Central Sulawesi

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Central Sulawesi
Sulawesi Tengah
Mountains, rice fields and pile houses near Palu
Mountains, rice fields and pile houses near Palu
Flag of Central Sulawesi
Official seal of Central Sulawesi
Motto(s): Maliu Ntinuvu (Palu)
(Unites All The Elements and The Potential that Exists)
Location of Central Sulawesi in Indonesia
Location of Central Sulawesi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°00′S 121°00′E / 1.000°S 121.000°E / -1.000; 121.000Coordinates: 1°00′S 121°00′E / 1.000°S 121.000°E / -1.000; 121.000
 • GovernorDrs. H. Longki Djanggola, M.Si (Gerindra)
 • Vice GovernorVacant
 • Total61,841.29 km2 (23,877.06 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • Total2,839,290
 • Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groupsButon (23%)
Kaili (20%)
Bugis (19%)
Tolaki (16%)
Muna (15%)
Gorontaloan (7%)
 • ReligionIslam (76.6%)
Protestantism (17.3%)
Roman Catholicism (3.2%)
Hinduism (2.7%)
Buddhism (0.16%)
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Time zoneWITA (UTC+8)
Vehicle registrationDN
HDISteady 0.664 (Medium)
HDI rank25th (2014)

Central Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located at the centre of the island of Sulawesi. Its capital and largest city is Palu. The 2010 census recorded a population of 2,633,420 for the province, while the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 2,839,290.

Established in 1964, Central Sulawesi has an area of 61,841.29 km2 (23,877 sq mi).[1] It is bordered by the provinces of Gorontalo to the north, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi and South East Sulawesi to the south, by Maluku to the east, and by the Makassar Strait to the west.


Megalithic stone in Central Sulawesi

There are over 400 granite megaliths in the area of the Lore Lindu National Park, of which around 30 represent human forms. They vary in size from a few centimetres to approximately 4.5 metres (15 ft). The original purpose of the megaliths is unknown.[2] Other megaliths in the area are large stone pots (Kalamba) accompanied by stone lids (Tutu'na). Various archaeological studies have dated the carvings from between 3000 BC to 1300 AD.[3]

Central Sulawesi Province has many caves, seven of which have ancient pictures and, based on 2011 research by a joint Indonesian and Australian team, the pictures are known to have been drawn at least 40,000 years ago (about the same age as pictures found in the Caves of Monte Castillo, Spain which are known as the oldest ancient pictures in Europe).[4]

Some of the oldest bronze objects are discovered in Central Sulawesi. The Makassar Axe is a 1st-century AD bronze axes probably used as a valuable object in a ceremony. The Kulawi tribe of Central Sulawesi still practice the exchange of heirloom bronze object e.g. the taiganja, whose basic form has been discovered throughout the eastern part of Indonesia.

Islam reached the region in the 17th century, shortly after the Islamic avowal of Gowa, the powerful kingdom at the south part of the Sulawesi island. The Dutch colonial rule was established in the 18th century and began the protestantic missionary of the population. About a quarter of them are now Protestant, which is the highest percentage of the Indonesian archipelago. After the Japanese occupation in the Second World War, the region belonged to the Province North Sulawesi and separated in 1964 to the new formed Province Central Sulawesi.

Between 1999 and 2001 the region has been plagued by inter-religious violence between Muslims and Christians, where over 1,000 people were killed.[5] The Malino II Accord was thus made in 2001. However, riots erupted again in September 2006 on the Christian dominated areas of Central Sulawesi, after the execution by firing squad of three Roman Catholics convicted of leading Christian militants during the violence of the early first decade of the 21st century.[6] The riots appeared to be aimed at government authorities, not Muslims.[6]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Central Sulawesi is divided into twelve regencies (kabupaten) and one city (kota), which are listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (for January 2014) estimates.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2000
Census 2010
Estimate 2014
Capital HDI[7]
2014 Estimates
Palu (city) 395 269,083 335,297 362,621 Palu 0.791 (High)
Banggai Regency 9,573 271,725 323,872 348,715 Luwuk 0.671 (Medium)
Banggai Islands Regency 2,615 141,175 171,685 184,933 Salakan 0.623 (Medium)
Banggai Laut Regency 599 included in
Banggai Islands
included in
Banggai Islands
included in
Banggai Islands
Banggai 0.621 (Medium)
Buol Regency 4,044 98,005 132,381 142,589 Buol 0.654 (Medium)
Donggala Regency 4,275 732,126 277,236 299,143 Banawa 0.635 (Medium)
Morowali Regency 9,584 160,797 102,095 222,317 Bungku 0.679 (Medium)
North Morowali Regency 3,457 included in
104,094 included in
Kolonodale 0.658 (Medium)
Parigi Moutong Regency 5,090 * 413,645 445,652 Parigi 0.622 (Medium)
Poso Regency 7,112 232,765 209,252 225,449 Poso 0.676 (Medium)
Sigi Regency 5,196 * 214,700 231,700 Sigi Biromaru 0.646 (Medium)
Tojo Una-Una Regency 5,721 # 137,880 148,494 Ampana 0.611 (Medium)
Toli-Toli Regency 4,080 173,525 211,283 227,677 Toli-Toli 0.619 (Medium)
Total Province 61,841 2,175,993 2,633,420 2,839,290 Palu 0.664 (Medium)
* The 2000 Census populations for Parigi Moutong Regency and Sigi Regency are included in the figure for Donggala Regency.
# The 2000 Census population for Tojo Una-Una Regency is included in the figure for Poso Regency.

