There'll Be Some Changes Made

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"There'll Be Some Changes Made"
Language English
Published 1921 Harry H. Pace
1924 Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Songwriter(s) Composer: Benton Overstreet
Lyricist: Billy Higgins

"There'll Be Some Changes Made" ("Changes") is a popular song by Benton Overstreet (composer) and Billy Higgins [1][2][a] (lyricist). Published in 1921, the song has flourished in several genres, particularly jazz, for ninety-six years. The song has endured for as many years as a jazz standard.[3] According to the online The Jazz Discography (an index of jazz-only recordings), "Changes" has been recorded 404 times (as of May 2018).[4] The song and its record debut was revolutionary, in that (i) the songwriters (Overstreet and Higgins, both aged of 33), the original copyright publisher, Harry Herbert Pace, (iii) the vocalist to first record it (Ethel Waters, aged 24), (iv) the owners of Black Swan (the record label), (v) the opera singer (Elizabeth Greenfield, deceased 45 years) for whom the label was named, and (vi) the musicians on the recording led by Fletcher Henderson (aged 23), were all African American. The production is identified by historians as a notable part of the Harlem Renaissance.[5]

History and popularity milestones[edit]

Ethel Waters
(between 1938 and 1948)
(photo: William P. Gottlieb)


The debut recording with Ethel Waters was recorded on Black Swan Records (2021) and rapidly became a hit. Her rendition features the rarely-heard 6-bar instrumental intro,[b] followed by her singing the 1st verse (16 bars, plus 1), then her singing the 1st chorus (16 bars, plus 2), then instruments playing 8 bars of the chorus, finishing with her singing the 1st chorus (16 bars, plus 2).

Variety magazine, in a fifty-year commemorative issue, included Ethel Waters' recording in its "Hit Parade of a Half-Century (1905–1955)" list for 1923.[6] A 1924 recording by Marion Harris (Brunswick 2651) helped establish it as a standard.[7] Other artists with notable recordings during the 1920s include Josie Miles (Ajax 17087; 1924), Sophie Tucker (Okeh 40921; 1927), and the Chicago Rhythm Kings (Red McKenzie, vocalist; Brunswick 4001; 1928). In jazz discography, which does not include the recordings of Marion Harris or Sophie Tucker, there were 11 recordings of the song during the 1920s.[4]


Standout recordings from the 1930s include Fats Waller (Bluebird B10322; 1935), Pee Wee Russell's Rhythmakers (HRS (de) 1000; 1938), and Benny Goodman and His Orchestra (Louise Tobin, vocalist, Fletcher Henderson arrangement; Columbia 35210; 1939). In jazz discography, there were 17 recordings of the song during the 1930s, including double takes by (i) Benny Carter and His Swing Quintet (Masters of Jazz (F)MJCD95 CD & Vocalion S46), (ii) Pee Wee Russell's Rhythmakers (both takes on HRS 1001; 1938), (iii) Benny Goodman And His Orchestra (Columbia 35210 & Phontastic (Swd)NOST7606; 1939), and (iv) Eddie Condon And His Chicagoans (Decca 18041 & Meritt 11; 1939).[4]


1941 was not a good year for newly published popular music. According to a January 31, 1942, Billboard article, ASCAP members claimed only 2 of the top 13 sellers in sheet music. Five of the remaining 11 were revivals, one of which was "There'll Be Some Changes Made."[8] The 1941 film, Play Girl, gave new life to the song. In 1941, Benny Goodman's 1939 version became a Billboard No. 1 Hit for 4 weeks (during April and May) and peaked at No. 2 on Your Hit Parade. In 1961, BMI published a list, "All-Time Hit Songs, Broadcast Music, Inc., 1940–1960," in Billboard. "There'll Be Some Changes Made" was among the 17 songs listed for 1947.[9] In jazz discography, there were 60 recordings of the song during the 1940s.[4]

Notable recordings from the 1940s include Vaughn Monroe and His Orchestra (Marilyn Duke, vocalist; Bluebird B-11025-A; 1941), and Peggy Lee (Capitol 15001; 1947).


