Break-up of the Beatles

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The break-up of the Beatles, one of the most popular and influential musical groups in history,[1] has become almost as much of a legend as the band itself or the music they created while together.[2] The Beatles were active from their formation in 1960 to the disintegration of the group in 1970.

The break-up itself was a cumulative process throughout 1968–70, marked by rumours of a split and ambiguous comments by the Beatles themselves regarding the future of the group. Although in September 1969 John Lennon privately informed the other Beatles that he was leaving the group, there was no public acknowledgement of the break-up until Paul McCartney announced on 10 April 1970 he was quitting the Beatles.

There were sporadic collaborative recording efforts among the band members (most notably Ringo Starr's 1973 album Ringo, the only time that the four – albeit on separate tracks – appeared on the same album post-break-up), although all four Beatles never simultaneously collaborated as a recording or performing group again; Starr's 1976 album Ringo's Rotogravure is the last post-break-up album on which all four Beatles contribute and are credited: besides Starr's drumming and songwriting contributions, Lennon, McCartney and George Harrison all composed one track apiece. After Lennon's death in 1980, McCartney and Starr appeared on Harrison's single "All Those Years Ago", and the trio reunited for the Anthology project in 1994, using two unfinished Lennon demos – "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love" – for what would be new songs to be recorded and released as the Beatles.[3]

There were numerous causes for the Beatles' break-up. It was not a single event but a long transition,[4] including the cessation of touring in 1966, and the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, in 1967, meaning the Beatles were personally involved in financial and legal conflicts.[5] Conflict arose from differences in artistic vision.[6] Both Harrison and Starr temporarily left the group at various points during 1968–69 and all four band members had begun working on solo projects by 1970 as they all realised the likelihood the band would not regroup. Ultimately, animosity made it impossible for the group to continue working together in the years following.[7]

Brian Epstein's death[edit]

Arguably the most influential person in launching and promoting the band's worldwide popularity, Brian Epstein also managed to hold the group together, as his management style was to let the group pursue their musical notions and projects while often mediating when there was a conflict. However, this role began to diminish after the band stopped touring in 1966, although he still exercised a strong influence, settling disputes among members and, most importantly, handling the group's finances. When he died of a medical drug overdose in August 1967, there was a void left in the band. John Lennon had the closest personal relationship with Epstein and was the most affected by his death.[8] Paul McCartney likely sensed the precarious situation and sought to initiate projects for the group. Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr progressively became perturbed by his growing domination in musical as well as other group ventures.[9] Lennon later reflected that McCartney's efforts were important for the survival of the band, but he still believed that McCartney's desire to help came from McCartney's own misgivings about pursuing a solo career.[10]

The foundation of Apple Corps was initiated under the oversight of Epstein as a tax shelter endeavour. His unexpected death left the future of Apple Corps in doubt. The lack of Epstein's supervision and the Beatles' inexperience as businessmen led to an unexpectedly chaotic venture that only added to stress when the band returned to the studio to produce their 1968 double album The Beatles, also known as the White Album.[1] Epstein's role as band manager would never be replaced, and ultimately the lack of strong managerial leadership would be a major cause of the break-up.[11]

George Harrison's emergence as a songwriter[edit]

Another factor behind the Beatles' eventual split was Harrison's growth as a composer during the second half of their career.[12] In the early years, Lennon and McCartney were the band's primary songwriters and vocalists, as Harrison and Starr took more supporting roles. Lennon and McCartney would often compose one song per album for Starr to sing, while Harrison would either cover an old standard or record one of his own compositions. From 1965 onwards, Harrison's compositions started to mature and become more appealing in their quality.[13] Gradually, the other band members acknowledged his potential as a songwriter.[7][10][13]

Although Harrison emerged as a talented songwriter and producer, he nonetheless continued to have many of his song ideas rejected by Lennon and McCartney, especially from 1968 onwards.[14] While this was partly indicative of the increased competition for space on album sides, with three songwriters in the band, Harrison's frustration fostered in him a sense of alienation from the Beatles.[15] He was the first member of the group to release a solo album, with Wonderwall Music,[16] much of which was recorded in Bombay in January 1968 and featured Indian classical musicians such as Aashish Khan, Shankar Ghosh and Shivkumar Sharma.[17] Speaking to Melody Maker in September 1969, Lennon said: "The trouble is we've got too much material. Now that George is writing a lot, we could put out a double album every month …"[18]

Difficulty in collaboration[edit]