Palu is the provincial capital and the province's largest city. Other towns include Ampana, Banggai, Bungku, Buol, Donggala, Kolonodale, Luwuk, Parigi, Poso, and Toli-toli.


The decennial 2010 census recorded a population of 2,633,420 for the province, of which 1,349,225 are male and 1,284,195 are female. The population grew an average of 1.94% annually from the previous census.[8] There is some sort of religion interaction problems[vague] in this area[9] Most of the population are Muslims (77.7% in the 2010 census).[10]


Average annual population growth between 1990 and 2000 was 2.57% and 1.96% from 2000 to 2010.

Historical population
1971 913,662—    
1980 1,289,635+41.2%
1990 1,711,327+32.7%
1995 1,938,071+13.2%
2000 2,218,435+14.5%
2010 2,635,009+18.8%
2014 2,839,290+7.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010 and 2014


Religion in Central Sulawesi (2010 census)[10]
religion percent
Roman Catholicism
Not Asked
Not Stated


Seaweed production[edit]

Morowali Regency, Central Sulawesi, is projected to be the biggest seaweed producer in Indonesia for the near future. The seaweed farming types are glaciria.[11] In 2010, Central Sulawesi produced nearly 800,000 tons of seaweed.[12]


Tourist attractions[edit]


  • Batudaka Island
  • Matako Beach, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Cave Tuo Mulangke, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Toliba Waterfall, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Marowo hotspring, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Keke Beach, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Sansarino Waterfall, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Kakar cave, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Bath Place Alami Malotong, Tojo Una-una


