Vedette (cabaret)

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A vedette is the main female artist of a show derived from cabaret and its genres (revue, vaudeville, music hall or burlesque).

The purpose of the vedette in a cabaret or nightclub show is to entertain the public. The vedette has to know how to sing, dance and act on stage. Depending on the quality of its show, career or mastery of one or more stage talents, can be considered a super vedette or first vedette. Generally a vedette is a woman with physical presence, personality and charisma that captivates the public. In addition to singing, dancing and acting, vedettes often included groups of dancers, flashy and revealing costumes, magicians, comedians, jugglers, and even performing animals. Vedettes specializing in burlesque generally do striptease and may also perform nude on stage.

In the 20th century, vedette shows were successful in the cabarets, theaters and nightclubs of countries such as Spain, France, Argentina and Mexico. Paris and Las Vegas were considered the main cradle of the vedettes.

Etymology[edit]

Vedette is a French word originally used to designate an artist of great fame and notoriety.[1]

The term underwent changes over the years. From the early twentieth century, it began to be used to designate the main female artists of the shows of a cabaret such as burlesque, vaudeville, music hall or revue. The zenith of fame and popularity of these women coincided with various historical moments of 20th century sexual liberation the 1920s, 1940s and 1970s.

The vedettes began their rise in popularity in France at the beginning of the 20th century. After France, they have gained greater popularity in Latin countries, both in Europe (Spain) and North and South America (Argentina and Mexico), where they caused a furor in the nightlife at different times. The term is little used in Anglo-Saxon countries, although in the United States there are very popular shows of cabaret and burlesque in the city of Las Vegas, where it is often confused with so-called showgirls. Venues such as Le Lido, the Moulin Rouge, and the Crazy Horse in France. The Teatro Maipo and the Teatro El Nacional in Argentina, and the Teatro de la Ciudad "Esperanza Iris" in Mexico are or were famous for their vedette shows.

Vedettes in Europe[edit]

France[edit]

Le Lido of Paris

France is considered the cradle of vedettes worldwide. Its capital, Paris, has been home to some of the most famous cabarets in the world. Among these are the Moulin Rouge and the Folies Bergère de Paris, pioneers of night shows in which the vedettes appeared on the scene half naked and doing Tableau vivant. Other famous venues are the Le Lido and Bataclan, also famous for their vaudeville and Revues. In more recent times, this group of entertainment centers would be joined by Crazy Horse.

Among the main vedettes of France are considered the "Three Graces" of Belle Époque: Émilienne d'Alençon, Liane de Pougy, and La Bella Otero.[2] The famous Mistinguett became one of the most popular French artists of her time and the most important woman in the world of the spectacle,[3] while Madame Rasimi is remembered as the founder of the Bataclan. Another outstanding figure was Gina Palerme.

At the beginning of the century, the novelist Colette was also distinguished by acting in shows of magazine. Another prominent figure at that time is the world-famous Dutch spy Mata Hari.

The legendary Cléo de Mérode of the Folies Bergère was another of the great stars of the Parisian nightlife of the twentieth century.[4]

Joséphine Baker,[5] of American origin, is remembered as one of the most important vedettes of the twentieth century. Her "Revue Nègre", which included a jazz orchestra, caused a sensation in the Parisian cabarets. Her exotic dance form, her uninhibited sexuality and her minimal dress (which included a skirt made with bananas) were more attractive to Europeans than to Americans. She became the star of Parisian nights and even opened her own club, Chez Josephine.

Another important figure was Coccinelle, considered the first transsexual vedette in history.[6] The actress and singer Liliane Montevecchi stood out as vedette in the Folies Bergère in the 1970s, and eventually conquered Broadway. Another figure of the time was the Italian Xenia Monty.

In recent times the vedette shows emphasize figures like Arielle Dombasle (known as the vedette-like Dolorès Sugar Rose) and Marlène Mourreau.

Spain[edit]

La Bella Otero in an 1894 Folies Bergère poster

One of the first vedettes that stood out in Spain are La Bella Otero, a celebrated courtesan who settled in France, one of the most outstanding personages of the Belle Époque in the artistic circles and the gallant life of Paris;[7] Luisa Esteso, famous comedian actress; Encarnación Fernández, who had most of her career in Argentina;[8] Celia Gámez (of Argentine origin), one of the most popular stars of Spain in the first half of the twentieth century, and who owes much of the splendor of the Revues;[9] Paquita Garzón;[10] Rosario Guerrero (called "The Beautiful Guerrero"); Rosita Rodrigo; Tina de Jarque,[11] Rosario Soler "La Patita",[12] Paquita Escribano, Carmen Tórtola Valencia, specialist in oriental dances and pioneer of women's liberation,[13] and the sisters Laura and Victoria Pinillos.[14]

The 1940s highlighted figures such as Trini Alonso, María Antinea (also famous in Argentina and Mexico); Maruja Boldoba, Florinda Chico, Gema del Rio, the popular Manolita Chen and her company; Teresita Silva; Maruja Tomás and Helga Liné.[15]

