Vayots Dzor Province
and largest city
|• Governor||Edgar Ghazaryan|
|• Total||2,308 km2 (891 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||AM-VD|
Vayots Dzor (Armenian: Վայոց Ձոր, Armenian pronunciation: [vɑjˌɔt͡sʰ ˈd͡zɔɾ]), is a province of Armenia. It lies at the southeastern end of the country, bordering the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan form the west and the Shahumyan Region of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic from the east. It covers an area of 2,308 km². With a population of only 53,230 (2002 census), it is the most sparsely populated province in the country. The capital and largest city of the province is the town of Yeghegnadzor.
The province is home to many ancient landmarks and tourist attractions in Armenia including the of the Areni-1 cave complex and Areni-1 winery of the Chalcolithic period, the 8th-century Tanadivank monastery, the 10th-century Smbataberd fortress, and the 13th-century Noravank monastery. Vayots Dzor is also home to the popular spa-town of Jermuk.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Sport
- 8 Attractions
- 9 Communities
- 10 Gallery
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Situated at the southeastern end of modern-day Armenia, Vayots Dzor covers an area of 2,308 km² (7.8% of total area of Armenia).. It is the most sparsely populated province in the country. It borders the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan form the west and the Shahumyan Region of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic from the east. Domestically, it is bordered by the Gegharkunik Province from the north, Ararat Province from the northwest and Syunik Province from the southeast.
Vayots Dzor is mainly a mountainous region. It is mainly divided into 3 ranges: Vardenis mountain range at the north, Arpa range at the middle and Vayk range at the south. At a height of 3522 meters, the Vardenis volcano at the north is the highest point of the province, while the Areni valley, at a height of 850 meters, is the lowest point.
Vayots dzor is rich with rivers, mountains springs and mineral water. Arpa river has the most significant of them. It flows 92 km in the territory of Vayots Dzor. It originates in Vayots Dzor from the northwest hillside of Syunik plateau at a height of 3260 meters, and flows into the Araks river. It has lots of tributaries that form waterfalls such as the Jermuk Waterfall and the Herher waterfall.
Yeghegis river is the main tributary of Arpa. It flows into a picturesque valley taht is protected by the government as a wildlife sanctuary.
Most of the rivers in Vayots Dzor are characterized with swift flow, deep fall and inclination. A huge project was fulfilled during the Soviet period, to transfer the water of Arpa river to Lake Sevan. Thus, an underground water tunnel was opened in 1981 that starts from the basin of Kechut reservoir to transfer the flow of Arpa river into lake Sevan.
Many small lakes are also found in the valley of Herher river.
Vayots Dzor was first mentioned in the Armenian history by Movses Khorenatsi. However, during archaeological excavations, many sites and objects were found in the region dating back to the Paleolithic Era and the Bronze Age. Many carvings on cliffs depicting scenes of hunting and animals were also found. As a result of the archaeological studies, historians assumed that the region has been settled since prehistoric times. The Areni-1 cave complex -including the 6100 year-old Areni-1 winery- discovered in the archaeological excavations conducted between 2007 and 2011, revealed that the region was settled during the 5th millennium BC (Late Chalcolithic Age). The winery consists of fermentation vats, a wine press, storage jars, pottery sherds, and is believed to be the earliest known winery in history.
Archaeologists had also found a 5500 year-old leather [Areni-1 shoe|shoe]].
As early as the 8th century BC, the area of modern-day Vayots Dzor was part of the Kingdom of Urartu. Later, it became part of the Kingdom of Armenia forming the Vayots Dzor canton of the Syunik Province. Many significant churches, monastic complexes, bridges and caravanserais were built between the 10th and 13th centuries, when Vayots Dzor was part of the Kingdom of Syunik under the rule of the Siunia dynasty.
The period between the 15th and 17th centuries is considered to be the darkest period in the history of Vayots Dzor. The region became a frequent battlefield between the invading troops of the Turkic and Iranian tribes. As a result, many significant monuments and prosperous villages were destroyed and the population was displaced.
