Torino F.C.

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Torino
Torino FC Logo.svg
Full name Torino Football Club S.p.A
Nickname(s) Il Toro (The Bull)
I Granata (The Maroons)
Founded 3 December 1906; 109 years ago (3 December 1906), as Foot-Ball Club Torino
1 September 2005, as Torino Football Club[1][2]
Ground Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino
Ground Capacity 27,958[3]
Owner UT Communication
Chairman Urbano Cairo
Head Coach Siniša Mihajlović
League Serie A
2015–16 Serie A, 12th
Website Club home page
Current season

Torino Football Club (Italian pronunciation: [tɔˈrinɔ]), commonly referred to as Torino or simply Toro, is a professional Italian football club based in Turin, Piedmont, that plays in Serie A.

Founded as Foot-Ball Club Torino in 1906, Torino are among the most successful clubs in Italy with seven league titles, including five consecutive league titles (a record tied with Juventus and Internazionale) at the time of the Grande Torino, widely recognised as one of the strongest teams of the 1940s. That entire team was killed in the 1949 Superga air disaster. They have also won the Coppa Italia five times, the last of which was in the 1992–93 season. Internationally, Torino won the Mitropa Cup in 1991 and were finalists in the UEFA Cup in 1991–92.

Torino plays all of its home games at the Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino (also known as the Stadio Comunale "Vittorio Pozzo" until 2006). The club's colour is maroon, and its symbol is a rampant bull, the traditional symbol of the city of Turin, of which the club's nickname is derived, "Il Toro" (The Bull).

History[edit]

The foundation[edit]

In the city of Turin, the game of football arrived at the end of the 19th century, first introduced by the industrial Swiss and English. By 1887, Football & Cricket Club – the oldest Italian football club – had already been founded in the capital of Piedmont, followed in 1889 by Nobili Torino. In 1891 the two clubs merged to form Internazionale Torino, after which Football Club Torinese was founded in 1894.[4][5][6]

Alfred Dick, founder and then president of the newly born Foot-Ball Club Torino

The new game quickly supplanted the popularity of pallapugno, which led to the foundation of the football sections of the sports club Ginnastica Torino and Juventus. On 8 May 1898 Internazionale Torino, Football Club Torinese and Ginnastica Torino, along with Genoa as part of the International Exhibition for the fiftieth anniversary of the Statuto Albertino gave birth to the first Italian Football Championship on the field of the Velodrome Umberto I of Turin, won by the Genoese.

In 1900, Football Club Torinese absorbed Internazionale Torino, but the real turning point for the club arrived on 3 December 1906: at the Voigt brewery (now bar Norman) of Via Pietro Micca, when an alliance was formed with a group of Juventus dissidents, led by the Swiss financier Alfred Dick, who disagreed with the professionalism of Juventus. The meeting at the brewery was scheduled at nine o'clock in the evening with 23 people present, namely: Alfred Dick, Giovanni Secondi, Fritz Bollinger, Eugenio De Fernex, Giuseppe Varetto, Enrico Debernardi, Arthur Rodgers, Federico Ferrari Orsi, Fritz Roth, Carlo Pletscher, Carlo Dick, Hans Kaempfer, Oreste Mazzia, Paul Boerner, Ugo Muetzell, Robert Depenheuer, Alfredo Jaquet, C. Bart, O. Quint, I. Michel, I. Faelmdrich, A. Boulaz and Walter Streule.[7] Franz Schoenbrod, the president, was absent, with the cashier, Luigi Custer, randomly seated in his elected seat. While not intervening, Giacomo Zuffi, Gian Luigi Delleani, Vittorio Morelli di Popolo, Ademaro Biano, Ettore Ghiglione, Vittorio Berrà and Vittorio Pozzo had given their support to the club. Through the merger of Football Club Torinese and the aforementioned group of dissidents "Foot-Ball Club Torino" was born.

The new club chose to use different colours, opting in the end for granata; a dark red, similar to burgundy.

From first steps to the Great War[edit]

Torino players pose for a photograph dating back to 1906

The first official match was played on 16 December 1906 in Vercelli against Pro Vercelli, won 3–1 by the Granata, though still only in name, as Torino wore the yellow and black kits inherited from Football Club Torinese. The historic photo of that first meeting portrays a boy destined to play an important role in the history of Italian football, Vittorio Pozzo.

The first derby was played in the new year at the Velodrome Umberto I, dated 13 January 1907, in which the Bull defeated Juventus 2–1. Torino successfully replicated this by a margin of 4–1 a month later and gained the right to enter the final round of the Italian Football Championship, placed second behind Milan. Torino's home ground would be, until 1910, the aforementioned Velodrome Umberto I.

Torino did not participate in the 1908 Italian Football Championship as a rule was passed which limited the use of foreign players. The club instead played in two popular "minor" tournaments: the coveted "Palla Dapples" (a silver trophy in the shape of a regulation football), won against Pro Vercelli; and an international tournament organised by La Stampa, which took place in Turin that year. Torino lost in the final to Swiss side Servette.[8]

In 1912, Vittorio Pozzo joined the technical staff: with him in 1914, Torino participated in a tour of South America, winning six in as many games against teams of the calibre of the Argentine national team and Brazil's Corinthians.

In 1915, Torino were denied their first real championship attempt by the outbreak of World War I. With one match left to play, Torino (in second), were two points behind leaders Genoa. In the final game of the championship, Torino would have had the opportunity to play the Genoese head-on after defeating them in the first leg 6–1. At that time, albeit in different years, four different siblings played for Torino, the Mossos, which at the time was a custom quite widespread.