The 1950s highlighted stars like Mary Begoña, one of the comedic actresses par excellence of the Spanish scene;[16] Licia Calderón, Queta Claver (that becomes to become one of the majors vedettes of Spain);[17] Raquel Daina;[18] Marujita Díaz, considered as the "Queen of the Copla" and "Queen of the Spanish Music Revue" and Carmen de Lirio, famous during the dictatorship.[19]

In the sixties, famous figures such as Mary Santpere, called "La Reina del Paralelo" (The Queen of the Parallel) reached the fame of Barcelona's homonymous street, where the greatest number of theaters were concentrated in the 20th century; Rosita Amores, pioneer of the erotic cabaret in the mid-1960s, and who knew how to outwit Franco's censorship in times when eroticism in Spain was confined to the private sphere, becoming a popular symbol of entertainment in the Valencian Community; Marisol Ayuso; Ingrid Garbo, of German origin; Vicky Lagos; Vicky Lusson; Katia Loritz;[20] Esperanza Roy, and Lina Morgan, one of the country's most momentous comic strips.[21] Sara Montiel, deserves special mention, who along with her prestigious film career, excelled in shows as a vedette from this decade.

In the 1970s María José Cantudo starred in the first full-length female nude (seen through a mirror) of Spanish cinema;[22] Eva León Conde[23] and Barbara Rey were also popular vedettes of the period.

From the 1980s and 1990s stand out figures such as Lita Claver "La Maña";[24] Norma Duval, one of the last stars of the traditional magazine, a type of spectacle that during those years was in decline and that was maintained mainly thanks to the tourists who visited Paris;[25] Tania Doris, another one of the last representatives of the sort in Spain ; Paloma Hurtado, María José Nieto "Maripepa",[26] Rosa Valenty, Africa Pratt and the French Marlène Mourreau.[27]

In the last years they have emphasized figures like La Terremoto de Alcorcón and the transsexual actresses ´Bibiana Fernandez, La Veneno and La Prohibida.

Vedettes in America[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Revue shows were popularized in Buenos Aires from the 1920s, mainly in the Teatro Maipo.[28] Tita Merello became one of the most famous vedettes of the time.[29]

In the 1950s vedettes of Cuban origin appeared, like Blanquita Amaro[30] Amelia Vargas[31] and Rosita Fornés.[32] They had all the glitz, grace and glamor that characterized the era, and shared the stage with local stars like Nélida Roca.[33]

In the 1960s appeared figures like Zulma Faiad,[34] Nélida Lobato,[35] Susana Brunetti, Norma Pons, Egle Martín[36] and the Puerto Rican Iris Chacón, called the "Vedette of America".[37]

The 1970s and 1980s gave way to other stars like Graciela Alfano[38] and the sisters Ethel and Gogó Rojo.[39] Others who arose at that time and remained in force in the following years were Susana Giménez[40] Moria Casán[41] and Bettina Vardé.[42]

In the 1990s, new vedettes appeared, some of whose fame would spread to the next decade, such as Cris Miró,[43] María Fernanda Callejón, the Puerto Rican Lourdes Chacón[44][45][46] and Monica Ayos.[47]

In the first years of the 21st century there is a return of the revues in the Avenida Corrientes with figures like Florencia de la V,[48] María Eugenia Ritó,[49] Adabel Guerrero,[50] and Valeria Archimó.[51]

Mexico[edit]

The image of the Vedette in Mexico arises from the beginning of the 20th century with the rise of the called "Carpas" and the Revues. Some venues such as Teatro Principal,[52] the Teatro Colón[53] and the Teatro Arbeu[54] were considered as the cathedral of the revues and burlesque in Mexico City. There arise figures like Lupe Vélez, who, before being consecrated as a star in Hollywood, was considered one of the queens of the frivolous theater.[55] The maximum figure of the time was Maria Conesa "The White Kitten", who also had a very long career spanning theater, film and television.[56] Other outstanding figures of the time were Esperanza Iris,[57] Celia Montalván,[58] Lupe Rivas Cacho,[59] Amparo Arozamena,[60] Prudencia Grifell,[61] Celia Padilla,[62] Delia Magaña,[63] Lupe Inclán, Aurora Walker, Amelia Wilhelmy[64] and Mimí Derba,[65] among others. Conesa, Montalván and Rivas Cacho, were even immortalized in a famous foxtrot called Mi querido capitán (My dear captain).