After the band had stopped touring in August 1966, each of the members, to varying degrees, began to pursue their own musical tastes. When the group convened to record Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in November 1966, there was still a camaraderie and desire to collaborate as musicians. However, their individual differences were becoming more apparent. To a greater extent than the others, McCartney maintained a deep interest in the pop musical trends and styles emerging both in Britain and the United States, whereas Harrison developed an interest in Indian music and Lennon's compositions became more introspective and experimental.[1][8] Consequently, McCartney began to assume the role of the initiator and leader of the artistic projects of the Beatles.[3]

Each band member began to develop individual artistic agendas, which eventually compromised the enthusiasm among the musicians. Soon, each band member became impatient with the others. This became most evident on the White Album, in which personal artistic preferences began to dominate the recording sessions, which in turn further undermined the band's unity.[19]

Yoko Ono[edit]

Lennon was in a fragile state of mind after returning from the band's sojourn in India in early 1968. He was disillusioned and resentful that their Transcendental Meditation guru, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, had not fulfilled his expectations. Coupled with renewed drug use and deterioration in his marriage and family life, Lennon's personal identity and artistic role within the Beatles was a source of discontent. He began to develop an intense interest in the work of Yoko Ono, a Japanese-American conceptual artist whom he had first met at one of her exhibitions in 1966. The pair maintained a platonic relationship until the spring of 1968. In May that year, they spent time together in his home studio while his wife, Cynthia, was away on holiday. They recorded an avant-garde tape that would eventually be released as Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins, before consummating their new relationship. From that point on, the two were almost always together, even as Lennon was working with the rest of the band in the studio. This violated a previous tacit agreement between the members not to let wives or girlfriends into the studio. In addition, as Lennon's artistic infatuation with Ono grew, he desired that she would be allotted artistic input into the band's recordings.[20] Frequently, Ono would comment or make suggestions in the recording studio, which only served to increase the friction between her and Lennon's bandmates.[8][10][21] Ono's intrusive presence was a source of rancour to Harrison, in particular, after his and Lennon's shared experimentation with LSD and Indian spirituality – two experiences that McCartney had approached with a level of caution – had united the pair since 1965.[22]

The Beatles double album[edit]

The White Album

In May 1968, the band met at Harrison's home in Esher to record demos of some of the songs that would be released in November as The Beatles. Contemporaneous reviews and retrospective commentary by the Beatles acknowledged that the double album reflected the development of autonomous composers, musicians and artists.[7] Rolling Stone described it as "four solo albums in one roof".

Lennon and McCartney's artistic venues for the Beatles became more disparate,[23] with McCartney disapproving of Lennon and Ono's experimental sound collage "Revolution 9",[24] and Lennon contemptuous of light-hearted McCartney songs such as "Martha My Dear" and "Honey Pie".[25] Harrison continued to develop as a songwriter, yet he received little support from within the band during the sessions.[26] Feeling resentment from Lennon and McCartney for his role in leading the Beatles to the Maharishi, Harrison's composition "Not Guilty" reflected his state of mind after their return from India.[27] Starr began to develop and pursue acting opportunities during this period, yet as a drummer, he was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the standard of his playing; according to author Mark Hertsgaard, this was "a feeling that [McCartney] in particular had done much to encourage".[28] Distressed also by the sour and tense atmosphere that was characteristic of the recording sessions,[6] Starr felt so isolated that he left the band for several weeks and holidayed with his family in Sardinia.[29] He returned in early September to find his drum kit decorated with flowers,[25] which were a gift from Harrison.[30]

The strain of recording the White Album also took its toll on EMI recording engineer Geoff Emerick. Like Starr, he left during the sessions, which commenced in June and concluded in October.[19] These were the first signs of the group's emerging disunity and antipathy.[13] Upon completion and release of The Beatles, the band no longer gave collective interviews or recorded appearances. The public relations were carried out individually. Other evidence of the group's collective alienation came with the release of their 1968 Christmas fan club recording. The contributions were entirely individual and Lennon made disparaging remarks about his bandmates' apparent disdain for Ono.[4]

Twickenham and Apple Studio recording sessions[edit]

By the end of 1968, the Beatles' status as a group entity was in limbo. McCartney suggested a group project involving rehearsing, recording and performing the songs in a live concert. The project soon adopted a working title of Get Back but would eventually see official release as the Let It Be album and film in 1970. Although the sessions for their double album had involved a degree of ensemble playing, the band were ill-prepared to settle comfortably back into this mode; in particular, Lennon had descended into heroin addiction, leaving him variously incommunicative or highly critical of the venture. On 10 January 1969, eight days after filmed rehearsals commenced at Twickenham Film Studios, Harrison's frustration and resentment peaked and he informed his bandmates that he was leaving. Having enjoyed rewarding collaborations outside the Beatles during much of 1968, particularly with Eric Clapton, Bob Dylan and the Band, the combined patronising by McCartney and estrangement from Lennon had taken its toll. The band were therefore on the verge of potential collapse and at an impasse. In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine cited a recording that exists from the Twickenham sessions the day after Harrison's departure in which Lennon suggests inviting Clapton to take over lead guitar duties.

