Cover photograph by Irving Penn
|Studio album by Miles Davis|
|Miles Davis chronology|
Tutu is an album by American jazz trumpeter Miles Davis, released in 1986 by Warner Bros. Records. It was recorded primarily at Capitol Studios in Los Angeles and Clinton Recording in New York, except the song "Backyard Ritual", which was recorded at Le Gonks in West Hollywood. Davis received the 1987 Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Soloist Grammy Award for his performance on the album.
Originally planned as a collaboration with pop singer/songwriter Prince, Davis ultimately worked with bassist/multi-instrumentalist Marcus Miller. Miller wrote and arranged all the songs, except "Tomaas" (co-written by Davis), "Backyard Ritual" (by keyboardist George Duke), and "Perfect Way" (by pop group Scritti Politti). The music is strongly inspired by mid-1980s R&B and funk, with heavy use of synthesizers, sequencers and drum machines.
The album is named in tribute to Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the first black Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa. The track "Full Nelson" refers to South African politician Nelson Mandela. Davis's much earlier 1947 composition, "Half Nelson", was titled after bebop jazz bassist Nelson Boyd.
The cover was designed by Eiko Ishioka and photographed by Irving Penn. Eiko Ishioka received the 1987 Grammy Award for Best Album Package for her work as the art director. The original vinyl album featured a colored inner sleeve printed with the album credits on one side and a photograph of Davis's left hand (with middle finger depressed) on the reverse.
Reception and legacy
Tutu divided critics and listeners when it was released in 1986. Like Davis's pivotal 1970 album Bitches Brew, Paul Tingen wrote, Tutu became one of the "defining jazz albums" of its decade and attracted a young, new audience while alienating many other jazz listeners because of its heavy reliance on the drum machine and synthesizers. A number of critics felt the music was ingratiatingly elegant, designed for casual listening, and largely a work by Miller. In The New York Times that year, Robert Palmer said the album "already sounds curiously dated" and unambitious, featuring synthesizers that "have glutinous textures so overly familiar from the mainstream of late-1970s pop jazz" and electronic rhythms lacking the innovation of contemporary hip hop records. Others believed it gave a musical setting for Davis's improvisations to thrive in, comparable to his orchestral recordings with Gil Evans from the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Village Voice critic Robert Christgau deemed it a marginal success but also Davis's "best in a decade". He contended that while Davis's 1970s fusion recordings for Columbia Records were purely improvised jazz-rock, Tutu sounded "more like pop-funk Sketches of Spain, with the starperson's trumpet glancing smartly off an up-to-date panoply of catchy little tunes, beats, and rhythm effects". Jazz musician and writer Mike Zwerin was more enthusiastic, hailing it as "the best jazz record of the decade".
In a retrospective piece, Christgau later wrote that with "shlock" like Tutu and Amandla, Davis was taking advantage of the fusion movement he helped develop while showing "gratifying groove and class". In J. D. Considine's opinion, the album's compositions and improvisations endured well with the passage of time, even though its electronically processed and enigmatic music turned off jazz purists. Writing for Something Else! in 2006, S. Victor Aaron the best songs from Tutu may have been Davis's own composition "Tomaas": "With a reggae beat married to repetitive single note underpinned by some very nifty bass work by Miller, Miles and Miller (also on soprano sax) trade fours and eights in a rare opportunity for Miles to stretch out. Overall, though, the trumpet playing is subdued, probably more constrained by production than declining abilities. Rarely does the mute come off his horn."
Between May and August 2010, Miller performed on the "Tutu Revisted" concert tour with a band comprising Christian Scott on trumpet with Alex Han on saxophone, Federico González Peña on keyboards and Louis Cato on drums. In an interview for JazzTimes, Miller said, "I'm finding that although the music mirrored the times in which it was created, there is so much in the music that still seems relevant today. Although we've replaced some of the super electro sounding elements, the melodies are still very cool. It feels like they have withstood the test of time. People seem to be feeling this music twenty years later."
Reviewing the album for Jazzwise in 2011, Davis' biographer George Cole said:
Tutu was a product of the 80s, a decade where music was often in danger of becoming subservient to technology. But while much of the music from this era is now long forgotten; Tutu continues to thrive; artists such as George Benson, Al Jarreau and Cassandra Wilson have recorded cover versions of the title track.