In early 1959, Billie Holiday did three sessions with Ray Ellis and orchestra for MGM Records in New York: March 3, 4, and 11. She recorded "Changes" in the final session. That session turned out to be the last studio session of her life. She died 4 months and 6 days later — on July 17.[10] The album — released under various titles, notably, Last Recording (MGM SE-3764; 1959) — was posthumously released.

In jazz discography, there were 42 recordings of "Changes" during the 1950s.[4]

1960s – current[edit]

Notable artists who recorded "Changes" include Jaki Byard (Muse 5007; 1972), and Tony Bennett (Improv 7112; 1973–1977).

Western swing and country western[edit]

Outside of jazz, in western swing, Bob Wills recorded it in 1937 (Vocalion DAL 244-1). In country music, Chet Atkins and Mark Knopfler recorded — on their 1990 Grammy award winning album Neck and Neck — a parody version that references the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing" ...

Selected videography, filmography, and stage[edit]


Feature films


  • The 1928 Vitaphone short film, Character Studies (Vitaphone 2734), directed by Murry Roth, featured three songs, including "Changes," all sung by Florence Brady (née Florence E. McAleer; born approx. 1902), a comedian, singer, vaudeville actress, and longtime stage partner with her songwriter husband, Gilbert William Wells (1893–1935).[13]


1976: New York original cast studio recording (audio on YouTube)
1892: Live: 90 minute DVD-13; July 1, 1982, TV Berlin (de) (1982). (video from 3:53 to 6:48)

Selected discography[edit]