The longest match[edit]

After the War, the league resumed in October 1919. Like other teams, Torino lost many of its players during the war. The recovery was muted when Torino squad came 3rd in the Piedmont group, behind Pro Vercelli and Juventus. Even in 1920–21, there was not a single league but a series of regional groups; Torino finished the semi-final round of northern Italy on par with Legnano.[9] The match against Legnano seems to be the longest official match ever played in Italy: at the end of regular time the result was 1–1; two extra times of 30 minutes each then followed, at the end of which the result was still a draw. The referee decided to play a third extra time, but after eight minutes the teams mutually agreed to not continue.[9]

In the early 1920s, the Martin brothers, four of them, like the Mossos, began to play for Torino. Martin II was the most talented and made 359 appearances for Torino. In a match against Brescia on 9 November 1924, for the first and only time, all four of the Martin brothers (Pietro, Cesare, Dario and Edmondo) played together.[9] On 7 April 1922, Vittorio Pozzo resigned from Torino for family and professional reasons, replaced by Francesco Mosso.[9]

In 1924, Count Marone Cinzano was elected to the presidency of Torino and brought the first success to the club. In the summer of 1925, Cinzano brought the Argentine Julio Libonatti to Torino (the first foreign native to represent the Italian national team) as well as Adolfo Baloncieri. That year, Torino finished second in their group behind Bologna, but Libonatti and Baloncieri immediately proved their worth and scored 38 of the team's 67 goals. The following year, Gino Rossetti arrived from Spezia for a fee 25,000 lira.[9] Rossetti, together with Libonatti and Baloncieri, gave birth to the famous "trio of wonders," enriched by the clever tactics of the coach Tony Cargnelli.[9] The following season saw the inauguration of the Stadio Filadelfia: the event was celebrated on 17 October 1926 with a 4–0 victory over Fortitudo Roma.[9]

Headed by Imre Schoffer, Torino won their first Scudetto on 10 July 1927 after a 5–0 success against Bologna. However, the title was revoked on 3 November 1927 for the alleged bribery on the part of a Torino doctor and Juventus player, Luigi Allemandi, during the derby held on 5 June 1927. It was already the end of the season when the Milanese newspaper Lo Sport published the news of the alleged fraud in favour of Torino. The story was taken from the "Tifone" of Rome, and was expanded by a journalist who lived in the same hotel as Allemandi. While the Italian title in 1927 remained unassigned, Allemandi was banned for life, although he was later pardoned and only served one year of suspension.[9]

Torino during a tour of Argentina in 1929

The following season, Torino were reconfirmed champions of Italy. After the revoking of their prior Scudetto, the team responded well under the captaincy of Adolfo Baloncieri, a natural leader; some of the scorelines became historic, such as 11–0 wins over Brescia and Napoli and a 14–0 over Reggiana, all at Filadelfia. The "Trio of Wonders" scored 89 goals between them.[9] The long-awaited tricolor, which Torino won on the 22 July 1928 with a 2–2 draw against Milan, was celebrated with a tour of South America. Soon after, the Count Marone Cinzano resigned; he had been too badly shaken by the charge that had led to the cancellation of the title in 1927.[9]

In the early 1930s, Torino saw a succession of numerous presidents after Cinzano’s departure: Ferrari, Vastapane, Gervasio, Mossetto, Silvestri and Cuniberti.[9] It was a period of instability reflected by the team's mediocre positions in the league, finishing seventh in 1930–31, eighth in 1931–32, seventh in 1932–33, 12th in 1933–34 and 14th, a step away from Serie B in 1934–35.[9] Meanwhile, teams in Italy began to develop youth divisions. In honour of Adolfo Baloncieri, Torino dedicated their youth sector to him, the "Balon boys." From here emerged the likes of Raf Vallone, Federico Allasio, Giacinto Ellena and Cesare Gallea.

The Torino formation that won the third edition of the reborn Coppa Italia in 1935–36

It was not until the 1935–36 season that the club began its revival: Torino fought for the title until the middle of the second round, even though Bologna eventually won the championship, one point ahead of Roma. However, Torino were consolidated by their first victory of the Coppa Italia, a tournament which began that year.[9] Here, Torino overwhelmed Reggiana 2–0, Catania 8–2 (six goals by Pietro Buscaglia) Livorno 4–2 and Fiorentina 2–0. The final against Alessandria saw Torino prevail 5–1.

In the 1936–37 season, Torino was renamed "Associazione Calcio Torino" due to the Italian fascist regime which did not tolerate the presence of foreign words at the time. Torino closed the 1937–38 season in a lowly ninth place. Some satisfaction came from the Coppa Italia, where Torino were only beaten in the final.[9] In 1938–39, Torino finished in second place, behind a strong Bologna who were victorious by four points. The Hungarian Egri Erbstein became Torino's technical director and the coach was Mario Sperone. The Balon Boys continued to supply players to the main team, such as the three midfielders who went down in history as the midfield of the "six Ls": Allasio, Gallea and Ellena.[9]

In 1939–40, Torino finished fifth place, though it would also see the important arrival of the president Ferruccio Novo. A turning point, Novo would provide financial support to the club and his skill as a careful administrator. With valuable contributions from Antonio Janni, Giacinto Ellena and Mario Sperone, Novo was able to build a team known as the "Grande Torino."[9]

Grande Torino[edit]

Main article: Grande Torino
The Invincibles of the "Grande Torino", winners of five consecutive Serie A titles

The most shining moment, however, is represented by the Grande Torino, an unbeatable team, who won five titles in a row (not considering the interruption to the league in the 1944 Campionato Alta Italia, in which the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) in 2002 recognised only honorary value to Spezia) between 1942 and 1949, and the Coppa Italia in 1943 (thanks to this success Torino was the first team to win the coveted Scudetto and Coppa Italia "double" in Italy during the same season). Torino was the backbone of the Italian national team in this period, at one point fielding ten players simultaneously in the Azzurri.

The captain and undisputed leader of the team was Valentino Mazzola, father of Ferruccio and Sandro, who then would walk in their father's footsteps by becoming footballers. The typical starting squad was: Bacigalupo; Ballarin, Maroso; Grezar, Rigamonti, Castigliano; Menti, Loik, Gabetto, Mazzola, Ossola. The cycle of victories abruptly ended on 4 May 1949 when the plane carrying the whole team, returning from a friendly with Benfica played in Lisbon, due to a dense fog and a faulty altimeter, crashed against the retaining wall of the Basilica of Superga. In addition to the entire team and reserve players, the Superga air disaster claimed the lives of two executives (Agnisetta and Civalleri), the coaches Egri Erbstein and Leslie Lievesley, the masseur Cortina and three journalists in tow, Luigi Cavallero, Renato Tosatti and Renato Casalbore.