Ultimately, complicated negotiations brought Harrison back into the group's activities. At Harrison's insistence, McCartney's plans for a full concert were abandoned and the project was relocated to the band's Apple Studio in Savile Row,[31] with the focus now on merely completing a new album of some of the songs rehearsed at Twickenham. The Beatles gave their last public performance on the rooftop of Apple's headquarters on 30 January 1969, as a substitute for an audience-based concert.[32][33][34]

Business quagmire: Allen Klein, Lee and John Eastman, and ATV-Northern Songs[edit]

Apple Corps during this period was plagued by business problems. Lennon and Ono met with Allen Klein regarding managerial advice. Subsequently, Lennon requested that Klein represent his business interests in the band. Harrison and Starr acquiesced, while McCartney had ambiguous feelings about Klein's managerial potential. McCartney's growing relationship with Linda Eastman opened the opportunity for lawyers Lee and John Eastman, Linda's father and brother, respectively, to become involved in advising the band's financial and legal decision-making. However, the band members' quarrels and disharmony over musical matters soon permeated their business discussions.[5]

Dick James, who held substantial rights to Northern Songs (the Lennon–McCartney song catalogue), became increasingly concerned over the band's dissension and resentment towards him. Without informing the Beatles, he inconspicuously entertained offers to sell his substantial shares in Northern Songs. Klein and the Eastmans were caught off guard and their attempts to reclaim control of the Beatles (via Maclen Music) failed. It soon became evident that the Eastmans and Klein had developed an adversarial relationship given their disparate advice and counsel. This further aggravated the underlying mistrust and antipathy experienced within the band.[35] McCartney felt that the four members' evolution from musicians to businessmen was the central reason for the band's breakup.[36]

Departures[edit]

With the troubled Get Back/Let It Be project put on hold, the group continued to record together sporadically during the spring and early summer of 1969. Otherwise, the band members became increasingly involved in activities outside the band; among these, Lennon launched an international peace campaign with Ono, spearheaded by their single "Give Peace a Chance",[37][38] Harrison continued to focus on producing Apple Records signings, including Jackie Lomax, Billy Preston and Radha Krishna Temple (London),[39][40] and Starr began to establish himself as a film actor.[41][42] Their occasional sessions together over the first half of the year ultimately paved the way for the Beatles' last studio recording project, Abbey Road.[34]

Lennon's departure[edit]

Soon after the sessions for Abbey Road, Lennon's heroin use inspired him to record "Cold Turkey" with his and Ono's conceptual group, the Plastic Ono Band, after the Beatles had rejected the song for release as a single. The formation of the Plastic Ono Band was conceived as an artistic outlet for Lennon and Ono, but the enthusiastic reception afforded their performance at the Toronto Rock and Roll Revival in September 1969 ostensibly crystallised Lennon's decision to leave the Beatles.[citation needed] During a band meeting at Apple on 20 September, he informed McCartney, Starr and Klein of his decision. That same month, the band signed a renegotiated recording contract with Capitol Records, guaranteeing them a higher royalty rate.[43] This was the group's last, transient demonstration of unity,[11] and the sensitivity of the negotiations with Capitol led to Klein and McCartney urging Lennon to keep his announcement private, which Lennon agreed to do.[43]

McCartney's announcement[edit]

Having long attempted to maintain cohesiveness within the Beatles, McCartney secluded himself with his new family at his Scottish farm, distraught at Lennon's departure.[44] After being tracked down by reporters from Life magazine in late October, McCartney publicly acknowledged that "the Beatle thing is over", although the full meaning of this remark was ignored.[45][46] In early January 1970, he, Harrison and Starr briefly reconvened at Abbey Road Studios to record Harrison's "I Me Mine" and complete work on McCartney's song "Let It Be".[47] Both tracks were needed for the Let It Be album,[48] as the threat of legal action by American film company United Artists led to a decision to finally prepare the Get Back recordings and footage for release.[49] This project was then allowed to languish as before, until producer Phil Spector was invited to revisit the tapes. Although McCartney has claimed that he was unaware of Spector's involvement until receiving an acetate of the Let It Be album in April,[50][51] Peter Doggett writes of work being delayed for "several weeks" until McCartney returned "a string of messages" requesting his approval for Spector to start working on the tapes.[52]