  1. Ethel Waters, accompanied by Her Jazz Masters
    Trumpet (unknown), trombone (unknown), Garvin Bushell (clarinet), possibly Charlie Jackson (violin), Fletcher Henderson (piano)
    Recorded around August 1921, New York
    (audio on YouTube)
    Black Swan 2021
    Matrix P147-1
    OCLC 244487936
  2. Josie Miles
    With the Choo Choo Jazzers
    Josie Miles (vocals), Bob Fuller (clarinet), Louis Hooper (piano)
    Recorded circa December 1924, New York City
    (audio on YouTube) Ajax (Canadian Race label) 17087
    Matrix 31749
  3. Sophie Tucker
    Recorded September 3, 1927
    (audio on YouTube)
    Matrix W81314-B
    Okeh 40921
    OCLC 82134484
  4. Chicago Rhythm Kings
    Red McKenzie (singer), Muggsy Spanier (clarinet), Frank Teschmacher (clarinet), Mezz Mezzrow (tenor sax), Joe Sullivan (piano), Eddie Condon (banjo), James W. Lanigan (1902–1983) (tuba), Gene Krupa (drums)
    Recorded April 6, 1928, Chicago
    Brunswick 4001
    Re-release: Classic Jazz Masters 31
    OCLC 29747177, 18799565
  5. Boswell Sisters
    Manny Klein (trumpet), Tommy Dorsey (trombone), Jimmy Dorsey (clarinet ,alto sax), Babe Russin (tenor sax), Martha Boswell (piano, cello), Eddie Lang (guitar), Artie Bernstein (bass), Stan King (de) (drums)
    Recorded March 21, 1932, New York City
    (audio on YouTube)
    Matrix: 11543-A
    Brunswick 6291
    OCLC 399677888
  6. Roy Newman (de) and His Boys
    Recorded October 1, 1935, Dallas
    Roy Newman (piano), Jim Boyd (born 1914) (brother of musician Bill Boyd brother) (guitar), Earl Brown (guitar), Ish Erwin (bass), Holly Horton (1892–1944) (clarinet), Walter Kirks (tenor banjo), Randall "Buddy" Neal (guitar), Thurman Neal (fiddle)
    Matrix: DAL-196-1
    Vocalion 03325[14]
  7. Bob Wills (1937)
    Recorded June 1937, Dallas
    03902 Vocalion
    (audio on YouTube)
    Matrix DAL 244-1 (1st take)
    OCLC 58807446
  8. Benny Goodman
    Louise Tobin, vocalist
    Arrangement by Fletcher Henderson
    Recorded August 10, 1939, Los Angeles
    (audio on YouTube)
    Columbia 35210
    Matrix LA-1947-A
    (first of 2 takes)
    OCLC 698390892, 29063454
  9. Eddie Condon
       and His Chicagoans
    (instrumental, no vocals)
    Max Kaminsky (trumpet), Brad Gowans (trombone), Pee Wee Russell (clarinet), Bud Freeman (tenor sax), Joe Sullivan (piano), Eddie Condon (guitar), Clyde Newcombe (bass), Dave Tough (drums)
    Recorded August 11, 1939, New York City
    Matrix – 66072-A: "There'll Be Some Changes Made"
    Matrix – 66072-B: "There'll Be Some Changes Made"
    66072-A: Decca 18041
    66072-B: Meritt 11
    OCLC 237626194
    OCLC 8778723
  10. Art Tatum
    Recorded live July 26 or 27, 1941, at Gee-Haw Stables, New York City  [c]
    Art Tatum (piano), Chocolate Williams (bass)
    Ollie Potter (vocalist) (born 1900 – DOD not known)
    (audio on YouTube)
    Onyx ORI205
    Track 8 of 8
    OCLC 41634272
    (see note: †)
  11. Vaughn Monroe and His Orchestra[15]
    Recorded January 13, 1941
    (audio on YouTube)
    Marylin Duke (vocalist)
    Bobby Nichols (né Robert J. Nichols; 1924–1975) (trumpet solo)
    Bluebird B-11025-A
    Side A (matrix 060317=1)
    OCLC 80421652
  12. Peggy Lee
    With Frank de Vol's Orchestra
    Recorded August 14, 1947, Los Angeles
    (audio on YouTube)
    Matrix: 2162 Y
    Capitol 15001-B
    OCLC 78100963, 725622274
  13. Hy-Lo Trio (vocals and instrumentalist)
    78 rpm album:
       Old Tyme Favourites
    Recorded around 1948, Boston
    Vinnie "Jimmy Cal" Calderone (accordion)
    Angelo Boncore
    (né Angelo Joseph Boncore; 1919–2012) (bass)
    Side B, Track 3
       Crystal-Tone (Boston)
       Family Library of Recorded Music (Canada)
    (audio on YouTube)
    Library and Archives Canada - Amicus #3573505
  14. Dinah Washington
    On the album:
    Recorded November 11, 1955, Los Angeles
    (audio on YouTube) Hal Mooney, arranger
    Accompanied by Maynard Ferguson, Conrad Gozzo, Ray Linn, Manny Klein (trumpets); Tommy Pederson, Frank Rosolino, Si Zentner (trombones); Herb Geller, Skeets Herfurt (alto saxes); Georgie Auld, Babe Russin (tenor saxes); Chuck Gentry (né Charles Thomas Gentry; 1911–1987) (bari sax); Wynton Kelly (piano); Al Hendrickson (de) (guitar); Keter Betts (bass); Jimmy Cobb (drums); Harold "Hal" Mooney (director)
    Matrix 12401-4
    EmArcy MG36065
    OCLC 10801888, 25107940
  15. Soundtrack
    From the 1957 film
    Designing Woman
    Album title: Miss Dolores Gray:
       Legendary Star of Stage and Screen
    (video on YouTube)'
    Blue Pear Records 1014
    OCLC 21720972
  16. Billie Holiday
    Billie Holiday With Ray Ellis And His Orchestra
    Accompanied by Harry "Sweets" Edison (trumpet), Joe Wilder (trumpet), Billy Byers (trombone), Al Cohn (tenor sax), Danny Bank (bari sax), Hank Jones (piano), Barry Galbraith (guitar), Milt Hinton (bass), Osie Johnson (drums), Ray Ellis (arranger, conductor)
    Recorded March 11, 1959
    (audio on YouTube)
    59XY445: "There'll Be Some Changes Made"
    MGM SE-3764
    Verve (E)2304120
    OCLC 6871512 (MGM)
  17. Dave Brubeck
    Brubeck and Rushing
    Recorded January 29, 1960, New York City
    (audio on YouTube)
    Paul Desmond (alto sax), Dave Brubeck (piano), Eugene Wright (bass), Joe Morello (drums), Jimmy Rushing (vocals)
    Matrix: CO64697
    Columbia CL1553
    OCLC 27683846, 717201596
  18. Julie London
    Whatever Julie Wants (LP)
    With orchestra
    Felix Slatkin (conductor)
    Recorded in Hollywood, c., July 1961
    Track B5: "There'll Be Some Changes Made"
    (audio on YouTube)
    Liberty LST 7192 (LP) US (1961)
    Liberty LRP 3192 (LP, Mono) Australia (1961)
    7" Reel, 4tr, Stereo, Album, Liberty LT 7192 US (1961)
    Promo, Whi, Liberty LRP 3192 (LP, Mono) US (1961)
    Longon HA-G 2405 (LP, Mono) UK (1961)
    OCLC 12415639
  19. Jackie Gleason
    Recorded 1961; released 1962
    Jackie Gleason's Lover's Portfolio
    Capitol SWBO-1619
    2 LPs (compilation)
    Track B1 (of side A, B, C, D)
    OCLC 27225822
  20. Tony Bennett
    On the album:
       Life is Beautiful
    Arranged by Torrie Zito
    Recorded 1975
    (audio on YouTube)
    Tony Bennett (vocals), Torrie Zito (piano), John Guiffrida (bass), Chuck Hughes (drums), and orchestra
    Improv 7112
    OCLC 38224976
  21. Soundtrack (New York)
    Recorded March 22, 1976, A & R Recording, New York
    Original Broadway Cast from:
       Bubbling Brown Sugar
    H&L HL-69011-698
    Act 2, Scene 3
    Track B4
    Josephine Premice, vocalist
    OCLC 2940725
    Amherst Records AMH 3310 (CD)
    OCLC 15688755, 42552255
  22. Soundtrack (London)
    London Cast from:
       Bubbling Brown Sugar
    Act 2, Scene 3
    Released 1977
    Elaine Delmar, vocalist
    H&L HL-69011-698
    OCLC 2940725
    Pye (CD)
    OCLC 299178203
  23. Duke Ellington Orchestra
    Mercer Ellington, director
    Bruce Miller, arranger
    A Tribute To Ethel Waters
    Recorded 1978, Hollywood
    (audio-1 & audio-2 on YouTube)
    Diahann Carroll (vocals)
    Orinda ORC4000
    OCLC 5523457
  24. Chet Atkins and Mark Knopfler
    Neck and Neck (album)
    Released October 9, 1990
    (audio on YouTube)
    OCLC 22689013
  25. Celebrating Mildred Bailey and Red Norvo
    Recorded April 21, 22, 23, 1996, Doppler Studios, Atlanta
    (audio on YouTube)
    Audiophile ACD-295 (CD)
    Daryl Sherman (vocals, piano), Randy Sandke (trumpet), Randy Reinhart (trombone), Bobby Gordon (de) (clarinet, tenor sax), John Cocuzzi (vibes, leader), Mark Shane (piano), James Chirillo (guitar), Greg Cohen (bass), Joe Ascione (drums)
    OCLC 593772313, 873490877
  26. Soundtrack
    Woody Allen's 1999 film
    Sweet and Lowdown
    Byron Stripling (trumpet), Ken Peplowski (clarinet), Dick Hyman (piano), Howard Alden (solo guitar), Bucky Pizzarelli (rhythm guitar), Kelly Friesen (bass), Ted Sommer (drums)
    Recorded in Hollywood, 1999
    Track 5: "There'll Be Some Changes Made"
    Sony Classical SK89019 (CD)
    OCLC 43482586
  27. Scott Hamilton
    Live in Bern: Scott Hamilton & Jeff Hamilton Trio
    Live at Marian's Jazzroom, Bern, Switzerland, May 18, 2014
    (audio on YouTube)
    Scott Hamilton (tenor sax), Tamir Hendelman (piano), Christoph Luty (bass), Jeff Hamilton (drums)
    Track 7: "There'll Be Some Changes Made"
    Capri 74139-2 (CD)
    OCLC 925908072
Unreleased recordings
  1. Duke Ellington and his Orchestra
    Live: June 1, 1957, Sunset Ballroom[16]
    Near Carrolltown, Pennsylvania
    Shorty Baker (trumpet), Quentin Jackson (trombone), Russell Procope (clarinet), Duke Ellington (piano), Joe Benjamin (bass), Sam Woodyard (drums)