From relegation to the title[edit]

Torino's president Orfeo Pianelli, architect of Torino's rebirth in the 1960s and 1970s, celebrates the Coppa Italia in 1970–71

Difficult years followed in the aftermath of the tragedy. The slow decline led to the club's first relegation to Serie B, which took place under the name "Talmone Torino" in 1959. The stay would only last one season, with Torino's return to the top flight in 1960–1961, contributing, among others, to Italy's victory in the French-Italian Coppa dell'Amicizia. In 1963, Orfeo Pianelli assumed presidency. To rebuild the team the fans would have to wait for the arrival of a player who would become an icon: Gigi Meroni, nicknamed the "The Granata Butterfly." Already by 1964–65, the team, led by Nereo Rocco, finished in third place.

The parable of Torino and Meroni ended tragically on 15 October 1967. The Torino player, at the end of a league match played against Sampdoria, while crossing the street in Corso Re Umberto I, was hit and killed by a car driven by Attilio Romero (who would later become the president of Torino from 2000 to 2005). Torino, this time, remained one of the stars of Serie A and concluded the season in seventh place. That same season, Torino also triumphed in the Coppa Italia. The reconstruction of a winning team, initiated by the President Pianelli, continued in 1971 with another Coppa Italia trophy.

In the 1971–72 season, Torino reached a second-place finish, placed just one point behind their "cousins" Juventus. Across the following three seasons, Torino would place among the first teams as a prelude to the conquest of what would be their seventh national title.

Francesco Graziani and Paolo Pulici, Torino's attacking duo in the 1975–76 season

The championship was won in the 1975–76 season after a thrilling league comeback against Juventus, which at one point during the Spring held a five-point advantage over the Granata. However, three straight losses for the Bianconeri, the second of which was in the derby, allowed Torino to overtake. In the final round, Torino arrived with the advantage of one point and, until then, was always victorious at home. Torino hosted Cesena at the Comunale: but did not go past a draw; Juventus, however would fall at Perugia. The title was won by two points ahead of Juventus, 27 years after the Superga tragedy.

The challenge was repeated the next year in an exciting championship that saw Torino finish with 50 points behind Juventus' 51, a record point-total for the 16-team league setup. In 1978, Torino finished second again (tied with a surprising Vicenza side led by Paolo Rossi), still behind Juventus but farther behind in points. In later years, whilst still remaining one of Serie A's top teams, the team began a slow decline and was not able to repeat these results, with the exception of the second place in 1984–85, behind a Verona side led by Osvaldo Bagnoli. In 1987–88, Torino lost a play-off to qualify for the 1988–89 UEFA Cup against Juve.

Venture in Europe[edit]

The Brazilian Júnior, club-symbol in the mid eighties

At the end of the 1988–89 season, Torino relegated to Serie B for the second time in its history. The year in the cadets seemed to regenerate the team, which, after a rapid ascent in the 1989–90 season, lived an exciting season upon its return to Serie A in 1990–91. Under the guidance of coach Emiliano Mondonico, the team qualified for the 1991–92 UEFA Cup, placing before a Juventus team that, surprisingly, failed to compete in Europe for the first time in 28 years (1963–1991). The run in Europe during the 1991–92 season was almost unstoppable: Torino arrived in the final by eliminating, among others, Real Madrid. However, the final against the Ajax appeared almost haunted: after a 2–2 draw in the first leg in Turin, the second leg in Amsterdam finished 0–0 with the Dutch club prevailing on the away goals rule, despite Torino hitting the woodwork three times and a dubious contact in the penalty area that would infuriate the coach Mondonico – who vented by lifting a chair to the sky, an image etched in the history of the Granata. The season would conclude with a third-place finish in the league.

The Torino of Emiliano Mondonico in the 1991–92 season, finalist of the UEFA Cup

The appointment with the victory was only postponed for a year. Torino would add a fifth Coppa Italia in the 1992–93 season against Roma. This will also be another close final: after a 3–0 victory at home, the Granata appeared to close the contest, though in the second leg in Rome, there was a pulsating game that would see Roma prevail 5–2 thanks to three penalty kicks awarded by the referee. Again by virtue of the away goals rule, this time Torino benefitted, claiming the title.

The newly promoted Torino of Mondonico in 1990–91, was the winner of the Mitropa Cup at the end of the season, the first international title of the club. After the conquest of the Coppa Italia, the club went through a period of severe economic difficulties. Changing presidents and coaches, the results continued to worsen: in 1995 a 5–0 derby lost cost Nedo Sonetti his job, and at the end of the season, the team was relegated to Serie B for the third time. The return to Serie A after a playoff lost on penalties to Perugia in 1997–98 (3–5 on penalties in Reggio Emilia, with the Umbrians promoted to Serie A) took place in 1998–99, with a second place achieved by the goals of Marco Ferrante.

Decline and bankruptcy[edit]

Torino began the 1999–00 season with the aim of retaining its place in Serie A, but on 7 May 2000 lost a decisive match against Lecce 2–1 and retreated back to Serie B. The club was bought by Francesco Cimminelli, who appointed Attilio Romero president. Luigi Simoni was instated coach, but the beginning of the season saw Torino risk relegation to Serie C. Giancarlo Camolese, head of the youth team, was appointed at the helm of team. With eight consecutive home wins and ten away wins, Torino managed to recover and ended 2000–01 in first place with 73 points. In 2001–02, Torino obtained salvation and qualified for the UEFA Intertoto Cup. The return to Europe came against Austria's SC Bregenz, won 2–1 across both legs, before exiting to Spaniards Villarreal on penalties (3–4). That season, Torino suffered its worst performance in Serie A and finished last after alternating between four coaches: Camolese, Renzo Ulivieri, Renato Zaccarelli and Giacomo Ferri. The identity of Torino Calcio was kept alive by its fans: unique in its history was a popular march (50,000 people according to organisers) that on May 4, 2003, in the aftermath of yet another relegation to Serie B, would march the streets of the capital of Piedmont, starting from the remains of the Stadio Filadelfia, pass in front of the memorial plaque of Gigi Meroni in Piazza San Carlo, reaching the tombstone of the Grande Torino of Superga.[10]