All tracks composed by Marcus Miller except where indicated:
- "Tutu" – 5:15
- "Tomaas" – 5:38 (Davis, Marcus Miller)
- "Portia" – 6:18
- "Splatch" – 4:46
- "Backyard Ritual" – 4:49 (George Duke)
- "Perfect Way" – 4:35 (David Gamson, Green Gartside)
- "Don't Lose Your Mind" – 5:49
- "Full Nelson" – 5:06
- Disc two (Live from Nice Festival, France, July 1986)
- "Opening Medley": 'Theme from Jack Johnson', 'Speak', 'That's What Happened' – 15:14
- "New Blues" – 5:20
- "The Maze" – 10:15
- "Human Nature" – 9:04
- "Portia" – 7:54
- "Splatch" – 17:10
- "Time After Time" – 7:22
- "Carnival Time" – 4:20
- Miles Davis - trumpet
- Marcus Miller - bass guitars, guitar, synthesizers, drum machine programming, bass clarinet, soprano saxophone, other instruments
- Jason Miles - synthesizer programming
- Paulinho da Costa - percussion on "Tutu", "Portia", "Splatch" and Backyard Ritual"
- Adam Holzman - synthesizer solo on "Splatch"
- Steve Reid - additional percussion on "Splatch"
- George Duke - all except percussion, bass guitar, trumpet on "Backyard Ritual"
- Omar Hakim - drums and percussion on "Tomaas"
- Bernard Wright - additional synthesizers on "Tomaas" and "Don't Lose Your Mind"
- Michał Urbaniak - electric violin on "Don't Lose Your Mind"
- Jabali Billy Hart - drums, bongos
- Producers - Tommy LiPuma and Marcus Miller
- Musical arrangements - Marcus Miller
- Producers (5) - Tommy LiPuma and George Duke
- Musical arrangement (5) - George Duke
- Executive producer - Tommy LiPuma
- Engineers - Peter Doell and Eric Calvi
- Assistant engineer - Maureen Thompson
- Engineer (5) - Erik Zobler
- Assistant engineer (5) - Mitch Gibson
- Photographer - Irving Penn
- Art director - Eiko Ishioka
- Designer - Susan Welt
Certifications and sales
- Hoffman, Frank, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, Volume 1 (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 616. ISBN 0203484274. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
...Miles Davis's last pop-jazz albums for Warners Bros. (Tutu , and Amandla ).
- Freeman, Phil (2014). "Miles Davis Albums From Worst to Best". Stereogum. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Palmer, Robert (October 1, 1986). "The Pop Life; In 'Tutu,' Miles Davis Goes Fully Electronic". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Tutu (deluxe edition reissue booklet). Miles Davis. Warner Jazz. 2011. 8122797687.
- "Past Winners Search | GRAMMY.com". grammy.com. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Yanow, Scott (2011). "Tutu - Miles Davis | AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Larkin, Colin (2011). "Miles Davis". Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0857125958.
- Fordham, John (May 19, 2011). "Miles Davis – Tutu: Deluxe Edition – review". The Guardian. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Nicholson, Stuart (October 9, 2015). "Miles Davis – Tutu Deluxe Edition". Jazzwise. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Holtje, Steve; Lee, Nancy Ann, eds. (1998). "Miles Davis". MusicHound Jazz: The Essential Album Guide. Music Sales Corporation. ISBN 0825672538.
- Reid, Graham (June 4, 2011). "Album review: Miles Davis, Tutu: Special Edition". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Cook & Morton 1992, p. 273.
- Waring, Charles (June 2011). "Tutu Revisited". Record Collector (389): 97. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Considine et al. 2004, p. 215.
- Christgau, Robert (October 28, 1986). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Miles Davis – Tutu". Jazzwise. May 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Tingen, Paul (March 2002). "Miles Davis: Miles on Target". JazzTimes. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Christgau 1990, p. 463.
- Considine et al. 2004, p. 219.
- S. Victor Aaron (2015-06-21). "Miles Davis - Tutu (1986) | Something Else!". Somethingelsereviews.com. Retrieved 2015-06-25.
- "Jazz Columns: Marcus Miller Revisits Music of Tutu on Tour - By Lee Mergner — Jazz Articles". Jazztimes.com. Retrieved 2015-06-25.
- "French album certifications – Miles Davis – Tutu" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique.
- "Les Albums Or". infodisc.fr. SNEP. Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- Christgau, Robert (1990). Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. Pantheon Books. ISBN 067973015X.
- Considine, J. D.; et al. (2004). Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide: Completely Revised and Updated 4th Edition. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- Cook, Richard; Morton, Brian (1992). The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD, LP and Cassette. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140153640.
- Cole, George (2007). "15. Tutu". The Last Miles: The Music of Miles Davis, 1980–1991. University of Michigan Press. pp. 232–67. ISBN 0472032607.