Notes on the Tatum recording
† "There'll Be Some Changes Made," was recorded in 1941 on acetate discs by an amateur, a Columbia Student, Jerry Newman (né Jerome Robert Newman; 1918–1970), and released in the 1973. Newman's collection was the initial sole material used to launch the jazz label, Onyx Recording, Inc. (aka Onyx Records), a New York entity co-founded in 1972 by Don Schlitten and Joe Fields.[17][18]
Newman,[d] while a student at Columbia in 1941, lugged his acetate disc recording machine – a portable Wilcox-Gay Recordio "disc cutter" – to jazz clubs in Harlem, including Minton's Playhouse on 118th Street and Clark Monroe's Uptown House on 134th Street, both of which were incubators of jazz of the day, and in 1941, the beginning of bebop. Newman's collection served as the core library for Onyx Recording, Inc. Art Tatum[19] at Minton's in 1941, issued by Onyx after being declined by Columbia, on the LP God Is in the House.[20] At the 16th Annual Grammy Awards held in March 1974, the album won two Grammys, one for Best Improvised Jazz Solo and one for Best Liner Notes, written by Morgenstern. Newman's recordings have been issued as unauthorized records, variously over the years; that is, none were done so with the permission or participation of the artists or their estates.[21] The commercial value of the recordings were deemed nil; and those who acquired and distributed the recordings viewed the mission as one of curating jazz history.
The Art Tatum session at Gee-Haw Stables, later, became the subject of a poem, "Art Tatum at the Gee-Haw Stables," by Grace Schulman.[22]