The 2003–04 season saw the participation of over 24 teams (the highest ever) and ended in an anonymous 12th place, with Ezio Rossi on the bench. In 2004–05, the Granata, under the guidance of Renato Zaccarelli, finished third after eliminating Ascoli in the playoffs. On 26 June 2005, Torino celebrated its return to Serie A after defeating the nemesis of the 1998 playoffs, Perugia. However, the joy did not last long: heavy debts accumulated during past administrations (the last, under Cimminelli) meant the club was denied entry to the top flight. Forced to await the outcome of appeals, it was revealed that Cimminelli had not paid a large part of the clubs taxes in five years and failed to deposit a guarantee to the FIGC by a deadline. The appeals were negative, and after 40 long days Torino was declared unsuitable for participation in Serie A. Inevitably, after 99 years of history, the bankruptcy of Torino Calcio was announced on 9 August 2005 and the club ceased to exist.[11]

Alessandro Rosina, Torino player 2005–2009

As a result of the dire situation, a new consortium of businessmen (headed by the lawyer Pierluigi Marengo) was responsible for the rebirth of a new professional entity known as "Società Civile Campo Torino" (taken from the old name of the Stadio Filadelfia). The consortium submitted an application for admission to the Petrucci Law, which guaranteed registration to Serie B. A first economic proposal, however, was deemed insufficient by the FIGC. The consortium added the sponsorship of the municipal SMAT (the company that manages the water supply in Turin), thus completing the bureaucratic process. On 16 August 2005, the FIGC officially entrusted the new club with the titles of "Torino Calcio." The new club, restarting from scratch, acquired the burden of re-establishing the company structure, as well as players and the employees of the club. On 19 August 2005, in the bar Norman (once known as "Voigt brewery," origin of the club), during a press conference that was supposed to see the presentation of the new company structure, it was announced that the club would be sold to the publisher and advertiser Urbano Cairo, who just the day before had launched an offer to purchase the club. When everything seemed to be concluded, on 22 August, Luke Giovannone, an entrepreneur from Ceccano that had contributed €180,000 to finance the Lodo Petrucci (which guaranteed him 51% of the shares of the new Torino), refused to sell. In an ongoing push-pull negotiation that involved the Mayor of Turin Sergio Chiamparino, Giovannone was prepared to sell on 24 August but later changed his mind, infuriating fans. Fleeing Turin, Giovannone was traced to a hotel in Moncalieri and besieged by Torino supporters. Refusing to mediate with the Mayor, Giovannone was escorted by the police and left the city.

On 26 August, at a shareholders meeting resolution of SCC Torino, capital was raised to €10 million. On 31 August, Giovannone yielded after a long negotiation process, with Cairo becoming the second president of the new Torino on 2 September. Cairo immediately called to the head of the team coach Gianni De Biasi and formed the first embryo of the football club. Torino was transformed from S.r.l to S.p.A., with Cairo pouring in €10 million for capital. The reunification to the "old" Torino was completed on 12 July 2006 when at a bankruptcy auction, Cairo purchased all the cups and memorabilia of the Grande Torino for €1,411,000, allowings fans and representatives of Torino to plan the celebrations for the Torino centenary. The team made its debut just seven days after the signing of Cairo, reinforced by some late signings (some of whom were bought the night before). Torino debuted victoriously on 10 September 2005 against AlbinoLeffe 1–0 with a goal from Enrico Fantini. The match would also highlight a young player taken from Parma, Alessandro Rosina. In short time, Torino, reinforced with further signings in the winter transfer period, finished third and qualified directly for the playoffs. Here, victories against Cesena (1–1 and 1–0) and Mantova (2–4 and 3–1 after extra time) marked the return of Torino to Serie A in 2006–07.

The return to the top flight was characterised by the arrivals of Christian Abbiati, Stefano Fiore and Simone Barone. Gianni De Biasi was sacked before the season began and replaced by Alberto Zaccheroni, who led Torino to a mid-table position halfway through the season. However, a six-game losing streak cost Zaccheroni his job and De Biasi was reinstated, who achieved salvation on the penultimate day of the season. The young Alessandro Rosina was Torino's top scorer that season. In 2007–08, Walter Novellino arrived on the bench but was fired on 15 April 2008 following a series of negative results. With five remaining games, De Biasi was recalled, with Torino ultimately finishing 15th. Torino's leading scorer was once again Rosina. The following season, despite many purchases, including Rolando Bianchi, Blerim Džemaili and Ignazio Abate, Torino performed poorly, with three different coaches (De Biasi, Novellino and, finally, Giancarlo Camolese) and failed to avoid relegation to Serie B.

Stefano Colantuono was appointed coach following relegation. After a brilliant start to the season, the second part saw a performance crisis that led to the arrival of Mario Beretta. However, the situation did not improve, and after the defeat to Cittadella, Beretta was sacked. In his place, Colantuono was recalled. Meanwhile, Cairo named Gianluca Petrachi, famous for his work at Pisa, the new sporting director at Torino. In a period of two weeks, Petrachi almost re-established the entire team, completing ten outgoing and 12 incoming transfers. The new team amassed 42 points in the second half of the season. On 26 February 2010, Urbano Cairo announced that he had officially put the club up for sale. On 2 May 2010, through a letter to the fans, the Chairman communicated that he would not participate in the annual Holy Mass at Superga in memory of the Grande Torino, something he had always done since beginning of his term. Torino finished in fifth place, qualifying for the playoffs. Here, Torino eliminated Sassuolo in the semi-finals (1–1 at home; 2–1 away) but lost in the final against Brescia (0–0 at home; 2–1 away). The following season, Colantuono moved to Atalanta, with Franco Lerda named his replacement. He was relieved on 9 March 2011 to make way for Giuseppe Papadopulo, but on 20 March, after just 11 days, he was fired. Lerda returned and did not lose until the final day of the season, a 0–2 defeat at home to Padova, thus remaining outside the playoff zone and the second tier for a third consecutive year.