  • Bath Place Alami Uefuntu, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Buka-buka Island, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Tampo Beach, Tojo Una-una Regency [14]
  • Bongka River, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Dataran Bulan, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Taupan Island, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Capatana Beach, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Tipae Beach, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Poya Island, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Tangkubi Island, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Lindo Beach, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Taipi Island, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Una-Una Island, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Bambu Beach, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Pengempa Island, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Bolilanga Island, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Bakau Bridge, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Malange Island, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Tiga Island, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Dolong Village, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Tanjung Keramat, Tojo Una-una Regency
  • Tanjung Api, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Gunung Colo, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Bath Place Malotong, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Lake Mariana, Tojo Una-Una Regency
  • Lake Banana, Tojo Una-Una
  • Lake Poso, Poso Regency
  • Saluopa Waterfall, Poso Regency
  • Sulewana Waterfall, Poso Regency
  • Talise Beach, Palu
  • Gawalise Mountain, Palu
  • Palu Bridge, Palu City
  • Vatulemo Park, Palu City
  • Anjungan Nusantara, Palu
  • Tumbelaka Beach, Palu
  • Taman Ria, Palu City
  • Bulu Masomba camping area Kavatuna, Palu
  • Porame camping ground, Palu
  • Horse Racing circuit Tondo, Palu
  • Mamboro Beach, Palu
  • Paneki camping ground, Palu
  • Loli Indah Park, Palu
  • The Patunonju Archeological Park[15]
  • Kampung Nelayan, Palu
  • Monument of Peace, Palu
  • Morowali Regency National Park
  • Sakita Waterfall, Morowali Regency
  • Buleleng Waterfall, Marowali Regency
  • Sanbori Island Marowali Regency
  • Langala Island, Marowali Regency
  • Lambolo petasa, North Marowali
  • Kayangan Island, Marowali
  • Bath Place, Bohoruru Marowali
  • Mount tingkat, Marowali
  • Koko Island sombong, Marowali
  • Muara Bajoe, North Morowali Regency [16]
  • Menduru Waterfall, North Morowali Regency
  • Bath place Panapa, North Morowali Regency
  • Lake Tiu, North Morowali Regency
  • Lake Lowo, North Morowali Regency
  • Cave Tamanoa, North Morowali Regency
  • Lalong Bay Banggai Regency
  • Niagara Cup, Banggai Regency
  • Kilo 5 Beach, Banggai Regency
  • Keles Hills, Banggai Regency
  • Paumarang Waterfall, Banggai Regency
  • Salodik Waterfall, Banggai Regency
  • Dua Island, Banggai Islands Regency
  • Molino Tontonan, Banggai Islands Regency
  • Tembang Waterfall, Banggai Islands Regency
  • Lake Alani, Banggai Islands Regency
  • Lake Tendetung, Banggai Islands Regency
  • Pasir Putih Beach, Banggai Laut Regency[17]
  • Kelapa Lima Beach, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Bongo Beach, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Pasir Timbul, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Bakakan Island, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Bandang Island, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Bone Baru, Banggai Laut Regency [18]
  • Togong Potil, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Lamopilogot, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Tolobundu Island, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Mbuang-Mbuang Island, Banggai Laut Regency
  • Bath Place Tirta Ria, Buol Regency [19]
  • Bath Place Kumaligon, Buol Regency
  • Negeri Lama Beach, Buol Regency
  • Busak Beach, Buol Regency
  • Bodi Waterfall, Buol Regency
  • Pinamula Waterfall, Buol Regency
  • Njinea Waterfall, Parigi Moutong Regency[20]
  • Likunggavali Waterfall and Mountain side, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Onggomojolo Waterfall, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Maleo Bird, Sausu Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Tugu Khatulistiwa, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Sidoan Beach, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Hot Springs Sidoan, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Sidoan Waterfall, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Tingkulang Cave, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Tinombala Mount, Parigi Moutong Regency
  • Lutungan Island, Toli-Toli Regency [21]
  • Tanjung Matop, Toli-Toli Regency
  • Sigelang Waterfall, Toli-Toli Regency
  • Sojol Mount, and Toli-Toli Regency

See also[edit]

  • Lindu, a group of four indigenous communities


  1. ^ Trends of the Selected Socio-Economic Indicators of Indonesia (PDF) (Report). Statistics Indonesia. August 2011. ISSN 2085-5664. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  2. ^ National Geographic: Explorer's Notebook: The Riddle of Indonesia's Ancient Statues, 12 December 2001, retrieved 9 October 2010.
  3. ^ Sangadji, Ruslan: C. Sulawesi's Lore Lindu park, home to biological wealth, The Jakarta Post, 5 June 2005 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 11 October 2010.
  4. ^ Satwika Rumeksa (12 October 2014). "Gambar di Gua Sulteng Berumur 40 Ribu Tahun".
  5. ^ Reeve, Simon (22 August 2006). "Asia". Equator. Episode 2. BBC. BBC Two. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  6. ^ a b BBC News: Executions spark Indonesia unrest, 22 September 2006
  7. ^ "Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014". bappenas.go.id. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  8. ^ "BPS Prov Sulawesi Tengah". sulteng.bps.go.id. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  9. ^ "Awal Mula Masalah dan Kronologis Tragedi Poso". AwalMula.com (in Indonesian). 23 May 2000. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
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  12. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". waspada.co.id. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Donggala Woven Fabric, the Great Assets". www.indonesia-tourism.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Obyek wisata yang ada di Kabupaten Tojo Una-una adalah :". sholihin87.blogspot.co.id. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  15. ^ "MAMLAKA INDONESIA: Reason Visit to Palu - Central Sulawesi". mamlakaindonesia.blogspot.co.id. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  16. ^ "Objek Wisata Morowali Utara Sulawesi Tengah". Wisata Palu. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Banggai Laut, Surga Tersembunyi di Sulawesi Tengah". kitaina.id. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  18. ^ "Objek Wisata Banggai Laut". santimontoian. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  19. ^ "safasha.com: Tempat Wisata di Kabupaten Buol". aepcitystudio.blogspot.co.id. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  20. ^ "Wisata Alam di Kabupaten Parigi Moutong Sulawesi Tengah". Wisata Palu. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  21. ^ "Wonderful Indonesia di Toli-toli". PesonaWisataIndonesia.com. Retrieved 31 December 2017.