Minangkabau language

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Minangkabau
Baso Minangkabau
باسو مينڠكاباو
Native to Indonesia, Malaysia (Negeri Sembilan)
Region West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, North Sumatra, Aceh (Indonesia), Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)
Ethnicity Minangkabau
Native speakers
5.5 million in Indonesia (2007)[1]
901,000 in Malaysia (2016)[2]
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Indonesia (West Sumatra)
Negeri Sembilan (Negeri Sembilan)
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Language codes
ISO 639-2 min
ISO 639-3 Either:
min – Minangkabau
zmi – Negeri Sembilan Malay
Glottolog mina1268  Minangkabau[3]
nege1240  Negeri Sembilan Malay[4]
Sumatra Ethnic Groups Map en.svg
Map of Minangkabau language in Sumatra is shown by light and dark olive

Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.[5] The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee. It is also spoken in some parts of Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan.

Due to great grammatical similarities between the Minangkabau language and Malay, there is some controversy regarding the relationship between the two. Some see Minangkabau as a dialect of Malay (since it is one of the major varieties of the Malaysian language spoken in Negeri Sembilan state), while others think of Minangkabau as a proper (Malay) language.

Minangkabau language in Arabic script on Minangkabau royal seal from the 19th century

Malaysia[edit]

Besides Indonesia, Minangkabau is also spoken in Malaysia, by some descendants of migrants from the Minang-speaking region in Sumatra (Ranah Minang, Tanah Minang, or Land of the Minang). Significant numbers of the early migrants settled in what is now the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan; this Negeri Sembilan Malay is known as Bahaso Nogori / Baso Nogoghi. More recent immigrants are known as Minang.

Dialects[edit]

The Minangkabau language has several dialects, sometimes differing between nearby villages (e.g. separated by a river). The dialects are Rao Mapat Tunggul, Muaro Sungai Lolo, Payakumbuh, Pangkalan-Lubuk Alai, Agam-Tanah Datar, Pancungsoal, Kotobaru, Sungai Bendung Air, and Karanganyar.[6] In everyday communication between Minangkabau people of different regions, the Agam-Tanah Datar dialect (Baso Padang or Baso Urang Awak "our (people's) language") is often used and has become a kind of standard.

The Tapan language, spoken in the town of Tapan in southern West Sumatra province, is a recently discovered Malayan language which has been proposed as related to but not part of Minangkabau. Together, Tapan and Minangkabau would form a Greater Minangkabau subgroup.[7] The two languages Tapan and Muko-Muko form a Lunangic subgroup within the Minangic (Greater Minangkabau) language group.[8][9]

The Minangic subgroup is characterized by the following word-final sound changes.[10]

  • *V[hi]ŋ > V[hi]ăŋ
  • *us > uĭh
  • *at > eʔ
  • *as > eh
  • *is > ih

Vowels and Consonants[edit]

Majuscule Forms
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W Y Z
Minuscule Forms
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u w y z
Jawi Letter
ا ب چ د اى ف ݢ ه اِ ج ک ل م ن او ڤ ق ر س ت اُ و ي ز
Latin Letter Arabian (Pegon) Letter Name (in IPA) Sound (in IPA) English equivalent
Aa ا a (/a/) /a/ a as in father
Bb ب (/be/) /b/ b as in bed
Cc چ (/t͡ʃe/ or /se/) /t͡ʃ/ ch as in check
Dd د (/de/) /d/ d as in day
Ee اى é (/e/) /e/ e as in red
Ff ف éf (/ef/) /f/ f as in effort
Gg ݢ (/ge/) /ɡ/ g as in gain
Hh ه ha (/ha/) /h/ h as in harm
Ii اِ i (/i/) /i/ i as in pin
Jj ج (/d͡ʒe/) /d͡ʒ/ j as in jam
Kk ک ka (/ka/) /k/ k as in skate
Ll ل él (/el/) /l/ l as in let
Mm م ém (/em/) /m/ m as in mall
Nn ن én (/en/) /n/ n as in net
Oo او o (/o/) /o/ o as in owe
Pp ڤ (/pe/) /p/ p as in speak
Qq ق ki (/ki/) /q/ q as in queen
Rr ر ér (/er/) /r/ Spanish rr as in puerro
Ss س és (/es/) /s/ s as in sun
Tt ت te (/te/) /t/ unaspirated t as in still
Uu اُ u (/u/) /u/ u as in pull
Ww و we (/we/) /w/ w as in wet
Yy ي (/je/) /j/ y as in yarn
Zz ز zet (/zet/) /z/ z as in zebra