Selected rollography (player pianos)[edit]

  1. MelOdee 1257[23]
    Melodee Music Co., Inc.
  2. QRS 7389
    February 1941
    Fats Waller, piano roll artist
  3. QRS Word Roll 8316[23]
    J. Lawrence Cook, piano roll artist
    (audio on YouTube)
  4. Aeolian 1741[23]
    J. Lawrence Cook, piano roll artist


Original copyright
"There'll Be Some Change Made" (sic ... "Change" vs. "Changes")
Billy Wiggins (pseudonym of William Higgins) (words)
Benton Overstreet (music)
Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. (arrangement)
© 16 September 1921 (1 c.) E519207
New York: Harry Herbert Pace[Original 1]


Subsequent copyrights
© 17 September 1923 E569379
© 1924 New York: Edward B. Marks Music Corp.[e]
Billy Wiggins (pseudonym of Billy Higgins) (lyrics)
William Belton Overstreet (music) (1888–1939)
OCLC 499111772
5 additional choruses by Wilson & Ringle[f][g]
© 20 November 1924 E601555;[Original 2] © Renewal 10 December 1951 R87327 (Wilson & Ringle arrangement)
© 20 November 1924 E601555; © Renewal 20 November 1951 R86297 (Wilson & Ringle arrangement)[Renewal 1]
OCLC 20410673, 945930898
Arrangements and renewals
© 31 January 1940 EP83470; © Renewal 31 January 1967 R403184 (scored by Jerry Gray; Artie Shaw, arr.)[Renewal 2] OCLC 40478415
© 20 February 1940 EP83170; © Renewal 1 March 1967 R405147 (Roy Eldridge, arr.)[Renewal 3]
© 22 May 1941 EP94890 (Harry Henneman; born 1913; arr.)[Original 3]
© 14 September 1945 EP134967; © Renewal 26 September 1972 R536531 (Van Alexander, arr.)[Renewal 4]
© 14 April 1948 EP25222 (Claude G. Garreau, vocal arr., TTBB, published in Time to Harmonize, Vol. 2, pps. 14–15); OCLC 1350092[h][Renewal 5]
© 16 September 1921 E519207; © Renewal 20 September 1948 R38135 (Henderson, arr.)[Renewal 6]
© 16 September 1921 E519207; © Renewal 17 September 1948 R38310 (Henderson, arr.)[Renewal 6]
© 16 December 1924 E603539;[Original 4] © Renewal 10 December 1951 R87328 (Wheeler, arr.)
© 17 September 1923 E569379; © 7 January 1954 EP77406 (arrangement by Bud Arburg, EdD, Harold Walton Arberg, Sr. 1918–2009; for four male voices – TTBB)[Renewal 7]
© 13 August 1929 EP8383 (arr. for orchestra by Ted Lewis); © Renewal 24 August 1956 R175950[Renewal 8]
© 1958? (arrangement by Clay Warnick; 1915–1995; for SATB & piano), Plate N° 13861; OCLC 20610949
© 28 April 1965 EP201952 (Charles E. Brooks, arr. for barbershop quartet)[Renewal 9]
© 2012 (transcribed & adapted by Myles Collins; vocal arrangement for big band); Salamander Bay: England Lush Life Music, Plate N° LLM2172; OCLC 867767047
International versions / editions
© 1959; (Swedish text by Tommy, pseudonym of Lennart Reuterskiöld (sv), 1898–1986; for voice & piano with chords); Stockholm: Reuter & Reuter; OCLC 185373906