Between 1918 and 1920 it was included in the short-lived Republic of Armenia. After the Sovietization of Armenia, Vayots Dzor became one of the regions that resisted against the Soviet rule becoming part of the unrecognized Republic of Mountainous Armenia under the leadership of Garegin Nzhdeh. However, after falling to the Bolsheviks in July 1921, Vayots Dzor was included within the Armenian SSR.
During the Soviet period, modern-day Vayots Dzor was divided into the regions of Yeghegnadzor and Azizbekov. After the independence of Armenia, the 2 regions were united in the 1995 reformation, to form the Vayots Dzor Province.
The population and density in Vayots Dzor is the least among the provinces of Armenia. According to the 2011 official census, Vayots Dzor has a population of 52,324 (25,740 men and 26,584 women), forming around 1.7% of the entire population of Armenia. The urban population is 18,449 (35.26%) and the rural is 33,875 (64.74%). The province has 3 urban and 41 rural communities. The largest urban community is the provincial centre of Yeghegnadzor, with a population of 7,944. The other urban centres of Vayk and Jermuk have a population of 5,877 and 4,628 respectively.
With a population of 4,460, the village of Malishka is the largest rural municipality of Vayots Dzor.
Ethnic groups and religion
The majority of the Vayots Dzor Province population are ethnic Armenians who belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. The regulating body of the church is the Diocese of Vayots Dzor, headed by Archbishop Abraham Mkrtchyan. The Holy Mother of God Cathedral (known also as Surp Sarkis) in Yeghegnadzor is the seat of the diocese.
The people of Vayots Dzor are mainly conservative. They largely celebrate the religious and traditional feasts, including Trndez and Vardavar. The most popular celebration is the harvest festival, that is celebrated every year in Yeghegnadzor on the second Sunday of October. Locals from all villages take part in the parade on cars decorated with flowers, bringing their own crops, berries typical to their territories. Theatrical shows and concerts are being held during the festival.
The other popular celebration in the province is the Wine festival which is celebrated in October in the village of Areni.
In the villages of Vayots Dzor, traditional Armenian lavash and gata are still baked in traditional tandoors. popular dishes include sour banjar, kyalaglosh, shorva with ghavurma, rabbit kofta, portridge shorva, rosted quail and kid barbecue. People in Vayots Dzor are very hospitable and hardworking.
Vayots Dzor Province is among the least contributors in the economy of the Armenia. Agriculture and cattle-breeding are the leading spheres in the province. Agricultural crops include apricot, cherry, pear, peach, apple, quince, plum, melon, walnut, grapes and berries. Cattle-breeding includes wool-bearing, goat farming and poultry farming.
The province is also famous for beekeeping and dairy products. The "Bee City" beekeeping farm is located near the town of Yeghagnadzor.
Industry is mainly based on alcoholic beverages production and food-processing. The discovery of the 6100 year-old Areni-1 winery has provided greater idea about the ancient tradition of wine-making in Armenia and particularly in the region of ancient Syunik. Vayots Dzor has a large number of wine producers (mainly producing under the category of Areni wine"):
- "Areni" wine factory located in the village of Areni,
- "Hin Areni Vinyards" factory in Areni,
- "Vayk Group" company (produces wine, vodka and dried fruits) in Vayk,
- "Trinity Canyon Vineyards" company in the village of Aghavnadzor,
- "Zorah Wines" company in the village of Rind,
- "Ginetas" wine factory in the village of Arpi,
- "Ginekar" wine factory in Aghavnadzor,
- "Ginetun" wine factory in Yeghegnadzor,
- "Arpa Alco" wine factory in Areni,
The "Rafelgrig" company in Yeghegnadzor is a manufacturer of small electrical devices. The "Golden Goat" cheese production plant is also located in Yeghegnadzor.