Giampiero Ventura, manager during the return to European competition in the 2014–15 season

On 6 June 2011, the club officially announced Giampiero Ventura as the new manager ahead of the 2011–12 Serie B season,[12] with Ventura signing a one-year contract.[13] After a long campaign and with a day of advance, Torino returned to Serie A on 20 May 2012, beating Modena 2–0.[14] Torino finished the season level on points with Pescara, but in second place in the standings by virtue of goal difference. The following season in the top flight saw Torino achieve mathematical salvation and confirm their stay in Serie A on 12 May 2013 after the 1–1 draw away to Chievo and Palermo's defeat to Fiorentina in Florence. The 2013–14 season marked a sharp reversal for Torino, who closed the season above expectations in seventh place and qualified for the 2014–15 Europa League, the successor to the UEFA Cup, after a 12-season absence:[15] the stars of the positive year were Alessio Cerci and Ciro Immobile; the latter, with 22 goals was the top scorer in Serie A, an honour a Torino player had not achieved since Francesco Graziani (1977–78).[16][17] The 2014–15 season was marked by the departures of Cerci to Atlético Madrid and Immobile to Borussia Dortmund. In the Europa League, Torino reached the round of 16 (where they were eliminated by Zenit Saint Petersburg) after arriving second in a group that included Club Brugge, HJK and Copenhagen (with qualification obtained thanks to a 5–1 victory in Denmark, Torino's largest victory in Europe) and having eliminated Athletic Bilbao (2–2 at home and then winning 3–2 at San Mamés). In the league, the team confirmed the positive trend of the prior season, finishing in ninth place (and returning to win, in the spring, a derby after twenty years), but failed to qualify for European competition. Torino then finished the 2015–16 season in mid-table position, after which, Ventura, after five years in charge, left the club for the Italian national team. He was replaced by Siniša Mihajlović.[18]

Colours and badge[edit]

Torino in 1976–77 with the traditional away shirt with the scudetto on the chest which encompasses the bull in a rampant position

The first uniform used by Torino only a few days after the foundation and the first game of its history against Pro Vercelli was striped orange and black, referring to the kits used by Internazionale Torino and Football Club Torinese, the historical progenitors of the newly born club.[19] Incidentally the colours were too similar to that of the Habsburgs, historical enemies of the then ruling Italian house and considered inappropriate. Given the need to adopt a definitive color the founders opted in the end for granata, a dark red, similar to burgundy.

The most accepted story is that it was adopted in honour of the Duke of the Abruzzi and the House of Savoy, which, after the victorious liberation of Turin from the French in 1706, adopted a blood-colored handkerchief in honour of a messenger killed bringing the news of victory.[20] Other reconstructions, considered less reliable, speak of a tribute to the founder Alfredo Dick, who was a fan of the Genevan team Servette, the Swiss club of the founders homeland, or a reference to the English club Sheffield, the oldest football club in the world, whose colours were also initially adopted by Internazionale Torino. There is even the possibility that the dark red was born by chance, as a result of repeated washing—a reconstruction that is found with many other club's football kits—among the uniforms that were red with black socks; the colour derived, being considered a good omen, would eventually be chosen as the official colour. Previously the Torinese club had instead tried to get the use of royal blue, but the monarchs of Italy were reluctant to grant the use of their dynastic color to a single team, as opposed to what they did, a few years later, with Azure adopted by the various national sports teams.[21][22]

The Torino away shirt that pays homage to Club Atlético River Plate

Since then, the traditional home uniform of Torino has been composed of a kit combined with white shorts, or also maroon, and black socks cuffed maroon; However, over the decades it is not unusual to see the team take to the field with maroon socks, especially at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, permanently adopting a complete maroon kit. The away uniform, usually in reverse colours, provided for a white shirt with contrasting cuffs, maroon, or sometimes also white shorts, with white socks and a maroon lapel.[19][23][24] Cyclically, a recurring away shirt with a diagonal maroon band has also been revived: this is an homage to River Plate, the Argentine club which has close historical ties to Torino since the tragedy of Superga;[25] the shirt was debuted on 6 January 1953 in a league match against Milan, ending 1–1.[26][27]

The Torino club badge has always featured a rampant bull, the symbol of the city of Turin.[28] The current badge was adopted in the 2005–06 season; the first after the bankruptcy of Torino Calcio. The "1906" on the left side of the shield was later added to recall the founding year of the historic Foot-Ball Club Torino.[28]

In the 1980s, the Torino badge was square in shape with a stylised bull and the words "Torino Calcio." This badge is still very much loved by the fans, and in 2013 it was voted by the readers of Guerin Sportivo as the most beautiful club logo of all time.[29] From 1990 until the bankruptcy, the badge in use recalled the one used at the time of the Grande Torino, with the important difference that the right side of the oval crossed the letter "T" and "C" (initials of "Torino Calcio") instead of the letters "A", "C" and "T" (initials of "Associazione Calcio Torino").

Stadium[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino.

The first official match after the foundation, 13 January 1907 (a derby against Juventus), was played at the Stadio Velodrome Umberto. Later, Torino moved to the Piazza d'armi where there were numerous fields: from 23 January, the Lato Ferrovia, and from 26 February 1911, the Lato Crocetta. Towards the end of 1913 the club moved to the Stradale Stupinigi, located in an area of Turin that would not be far from the rising Filadelfia; with the outbreak of the First World War, the stadium was requisitioned for military purposes.[1]

On 11 October 1925, and for the duration of 1925–26, Torino played their home games at Motovelodromo Corso Casale (restored, today it is dedicated to Fausto Coppi and also holds American football matches), while awaiting transfer to the Stadio Filadelfia.[30] The "Fila" is the stage inextricably linked to the exploits of the Grande Torino: opened on 17 October 1926 against Fortitudo Roma, it hosted Torino's games continuously until 11 May 1958 (the match Torino – Genoa 4–2);[1] in 1958–59 the club briefly moved to the Stadio "Vittorio Pozzo," better known as the "Comunale": the move was short-lived however, as the club fell to Serie B that year, and superstitiously returned "home" to the Filadelfia.[31]

Torino played the entirety of the 1959–60 season and the next, again in Serie A, at the Filadelfia, but in 1961–62 and 1962–63 began to use the Comunale for "special" matches. The move to the "Comunale," a stadium capable of holding 65,000 people standing, was completed in 1963–64, and lasted until 27 May 1990 when the stadium was abandoned in favour of the Stadio delle Alpi.