Catalog of Copyright Entries, Part 3 Musical Compositions, New Series, Library of Congress, Copyright Office
Original and renewal copyrights
  1. ^ Vol.  36, Part 2, July–December 1941, Nos. 5–12 (1941), pg. 1010


Catalog of Copyright Entries, Third Series, Renewal Registrations-Music, Library of Congress, Copyright Office
Copyright renewals and arrangements
  1. ^ Vol.  21, Part 5, No. 1, January–June 1967 (1968), pg. 903
  2. ^ Vol.  21, Part 5, No. 1, January–June 1967 (1968), pg. 903
  3. ^ Vol.  26, Part 5, No. 2, Sect. I, July–December 1972 (1973), pg. 2621
  4. ^ Vol.    2, Part 5A, No. 1, January–June 1948 (1948), pg. 215
  5. ^ Vol.    8, Part 5A, No. 1, January–June 1954 (1954), pg. 194
  6. ^ Vol.    10, Part 5C, No. 1, January–June 1954 (1956), pg. 213
  7. ^ Vol.  19, Part 5, No. 1, Sect. I, January–June 1965 (1967), pg. 627

Sheet music covers[edit]

Edward B. Marks Corporation was the publisher of "There'll Be Some Changes Made." The sheet music cover design, artwork by Irving Politzer (1898–1972), featured portraits of performers who had recorded the song. Those appearing on covers include Marion Harris, Ruth Etting, and Benny Goodman.

Subtitle on some sheet music covers[edit]

Some sheet music covers, even 1st editions, included the subtitle, in parentheses, "Philosophic Blues."


  1. ^ Some biographical references, notably the searchable BMI Song Database, incorrectly identify the lyricist as William Blackstone. The copyrights, and copyright renewals, credit Higgins as the lyricist. "Blackstone" is the maiden name of the mother of another Billy Higgins (1936–2001) — the late jazz drummer who has no direct relationship to the Higgins of this article. The mother's full maiden name was Anna Bell Marie Blackstone (1903–2001). She was married to Samuel Higgins (1901–1970). ("Higgins, Billy" (reference entry; the "other" Billy Higgins), Oxford Index: American National Biography Online; retrieved November 22, 2016) ("BMI Repertoire Song Search: ' There'll Be Some Changes Made' ;" Archived 2006-11-24 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved November 22, 2016)
  2. ^ Published versions of the music include a 4-bar intro, followed by a 2-bar vamp. The Ethel Waters rendition does not repeat the vamp. Her rendition is:    B major4