The cultural heritage and the natural monuments of the region attract a large number of tourists. Jermuk and the surrounding forests are a major tourist attraction with many luxurious sanatoriums, spa resorts and its ropeway. It is considered the centre of medical tourism in Armenia.
Many areas of the province are listed as wildlife sanctuaries including the Herher Open Woodland Sanctuary, the Jermuk Forest Sanctuary, the Jermuk Hydrological Sanctuary, and the Yeghegnadzor Sanctuary.
Currently, the Yeghegnadzor branch of the Armenian State University of Economics is operating in the province since 2008.
Arpa FC of Yeghegnadzor, founded as Momik FC in 1992, used to represent the town in the Armenian Premier League football competition. Like many other Armenian football clubs, Arpa FC was dissolved in early 2003 and is currently inactive from professional football. The towns of Vayk and Yeghegnadzor have a football stadium each with minor capacities.
During the month of August of each year, Jemruk hosts the FIDE Grand Prix Jermuk chess tournament.
Vayots Dzor Province is home to many ancient landmarks and tourist attractions in Armenia including:
Fortresses and archaeological sites
- Areni-1 cave complex and the Winery of the Chalcolithic age,
- Smbataberd fortress of the 10th century,
- Proshaberd fortress of the 13th century,
- Ertij Fort of the 13th century,
- Agarakadzor bridge of the 13th century,
- Orbelian's Caravanserai of 1332.
Churches and monasteries
- Tanadivank monastery of 735,
- Saint Sion Monastery of the 8th century,
- Shativank monastery of the 10th century,
- Khotakerats Monastery of the 10th century,
- Tsakhats Kar Monastery, 10th-11th centuries,
- Noravank monastery, 10th-13th centuries,
- Gndevank monastery, 10th-13th centuries,
- Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God in Yeghegnadzor, 12th century,
- Noravank monastery of 1205,
- Spitakavor Monastery of 1321,
- Areni Church of 1321.
- Mozrov Cave,
- Jermuk mountain spa town,
- Herher Open Woodland Sanctuary
- Jermuk Forest Sanctuary,
- Jermuk Hydrological Sanctuary
- Yeghegnadzor Sanctuary.
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The province of Vayots Dzor consists of the following 44 communities (hamaynkner), of which 3 are considered urban and 41 are considered rural.
Towns or urban communities
|Image||City (town)||Province||Founded||Land area (km2)||Population (2011 census)|
|Jermuk||Vayots Dzor||13th century (first mentioned)||5||4,628|
|Yeghegnadzor||Vayots Dzor||5th century (first mentioned)||6||7,944|
Villages or rural communities
- Akhta, belongs the community of Gomk.
- Mozrov, belongs the community of Gnishik.
- Kapuyt, belongs the community of Gomk.
- Kechut, belongs the community of Jermuk.
- Sevazhayr, belongs the community of Vardahovit.
- Ughedzor, belongs the community of Saravan.
- Amaghu, belongs the community of Areni.
- Arates, belongs the community of Hermon.
- Kalasar, belongs the community of Hermon.
- Getikvank, belongs the community of Vardahovit.
- Horadis, belongs the community of Zaritap.
- Vayots Dzor population, 2011 census
- Maugh II, Thomas H. "Ancient winery found in Armenia." Los Angeles Times. January 11, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Santini, Jean-Louis. "Scientists find 'oldest ever' winery in Armenia." Agence France Press. January 11, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Owen, James. "Earliest Known Winery Found in Armenian Cave." National Geographic. January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Dindar, Shereen (June 9, 2010). "World's Oldest Leather Shoe Found—Stunningly Preserved". National Post (Canada). Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- "RA Vayots Dzor Marz" (PDF). Marzes of the Republic of Armenia in Figures, 2002–2006. National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia. 2007.
- Arnavoudian, Eddie (22 November 2010). "Science versus Religion: the case of the Medieval Armenian University". Armenian News Network / Groong, University of Southern California. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Nersessian, Vrej (2001). The Bible in the Armenian Tradition. London: British Library. p. 43. ISBN 9780892366408.
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