Effectively estranged from his bandmates and deeply depressed,[53] McCartney had begun making a series of home recordings in London during December 1969. Operating under strict secrecy, McCartney privately agreed a release date for this proposed solo album, titled McCartney, with Apple Records executive Neil Aspinall.[54] The release was set for 17 April 1970. Once Lennon, Harrison and Starr became aware of it, however, the date was immediately deemed as problematic,[55][56] due to the existing items on the Apple release schedule – Let It Be and Starr's own solo debut, Sentimental Journey. On 31 March, Starr went to McCartney's house to tell him personally of the decision to delay the release of McCartney, news to which he reacted badly, dismissing Starr from his home, and refusing to cede the date agreed to with Aspinall. Stunned at his bandmate's outburst, Starr relayed the situation to Harrison and Lennon, and McCartney's album was reinstated on the release schedule for 17 April.[57]

McCartney's bitterness over this episode contributed to him publicly announcing his departure from the band during the second week of April 1970. He has also cited Spector's treatment of some songs on the Let It Be album, particularly "The Long and Winding Road", as another factor.[9] The chronological relevance of the latter claim is disputed by Starr, however, who stated that, when acetates of the album were sent out for each of the Beatles' approval, on 2 April: "We all said yes. Even at the beginning Paul said yes. I spoke to him on the phone, and said, 'Did you like it?' and he said, 'Yeah, it's OK.' He didn't put it down."[58]

McCartney's announcement came via a press release distributed to select UK journalists on 9 April, with advance copies of McCartney.[59] The press release took the form of a Q&A in which McCartney discussed his album and, with Lennon's exit still being withheld from the public (for business reasons),[60] matters pertaining to the Beatles' immediate future. While McCartney did not state that the group had broken up, he talked of his "break with the Beatles" and having no plans to work with the band in the future; he also emphasised his distance from Klein's management and ruled out the likelihood of ever writing songs with Lennon again.[61] Although McCartney has said that Apple's press officer, Derek Taylor, submitted the questions, Taylor later insisted that those concerning the Beatles were added by McCartney.[62] On 10 April,[63] having been among the recipients of the Q&A, Don Short of The Daily Mirror reported on McCartney's departure from the Beatles,[64] after which newspapers around the world interpreted McCartney's remarks as an announcement that the band had broken up.[65][66]

Events leading up to the Beatles' dissolution in the British High Court[edit]

Doggett writes that, amid the uproar following his announcement, McCartney returned to the issue of Spector's work on Let It Be "like a dog obsessively licking a wound".[67] McCartney had conceived of "The Long and Winding Road" as a simple piano ballad, but Spector overdubbed orchestral and female choral accompaniment.[9][68] On 14 April, McCartney sent a sharply worded letter to Klein demanding that the new instrumentation be reduced, the harp part removed, and added: "Don't ever do it again."[69] Arriving twelve days after Spector had distributed the acetates with a request for any of the Beatles to contact him immediately with proposed changes, McCartney's demands went unheeded.[70] Klein claimed to have sent McCartney a telegram in reply to the 14 April letter, since McCartney had changed his telephone number without informing Apple, but he received no response. Klein therefore went ahead with manufacturing the new Beatles album.[71]