       Intro, instrumental (4 bars; plus a 2-bar, non-repeated vamp)
       1st verse, sung (16 bars; plus 1) or ("A1 theme," 8 bars; plus "A2 theme," 8 bars; plus 1)
       1st chorus, sung (16 bars; plus 2) or ("B1 theme," 8 bars; plus "B2 theme," 8 bars; plus 2)
       1st chorus, instrumental (8 bars) ("B2 theme," 8 bars; plus 2)
       1st verse, sung (16 bars; plus 1) or ("A1 theme," 8 bars; plus "A2 theme," 8 bars; plus 1)
  3. ^ Gee-Haw Stables (aka Mercedes' Gee-Haw Riding Academy), (160 to 100) West 132nd Street, between 7th (Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Boulevard) & Lenox Avenue (Malcolm X Boulevard), so called because a sculpted horse's head graced the entrance (circa June 1940 to about 1945); was a tiny after-hours club where the action started around 7 am and would often go until noon. (Living with Jazz: A reader edited by Sheldon Meyer, by Dan Morgenstern; Shelden Meyer, ed., Pantheon Books, pg. 540; OCLC 54487411) In 1941, the club was owned and operated by Johnny Bradford (born 1911), who, that same year, married Una Mae Carlisle ("Singer Weds Night Club Owner," New York Age, September 27, 1941, pg. 4, col. 1) At the time of their marriage, Bradford lived at 35 West 110th Street, and Carlisle lived at the Hotel Theresa; Bradford later managed other clubs in Harlem, including:
    1. Jimmy's Famous Chicken Shack, 763 St. Nicholas Avenue (between 148th and 149th Streets), Manhattan (Sugar Hill neighborhood), opened in 1937 as Jimmy Brown's Chicken Shack at 763 St. Nicholas Avenue; Bradford became the host of Jimmie's in 1949, when it was owned by Jimmy Bacon (né James Bacon; born 1915 Georgia); the lower level of 763 St. Nicholas Avenue, once called a parlor level, is currently (as of 2016) a small Senegalese restaurant, "Tsion Cafe & Bakery"; 763 St. Nicholas, in the 1920s and 1930s was a funeral parlor – "Charles M. Jerolomon Parlors"; in 1964 the Gee-Haw location was a Gulf Gas Station
    2. The Barnyard (1953)
  4. ^ Bill Fox (aka Bill Mink, Bill Wolf/Wolfe), Jerry Newman (né Jerome Robert Newman; 1918–1970), and Seymour Weiss (né Seymour Michael Wyse; born 1923 in London) founded the Esoteric Record Corporation in 1949 in New York. In 1957 the label was renamed Counterpoint; and after being first sold to Eichler Records Corporation in 1960, and then to Everest Record Group in 1963, to Counterpoint / Esoteric Records. Earlier, in 1948, Newman and Wyse founded Greenwich Music Shop. In 1964, Fox moved to Vanguard Records, to become the production coordinator. Fox had been Newman's business partner with the Greenwich Music Shop
  5. ^ Edward B. Marks Music Corporation was founded in 1898 by Edward Bennett Marks (1865–1945). One of Edward's two sons, Herbert Edward Marks (1902–1984), took over the company in 1945. In 1983, Freddy Bienstock bought the Edward B. Marks catalog of classical and contemporary music for $5 million in partnership with the Rodgers and Hammerstein estate. His brother, John, was in charge of the division. The Edward B. Marks catalog is currently owned by Carlin America.
  6. ^ Al. H. Wilson (né Alphonse or Alfonso H. Wilson; 1868–1936) was an American stage actor, comedian, singer, monologist, songwriter, theater stock company director, and playwright. (Who's who in Music and Drama, entry: "Wilson, Al. H.", Dixie Hines George Wilmer Hines, Jr.; 1872–1928, Harry Prescott Hanaford, 1863–1925, eds., H.P. Hanaford, publisher, 1914, pg. 325; OCLC 5345361, 21786350) He was the brother of actress Lizzie Wilson (1871–1939)
  7. ^ David Townsend Ringle (1894–1965)
  8. ^ Claude Gustave Garreau (born 6 June 1896 Jersey City)