In addition, there are digraphs that are not considered separate letters of the alphabet:[11]

Digraph Pegon Letter Sound English equivalent
ai /ai̯/ uy as in buy
au /au̯/ ou as in ouch
oi /oi̯/ oy as in boy
gh غ /ɣ/ similar to Arabian gh
kh خ /x/ ch as in loch
ng ڠ /ŋ/ ng as in sing
ny ڽ /ɲ/ Spanish ñ
sy ش /ʃ/ sh as in shoe

Example[edit]

Sentences[edit]

English Minangkabau Indonesian/Malay
How are you now? Ba'a kaba sanak kini? Bagaimana kabar anda sekarang?
I'm well. How about you? Lai elok-elok se nyo. Sanak ba'a? Saya baik-baik saja. Anda bagaimana?
What is your name? Sia namo sanak? Siapa nama anda?
My name is ... Namo ambo ... Nama saya ...
Thank you. Tarimo kasih. Terima kasih.
The trees in the jungle don't have the same height, moreover the people. (Proverb) Sadang kayu di rimbo 'ndak samo tinggi, apo lai manusia. (Pribaso) Sedangkan pohon di hutan tidak sama tinggi, apalagi manusia. (Peribahasa)
"How the frog swim, he swim like that too" means doing something without having a goal. "Co a koncek baranang co itu inyo" ba'arti mangarajokan suatu tapi indak punyo tujuan. "Bagaimana katak berenang seperti itulah dia" berarti mengerjakan sesuatu tanpa punya tujuan.
Don't throw the rubbish here! (Command) Dilarang mambuang sarok di siko! (Parintah) Dilarang membuang sampah di sini! (Perintah)
Do not touch! You will burn your hand. Ijan dipacik! Beko tangan ang kanai api. Jangan disentuh! Nanti tangannya terkena api.

Numbers[edit]

Number Minangkabau Indonesian/Malay English
1 cie' satu one
2 duo dua two
3 tigo tiga three
4 ampe' empat four
5 limo lima five
6 anam enam six
7 tujuah tujuh seven
8 lapan delapan eight
9 sambilan sembilan nine
10 sapuluah sepuluh ten
11 sabaleh sebelas eleven
15 limo baleh lima belas fifteen
50 limo puluah lima puluh fifty
100 saratuih seratus one hundred/a hundred
150 saratuih limo puluah seratus lima puluh one hundred and fifty
500 limo ratuih lima ratus five hundred
#,000 ribu ribu thousand
#,000,000 juta juta million
#,000,000,000 millia milliar billion

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Minangkabau at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Negeri Sembilan Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Joshua Project. "People Groups". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Minangkabau". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Negeri Sembilan Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. ^ Kajian Serba Lingustik : Untuk Anton Moeliono Pereksa Bahasa (2000)
  6. ^ Nadra, Reniwati, and Efri Yades, Daerah Asal dan Arah Migrasi Orang Minangkabau di Provinsi Jambi Berdasarkan Kajian Variasi Dialektikal (2008)
  7. ^ Santi Kurniati, Yessy Prima Putri, Søren Wichmann and David Gil (2011)." Tapan: An Exploration in Malayic Subgrouping". ISMIL 15 conference presentation.
  8. ^ http://ical13.ling.sinica.edu.tw/Full_papers_and_ppts/July_18/G-32.pdf
  9. ^ http://email.eva.mpg.de/~gil/12ICAL/abstracts/Kurniati_etal.pdf
  10. ^ http://ical13.ling.sinica.edu.tw/Full_papers_and_ppts/July_18/G-32.pdf
  11. ^ Omniglot.com

Further reading[edit]