At the Stadio Delle Alpi, built specifically for the 1990 FIFA World Cup, Torino played from 1990 to 2006.[31] Following the reconstruction carried out to make the stadium suitable to host the 2006 Winter Olympics opening ceremony and closing ceremony, which in that year were held in the city and in the nearby valleys, Torino returned to the former Stadio Comunale, renamed the Stadio Olimpico: the capacity is now 27,958 seated, reduced by about 38,000 seats compared to the original, in compliance with modern, more demanding safety standards.[31] In April 2016, the Olimpico was renamed the Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino in honour of the side from the 1940s.[3][32]

Players[edit]

First team squad[edit]

As of 31 August 2016.[33]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Italy GK Daniele Padelli
3 Italy DF Cristian Molinaro
4 Brazil DF Leandro Castán (on loan from Roma)
5 Italy DF Cesare Bovo
6 Ghana MF Afriyie Acquah
7 Italy DF Davide Zappacosta
8 Italy MF Daniele Baselli
9 Italy FW Andrea Belotti
10 Serbia FW Adem Ljajić
11 Argentina FW Maxi López
13 Italy DF Luca Rossettini
14 Spain FW Iago Falque (on loan from Roma)
15 Italy MF Marco Benassi
16 Sweden MF Samuel Gustafson
No. Position Player
17 Venezuela FW Josef Martínez
18 Italy MF Mirko Valdifiori
20 Italy MF Giuseppe Vives (captain)
21 England GK Joe Hart (on loan from Manchester City)
22 Nigeria MF Joel Obi
23 Italy DF Antonio Barreca
24 Italy DF Emiliano Moretti (vice-captain)
25 Serbia MF Saša Lukić
26 Brazil DF Danilo Avelar
29 Italy DF Lorenzo De Silvestri
30 Italy MF Mattia Aramu
31 Argentina FW Lucas Boyé
93 Albania DF Arlind Ajeti

On loan[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Uruguay GK Salvador Ichazo (at Bari until 30 June 2017)
Italy GK Alfred Gomis (at Bologna until 30 June 2017)
Italy GK Andrea Zaccagno (at Pro Vercelli until 30 June 2017)
Italy DF Kevin Bonifazi (at SPAL until 30 June 2017)
Italy DF Marco Chiosa (at Perugia until 30 June 2017)
Serbia DF Nikola Maksimović (at Napoli)[34]
Uruguay DF Gastón Silva (at Granada until 30 June 2017)
Sweden DF Pontus Jansson (at Leeds United until 30 June 2017)
No. Position Player
Brazil DF Bruno Peres (at Roma)[35]
Greece MF Panagiotis Tachtsidis (at Cagliari until 30 June 2017)
Italy FW Leonardo Candellone (at Gubbio until 30 June 2017)
Senegal FW Abou Diop (at Viterbese until 30 June 2017)
Italy FW Simone Edera (at Venezia until 30 June 2017)
Italy FW Vittorio Parigini (at Chievo until 30 June 2017)
Italy FW Simone Rosso (at Brescia until 30 June 2017)

Notable players[edit]

Lido Vieri, European champion in 1968
For a list of every Torino player, see Category:Torino F.C. players.
World champions

Torino and the Italian national team[edit]

Among the players of Torino to win titles with the Italian national team are Adolfo Baloncieri, Antonio Janni, Julio Libonatti and Gino Rossetti, all winners with Italy at the Central European International Cup 1927–30, which (with exception of Libonatti) won the bronze medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics.[36][37][38][39] Subsequently, Lido Vieri and Giorgio Ferrini conquered the 1968 European Championship with the Azzurri,[40][41] while Giuseppe Dossena won the FIFA World Cup in 1982.[42]

Youth system[edit]

Main article: Torino F.C. Primavera
Fabio Quagliarella, product of the Torino youth system

The Torino youth system is formed by three men's teams that participate in separate national leagues (Primavera, Allievi Nazionali and the Beretti) and five that participate at a regional level (Allievi Professionisti Lega Pro, Giovanissimi Regionali, Giovanissimi Professionisti, Giovanissimi Regionali Sperimentali and the Giovanissimi Regionali Sperimentali B).[43] Torino was one of the first Italian clubs to adopt a youth system, organised as early as the 1930s and is considered one of the best in Italy.[44]

Domestically, Torino hold the record for most championships won in both the Campionato Nazionale Primavera with nine titles, and the Campionato Nazionale Dante Berretti with 10 titles. In addition, they have won the Coppa Italia Primavera a record seven times, and the prestigious Torneo di Viareggio six times.

The players trained in the Torino youth system were nicknamed "Balon-Boys" in honour of Adolfo Baloncieri, the player and club symbol who ended his career in those years.[45] The Torino youth system has developed numerous players, including actor and journalist Raf Vallone, who devoted himself to a career in the arts after his debut for the first team.[46]

Non-playing staff[edit]

Board of directors[edit]

Position Name
President Italy Urbano Cairo
Vice-president Italy Giuseppe Cairo
Director-general Italy Antonio Comi
Sporting director Italy Gianluca Petrachi
Team manager Italy Giacomo Ferri

Staff[edit]

As of 5 July 2016.[47][48]
Position Name
Manager Serbia Siniša Mihajlović
Assistant manager Italy Attilio Lombardo
Fitness coaches Italy Antonio Bovenzi
Italy Paolo Solustri
Goalkeeping coach Italy Paolo Di Sarno
Team manager Italy Luca Castellazzi

Notable managers[edit]

Name From To Honours
Hungary Imre Schoffer 1926 1927 1926–27 Divisione Nazionale[49]
Austria Tony Cargnelli 1927
1934
1929
1936
1927–28 Divisione Nazionale, 1935–36 Coppa Italia
Hungary András Kuttik
Kingdom of Italy Antonio Janni
1942 1943 1942–43 Serie A, 1942–43 Coppa Italia
Kingdom of Italy Luigi Ferrero 1945 1947 1945–46 Serie A, 1946–47 Serie A
Kingdom of Italy Mario Sperone 1947 1948 1947–48 Serie A
England Leslie Lievesley
Italy Oberdan Ussello
1948 1949 1948–49 Serie A
Italy Edmondo Fabbri 1967 1969 1967–68 Coppa Italia
Italy Giancarlo Cadè 1969 1971 1970–71 Coppa Italia
Italy Luigi Radice 1975 1980 1975–76 Serie A
Italy Emiliano Mondonico 1990 1994 1992–93 Coppa Italia, 1990–91 Mitropa Cup

Other managers[edit]

Supporters and rivalries[edit]