  1. ^ "Higgins, Billy" (reference entry; the "other" Billy Higgins), Oxford Index: American National Biography Online (retrieved November 22, 2016)
  2. ^ "BMI Repertoire Song Search: ' There'll Be Some Changes Made' " Archived 2006-11-24 at the Wayback Machine. (retrieved November 22, 2016)
  3. ^ Jazz Standards on Record, 1900–1942 "Table 1: Jazz Standards in the Core Repertory," by Richard Crawford; Jeffrey Magee; Center for Black Music Research, Columbia College Chicago (1992), pg. ix; OCLC 25130915
  4. ^ a b c d e Tom Lord (ed.), The Jazz Discography Online, Lord Music, (retrieved December 5, 2016; subscription required; accessible at many libraries); OCLC 690104143
  5. ^ Temples for Tomorrow: Looking Back at the Harlem Renaissance, by Geneviève Fabre & Michel Feith, Indiana University Press (2001), pps. 99–102; OCLC 49852552
  6. ^ "Hit Parade of a Half-Century (1905–1955)," Variety, January 4, 1956
  7. ^ "A Tribute to Marion Harris," by George Wagner & Timothy A. Gracyk (born 1959), Victrola and 78 Journal, Issue N° 8, Spring 1996, pps. 2–7; OCLC 34274741
  8. ^ "ASCAP Writes '41 Sheet Sales In Red Ink; Prosperity Came to Obscure Pubs and Penners," Billboard, January 31, 1942, pg. 11
  9. ^ "All-Time Hit Songs, Broadcast Music, Inc., 1940–1960," Billboard, January 30, 1961, pg. 18
  10. ^ Billie Holiday: A Biography, by Meg Greene, Greenwood Press (2007), pg. 107; OCLC 230763755
  11. ^ At Millennium's End: New Essays on the Work of Kurt Vonnegut, by Kevin Alexander Boon, PhD (ed.), State University of New York Press (2001), pg. 192; OCLC 45008462
  12. ^ The Soundtracks of Woody Allen: A Complete Guide to the Songs and Music in Every Film, 1969–2005, by Adam Harvey, McFarland & Company (2007), pg. 143; OCLC 79002300
  13. ^ The First Hollywood Sound Shorts, 1926–1931, Edwin M. Bradley, McFarland & Company (2009), pg. 363; OCLC 56559464
  14. ^ Discography of Western Swing and Hot String Bands, 1928-1942 (1st ed.), Cary Ginell & Kevin Coffey (eds.), Greenwood Press (2001), pps. 20, 93, 96, 99, & 151, OCLC 46393980
  15. ^ "Vaughn Monroe," The American Dance Band Discography 1917–1942 (Vol. 2 of 2), by Brian Rust, Arlington House Publishers (1975), pps. 1264–1267; OCLC 1818389
  16. ^ East Carroll Township and the Sunset Ballroom, 1910–2010, by Cecelia Farabaugh (born 1963; local historian, genealogist) (self published), Chicora, Pennsylvania: Mechling Bookbindery (2010); OCLC 795836256; LCCN 2010-907320
  17. ^ Collected Works: A Journal of Jazz 1954–2001, by Whitney Balliett, St. Martin's Press (2002), pg. 394; OCLC 422000268
  18. ^ "Onyx Formed, Schlitten Chief," Billboard, July 1, 1972, pg. 3, col. 1 (bottom)
  19. ^ "The Greatest Soloist in the History of Jazz," by Lynn René Bayley, Art Music Lounge (WordPress blog), April 1, 2016 (retrieved June 1, 2016)
  20. ^ God is in the house, Art Tatum, Onyx Records, ORI 205 (LP) (1972); OCLC 3197822, 473711960
    Art Tatum (1909–1956) (piano), Frankie Newton (1906–1954) (trumpet), Chocolate Williams (bass); Ebenezer Paul (1919–1947) (bass)

        Liner notes: Dan Morgenstern
        1940: November 11
        1941: May 7, July 26–27, September 16
        Minton's, Harlem
        Re-issued: HighNote HCD 7030 (CD) (1998); OCLC 41634272

  21. ^ "Homage To Jerry Newman," by John A. Schott (born 1966), John Schott's blog at WordPress, July 27, 2015 (retrieved January 20, 2016)
  22. ^ "Art Tatum at the Gee-Haw Stables," by Grace Schulman, The Georgia Review, Vol. 58, No. 2, Poetry and "Poiēsis" (Summer 2004), p. 278; ISSN 0016-8386
    Republished in a compilation: The Broken String, Houghton Mifflin (2007), pps. 26–27; OCLC 71004292
  23. ^ a b c Joe M. Morris Piano Roll Collection, University of North Texas, Music Library, Special Collections
        Melodee 1257: Item 3167
        QRS Word Roll 8316: Item 3168
        Aeolian 1741: Item 3691