On 31 December 1970, McCartney filed a lawsuit against the other three Beatles in London's High Court for dissolution of the Beatles' contractual partnership, and subsequently a receiver was appointed. The legal process and negotiations were lengthy and the formal dissolution of the partnership took place on 9 January 1975.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c MacDonald, Ian. Revolution in the Head, PIMLICO, 2005
  2. ^ David Bennahum: The Beatles After the Break-Up: In Their Own Words, Omnibus Press, 1991
  3. ^ a b Philip Norman: Shout!: The Beatles in Their Generation (second edition), Fireside, 2003
  4. ^ a b Hertsgaard, pp. 265–66.
  5. ^ a b The Beatles: The Beatles Anthology, Chronicle Books, 2000
  6. ^ a b Bob Spitz: The Beatles : The Biography, Little, Brown and Company, 2005
  7. ^ a b c DK Publishing: The Beatles: 10 Years That Shook the World, DK Adult, 2004
  8. ^ a b c Ray Coleman: Lennon: The Definitive Biography 3rd edition, Pan Publications, 2000
  9. ^ a b c Barry Miles: Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now, Owl Books, 1998
  10. ^ a b c Jann Wenner: Lennon Remembers: The Rolling Stone Interviews, Popular Library, 1971
  11. ^ a b Peter McCabe and Robert D. Schonfeld: Apple to the Core: The Unmaking of The Beatles, Martin Brian and O'Keeffe Ltd, 1972
  12. ^ The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, p. 419.
  13. ^ a b c Mark Lewisohn: Beatles Recording Sessions, Gardners Books, 2005
  14. ^ The Editors of Rolling Stone, p. 38.
  15. ^ "George Harrison Interview", Crawdaddy magazine, February 1977
  16. ^ Rodriguez, p. 9.
  17. ^ Spizer, p. 206.
  18. ^ Sutherland, p. 65.
  19. ^ a b Geoff Emerick & Howard Massey: Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of the Beatles, Gotham, 2006
  20. ^ Andy Peebles and John Lennon: The Last Lennon Tapes, Dell, 1982
  21. ^ "John Lennon and Yoko Ono Interview", Playboy, January 1981
  22. ^ Clerk, Carol (February 2002). "George Harrison". Uncut.  Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
  23. ^ The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, p. 61.
  24. ^ Emerick and Massey, pp. 243–44.
  25. ^ a b Hertsgaard, p. 251.
  26. ^ MacDonald, p. 267.
  27. ^ White, Timothy (November 1987). "George Harrison – Reconsidered". Musician. p. 55. 
  28. ^ Hertsgaard, pp. 250–51.
  29. ^ Ringo Starr, in The Beatles, p. 311.
  30. ^ Ringo Starr, in The Beatles, p. 312.
  31. ^ Snow, p. 8.
  32. ^ John C. Winn: That Magic Feeling: The Beatles' Recorded Legacy (volume two) 1966-1970 Multiplus Books, 2003
  33. ^ Doug Sulpy & Ray Schweighardt: Get Back: The Unauthorised Chronicle of The Beatles' "Let It Be" Disaster, St. Martin's Griffin Pub., 1999
  34. ^ a b Peter Doggett: Abbey Road/Let It Be: The Beatles (Classic Rock Albums Series), Schirmer Books, 1998
  35. ^ Peter Brown & Steven Gaines: The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles (Reprint edition), NAL Trade, 2002
  36. ^ Business caused beatles' break-up, McCartney says. (1986, Aug 22). Chicago Tribune (1963-Current File)
  37. ^ Wiener, pp. 114–15.
  38. ^ "John Lennon Biography". rollingstone.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  39. ^ Leng, pp. 55, 58–59.
  40. ^ Doggett, Peter (April 2001). "George Harrison: The Apple Years". Record Collector. p. 35. 
  41. ^ Clayson, pp. 193–94.
  42. ^ Fred Dellar, "Starring Role", in Mojo: The Beatles' Final Years, p. 84.
  43. ^ a b Miles, p. 353.
  44. ^ Rodriguez, p. 1.
  45. ^ Sounes, pp. 262–63.
  46. ^ Doggett, p. 107.
  47. ^ Sulpy & Schweighardt, p. 315.
  48. ^ MacDonald, pp. 296, 322.
  49. ^ Doggett, p. 93.
  50. ^ MacDonald, p. 297.
  51. ^ Paul McCartney and George Martin, in The Beatles, p. 350.
  52. ^ Doggett, pp. 115–16.
  53. ^ Sounes, pp. 263–64.
  54. ^ Spizer, p. 116.
  55. ^ Doggett, p. 120.
  56. ^ Sounes, p. 265.
  57. ^ Doggett, p. 122.
  58. ^ Doggett, p. 123.
  59. ^ Schaffner, pp. 131, 135.
  60. ^ MacDonald, pp. 322, 323.
  61. ^ Hertsgaard, pp. 279, 287.
  62. ^ Doggett, p. 124.
  63. ^ Badman, pp. 3–4.
  64. ^ Sounes, p. 266.
  65. ^ Hertsgaard, p. 279.
  66. ^ Rodriguez, p. 3.
  67. ^ Doggett, p. 130.
  68. ^ Woffinden, p. 32.
  69. ^ The Beatles, Anthology, p. 350, (full letter)
  70. ^ Doggett, pp. 123, 130–32.
  71. ^ Doggett, p. 132.

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External links[edit]