See also: Turin derby
An image of the Torino fans

The fans of Torino hold a number of distinctions, including the first ever organised supporters group in Italy, the Fedelissimi Granata, founded in 1951.[50] The fans also exhibited the first banner of an organised club, at the Stadio Filadelfia, and organised the first away trip by plane in Italian football, in 1963, during a game against Roma.[50] It was at the Filadelfia that Oreste Bolmida, the famous trumpeter fan, made famous by the film Ora e per sempre, also performed.[51] In the 1970s the fans began to organise the club's first choreographies, which were curiously used in commercials of French carmaker Renault in the next decade.[50] In 1979, the curva Maratona was awarded "the most beautiful stand of Europe" by French magazine Onze Mondial; an image of this section of the stadium was later featured on the cover of France Football on 21 December.[50]

The fans of Torino are "twinned" with the fans of Fiorentina. The link between the two sides was born in the early 1970s to a common anti-Juventus sentiment and the closeness of the Viola after the Superga tragedy.[52] Supporters of Turin are on good terms with the curva nord of Alessandria and curva sud of Nocerina.[53]

The friendship between Brazilian club Corinthians and Torino dates back to 1914; that year, Torino became the first Italian club to land in South America on tour. The club played six friendly matches, two of which were against Corinthians, and despite the results on the field, the two clubs grew and established friendly relations. On 4 May 1949, when the Grande Torino perished in plane crash of Superga, Corinthians paid tribute to the Italians in a friendly match against Portuguesa when its starting XI took to the field in Torino's kit.[54]

The Argentines of River Plate are historically twinned with Torino, since the time of the tragedy of Superga. In the period following the disaster, the Argentine club was very close to the Italian club, organising a friendly and fundraiser to help the devastated team; on 26 May 1949, River flew to Turin to play a friendly charity match, organised by the FIGC, together with a selection that included the strongest Italian players of the era, gathered under the name of "Torino symbol."[55] As a testimony to the relationship between the two clubs, on several occasions the away jersey of the Argentine club was maroon (most recently, the 2005–06 season) while Torino have sported several variations of an away kit with a diagonal band, an homage to River's home kit.[25] Other supporters with whom there is a friendship is English club Manchester City.[56]

Torino's historical rivalries are with Sampdoria, Piacenza, Verona, Lazio, Perugia, Internazionale, Atalanta, Ternana and Ancona.[57] Torino's friendship with Genoa turned negative as a result of Genoese festivities during the Torino–Genoa match on 24 May 2009 won by the Rossoblu; the result contributed to Torino's relegation to Serie B.[58] On 16 December 2012, the day when the two clubs met for the first time after Torino's return to Serie A, clashes erupted between the two club's organised supporters.[59] The rivalry with city rivals Juventus is the most heartfelt, with the two teams giving life to the so-called Derby della Mole, one of the most popular derbies in Italian football and the oldest still disputed.

Honours[edit]

Torino players celebrate the Coppa Italia in 1992–93 with the fans

Domestic[edit]

League[edit]

Cups[edit]

  • Runners-up (1): 1993

European[edit]

Other[edit]

  • Winners (1): 1990–91
  • Winners (1): 2016–2017

Notes:
^1 Torino won the title in the 1926–27 season, but it was later revoked.

Club records[edit]

Below is a table showing the participation of Torino in the Italian leagues.

Level Category Participation Debut Final season Total
Prima Categoria 7 1907 1920–21 88
Prima Divisione 5 1921–22 1925–26
Divisione Nazionale 4 1926–27 1945–46
Serie A 72 1929–30 2015–16
Serie B 12 1959–60 2011–12 12

Torino is in 8th place in the Serie A perpetual standings,[60] which takes account of all the football teams that have played in the top flight at least once.

In the Italian league, the team has finished in first place on eight occasions, although the club has only won seven championship titles,[61] seven times in second place and nine times in third place.[1] In 100 seasons, including 18 in various championships that preluded the single round format (Torino withdrew in 1908 and the 1915–16 Coppa Federale is not recognised), 70 in Serie A and 12 in Serie B, the club has finished on podium in 24% of cases.[1]

In the 2006–07 season, Torino, for the first time in history played in a category higher than Juventus played: while the Granata competed in Serie A, Juventus took part in Serie B following the aftermath of the Calciopoli scandal.[1]

Giorgio Ferrini holds the club's official appearance record with 566 appearances (plus 56 goals) put together between 1959 and 1975.[62] The record for the most goals scored is held by Paolo Pulici, with 172 official goals (in 437 appearances) between 1967 and 1982.[63]

Among the top goalscorers, eight different Torino players have won the Capocannoniere award for league topscorer in the Italian top flight: the first was the Austrian Heinrich Schönfeld with 22 goals in 1923–24.[64] He was followed by the Italian Argentine Julio Libonatti, who scored 35 goals in 1927–28 and Gino Rossetti (36) in 1928–29.[64] Rossetti's tally of 36 goals is still the most goals ever scored to win the award. Eusebio Castigliano was the leading scorer (13) of the first 1945–46 season after the Second World War,[64] followed by Valentino Mazzola in 1946–47 (29).[64] Torino would have to wait almost 30 years before another league top scorer emerged: when Paolo Pulici broke the long fast in the mid-1970s and won the award in 1972–73 (17), 1974–75 (18) and 1975–76 (21).[64] He was succeeded by teammate Francesco Graziani in 1976–77, who scored 21 goals. After almost 40 years, Ciro Immobile (22) established himself as the league top scorer in 2013–14.[64]

Kit manufacturers and shirt sponsors[edit]

Years Kit manufacturer Sponsors
1990–1991 ABM Indesit
1991–1993 Beretta
1993–1994 Lotto
1994–1995 Bongioanni
1995–1996 SDA Courier
1996–2000 Kelme
2000–2001 Directa
2001–2002 ASICS Conto Arancio
2002–2003 Ixfin
2003–2005 Bavaria
2005–2008 Reale Mutua Beretta
2008–2009 Kappa Renault Trucks
2009–2011 Italporte Dahlia TV
2011–2012 Valmora Aruba
2012–2013 Beretta
2013–2015 Suzuki[65]
2015–2016

