintom D.C. 1979.Library of Congress No 79-50373 p.88
- Gittinger, Mattiebelle S, SOUTH SUMATRAN SHIP CLOTHS. 1979 www.cs.arizona.edu/patterns/.../nb74_shp.pdf p.15
- Sudha Rajagopalan; Navigating Culture: Trade and Transformation in the Island State. The Permanent Exhibition on Indonesia. Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden.
- Elmhirst, R. (2001). Resource Struggles and the Politics of Place in North Lampung, Indonesia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 22(3):284-307.
- Pain, Marc (ed). (1989). Transmigration and spontaneous migrations in Indonesia : Propinsi Lampung. Bondy, France: ORSTOM.
- Early Indonesian textiles from three island cultures: Sumba, Toraja, Lampung, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Lampung