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "La storia del Torino جو هارت FC". http://torinofc.it/. Torino Football Club. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  External link in |work= (help)
  2. ^ "Torino, finalmente l' accordo a Cairo va la maggioranza". repubblica.it. La Repubblica. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  3. ^ a b http://www.osservatoriosport.interno.gov.it/allegati/stadi_serie_a.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.comune.torino.it/archiviostorico/mostre/sport_2005/pdf/085-096.pdf
  5. ^ http://faccedatoro.altervista.org/campionato-calcio/1906-fondazione-torino-football-club.html
  6. ^ http://www.canottaggiolombardia.it/ust/storia/storia_02.php
  7. ^ "Edoardo Bosio and Football in Turin". Life in Italy. Retrieved August 2007.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  8. ^ RSSSF. "Torneo Internazionale Stampa Sportiva 1908 (Torino)". Retrieved 20 June 2007. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "La Storia del Torino Fc". torinofc.it. Torino Football Club. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  10. ^ Bourne, Peter (2009-09-18). Passion in the Piazza. Lulu.com. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4116-8181-1. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Bourne, Peter (2009-09-18). Passion in the Piazza. Lulu.com. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4116-8181-1. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  12. ^ "Il Toro sceglie Ventura, è lui il nuovo mister". Torino.Repubblica.it. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  13. ^ "Ventura ha firmato, accordo per una sola stagione". ToroNews.net. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2011. 
  14. ^ Divertimento, dialogo e zero ansie Toro, la rivoluzione di mister libidine- LASTAMPA.it
  15. ^ Torino finished seventh in the 2013–14 Serie A and obtained the qualification to the 2014–15 Europe League at the expense of Parma, sixth, but excluded from European competitions due to their failure to obtain a UEFA license for economic reasons, see. Maurizio Galdi (29 May 2014). "Respinto il ricorso del Parma. Torino in Europa League. Ghirardi: "Calcio finito"". gazzetta.it. 
  16. ^ "MARCATORI – Immobile capocannoniere. Higuain quarto, Callejon sesto". tuttomercatoweb.com (in Italian). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "Cerci uomo-assist del 2013–14, batte tutti i record". corrieredellosport.it (in Italian). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  18. ^ http://www.goal.com/euro2016/en/article/giampiero-ventura-leaves-torino-amid-italy-talk-sinisa-mihajlovic-appointed/16pad4y35bdly1gda19in9saps
  19. ^ a b Welter (2013). p. 188.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ "Il Toro compie 107 anni". buongiornobrasile.com (in Italian). Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  21. ^ Savorelli, Sergio Salvi, Alessandro; Alessandro Savorelli (2008). Tutti i colori del calcio : storia e araldica di una magnifica ossessione (in Italian) (5. rist. ed.). Firenze: Le lettere. ISBN 88-6087-178-6. 
  22. ^ "Torino". uefa.com. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  23. ^ "TORINO FOOTBALL CLUB 1906". tcsecologranata.it (in Italian). Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  24. ^ "Presentate a Bormio le maglie del Torino 2013–2014 firmate Kappa". Passionemaglie.it (in Italian). Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  25. ^ a b http://www.passionemaglie.it/2010/09/omaggio-al-river-plate-per-la-maglia-da-trasferta-del-torino/
  26. ^ "River Plate y Torino, unidos en la historia.". taringa.net (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  27. ^ "dramma river-plate piange anche il torino". sport.notizie.it (in Italian). Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  28. ^ a b http://www.toroshirts.it/it/seasons/
  29. ^ "I migliori marchi delle società di calcio". brand-identikit.it (in Italian). Guerin Sportivo. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  30. ^ "Storia". motovelodromo.com. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  31. ^ a b c "Lo stadio". torinofc.it. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  32. ^ http://www.football-italia.net/83293/torino-stadium-renamed
  33. ^ "Prima Squadra Serie A Tim 2016–2017". torinofc.it. Torino Football Club. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  34. ^ http://torinofc.it/news/31/08/2016/maksimovic-al-napoli_12297
  35. ^ "Bruno Peres completes Roma move". www.asroma.com. A.S. Roma. 16 August 2016. 
  36. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  37. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  38. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  39. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  40. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  41. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  42. ^ "Nazionale in cifre". FIGC. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  43. ^ "Settore Giovanile". torinofc.it. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  44. ^ Corrado Zunino (7 May 2009). "La nazionale degli esordienti arrivano i nuovi campioni". la Repubblica. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  45. ^ "1929–1949: il Grande Torino". torinofc.it. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  46. ^ "Raf Vallone". cinematografo.it. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  47. ^ "Allenatore". torinofc.it. Torino Football Club. Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
  48. ^ "Organizzazione". torinofc.it (in Italian). Torino Football Club. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  49. ^ Revoked because of the Allemandi scandal
  50. ^ a b c d "I primati della tifoseria granata". cellulagranata. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  51. ^ "La carica del Filadelfia". calcioromantico.com. 18 April 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  52. ^ "Gemellaggi e rivalità". Viola Ultras. Retrieved 13 October 2010. 
  53. ^ "Torino e Nocerina, si rinnova l'amicizia tra le due tifoserie". forzanocerina.it. 
  54. ^ "O INESQUECÍVEL TORINO". citadini.com.br (in Portuguese). citadini. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  55. ^ http://sport.notizie.it/dramma-river-plate-piange-anche-il-torino/
  56. ^ "Presentate a Bormio le maglie del Torino 2013–2014 firmate Kappa". passionameglie.it. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  57. ^ "Torino". rangers.it. Archived from the original on 1 January 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  58. ^ "Genoa, la triste fine di un gemellaggio storico". cittadigenova.com. 
  59. ^ "Genoa: oltre 400 tifosi in corteo". Corriere dello Sport. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  60. ^ http://www.italia1910.com/serie-a-classifica-perpetua.asp
  61. ^ Torino, in fact, finished first in the league of the 1926–27 season, but the resulting title was later withdrawn following the Allemandi scandal. The final position in the standings and all results related to it, however, remained unchanged.
  62. ^ http://www.enciclopediadelcalcio.it/FerriniG.html
  63. ^ http://www.legaseriea.it/it/serie-a-tim/calciatore?p_p_id=BDC_dettaglio_calciatore_WAR_LegaCalcioBDC&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=normal&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-1&p_p_col_pos=1&p_p_col_count=2&_BDC_dettaglio_calciatore_WAR_LegaCalcioBDC_idPersona=292
  64. ^ a b c d e f "Albo classifica marcatori serie A". rosanerouniverse.it (in Italian). Retrieved 1 January 2015. 
  65. ^ http://www.motociclismo.it/suzuki-e-official-sponsor-del-torino-football-club-moto-56045

External links[edit]