In the 1950s[66] saw a resurgence of nightlife in Mexico City. Venues like the Tivoli, the Waikikí, the Margo (after the Teatro Blanquita), the Follies Bergere and the Teatro Lírico,[67] among others, became the main forums for the blossoming of the vedettes. Special mention should be made of the Exoticas, a group of vedettes that caused fury in Mexico's nightlife in the late 1940s and early 1950s. These "Exoticas" were characterized by using extravagant names, and their shows included African, Tahitian or Oriental dances.[68] The most famous of the "Exoticas" was Yolanda Montes "Tongolele",[69] one of the most important dancers of Latin America, and has been in force for more than sixty years. Together with Tongolele, the most famous were Su Muy Key The Chinese Doll,[70] and Kalantán. Another famous "Exóticas" were Trudi Bora, Turanda, Joyce Cameron, Tanabonga, Tundra, Gemma, Eda Lorna, Kurumba, Bongala, Tula Montenegro, Brenda Conde, Josefina del Mar and Naná.[71] Parallel to the success of the Exoticas, they appear in Mexico the famous "Rumberas", dancers of Afro-American rhythms. The Rumberas managed to create their own cinematographic genre: The Rumberas film[72] In the called Golden Age of Mexican cinema. The Rumberas films reflected in many of its arguments the life of the women in the night centers and cabarets. The main exponents of the genre were the Cubans María Antonieta Pons,[73] Amalia Aguilar,[74] Ninón Sevilla[75] and Rosa Carmina[76] as well the Mexican Meche Barba.[77] These women were complete vedettes who never needed to explicitly teach their bodies, captivating audiences only with their dances and other stage talents. The Rumberas also performed shows and live performances in important venues. With the decline of the Rumberas film in the mid-fifties, some rumberas broadened their horizons and ventured into vedette shows. Particularly remembered are the live shows of Amalia Aguilar and Rosa Carmina, who even filled stadiums in various countries in Central and South America. The Cuban Rosita Fornés deserves special mention. She reaches the final consecration in Mexico before conquering the rest of the continent.[78]

In the 1960s the splendor of the vedettes in Mexico lost force. Even so, worthy of mention are the shows offered in venues such as the Blanquita Theater or "El Patio" by the stars such as Sonia Furió, Ana Luisa Peluffo[79] and Ana Bertha Lepe.[80] In the midst of the fury of the Rock and Roll era, were famous figures like Malú Reyes[81] and Emily Cranz.[82] Actresses such as Jacqueline Voltaire[83] and Irán Eory[84] also performed shows as vedettes.

The 1970s and 1980s are considered the golden era of the vedettes in Mexico, thanks to a massive revival of nightlife in the country's capital. Mexico City was flooded with nightclubs, cabarets of all levels and burlesque theaters where the vedettes began to bloom. Among the most important nightclubs that illuminated the capital of the country are the Terazza Casino, the Capri (from the Hotel Regis), the Imperial, the Minuet, the Rio Rosa, La Fuente, El Conjunto Marrakech, La Copa de Champagne, El Cordiale, El Rondinella, El Clóset, El Quid, El 77, the Impala Bar and the Belvedere of the Hilton Continental Hotel. Some cabarets such as La Burbuja, Montparnasse, Las Fabulosas, El Can-Can, Los Globos, King Kong and Savoy also reached a great boom, while theaters like El Iris, El Blanquita and the Teatro Fru Fru[85] presented burlesque shows, where the shows were more audacious and explicit. In addition, thanks to television, movies and magazines, the vedettes in Mexico reached their highest point of popularity. Many of them also ventured into the cinema, within the so-called Mexican sex comedy.[86] On the other hand, the popular television program Variedades de medianoche (Varieties of the Midnight) contributed to the boom of these women and launched to the fame to dozens of them.[87]

Among the legendary vedettes that illuminated the nightlife of Mexico City are Olga Breeskin also known as "Super Olga" who achieved great fame for her spectacular performances where she danced surrounded by dancers and exotic animals while playing the violin;[88] Angélica Chaín,[89] who achieved fame first in magazines, then start a career as a vedette and finally consecrate herself in the cinema; Amira Cruzat, famous for her show known as The Dressing Room of Amira Cruzat;[90] Lila Deneken "The Number One", important singer and the first Latin American star to present a show at the Monte-Carlo Sporting Club;[91] the Argentine Zulma Faiad who settled in Mexico much of the decade of the 1970s and reached a great fame in cinema and night centers;[92] Gloriella, popular star of the burlesque and numerous movies;[93] Princesa Lea,[94] very popular for presenting a show in which she bathed in a glass of champagne; Lyn May,[95] of Chinese ancestry, pioneer of the nudes and one of the principal stars of the burlesque; Rossy Mendoza,[96] known popularly as "The Body" or "The Shorter Waist", thanks to her impressive anatomy; Sasha Montenegro,[97] who on par of her film career performed live shows that attracted the public because of her popularity; The Brazilian Gina Montes, famous by her appearance in a popular TV Show;[98] Grace Renat, The Goddess of the Night,[99] Irma Serrano,[100] who scandalized at the time with her controversial theatrical spectacles in the enclosure of her property, the Theater Fru-Frú; Wanda Seux,[101] called "The Golden Bomb" and considered the "Barbie" of the vedettes for her thin figure and blonde hair; Thelma Tixou "The Girl of the Golden Body",[102] native of Argentina, famous for her stature and imposing physique, and star for several years of the famous cabaret El Capri, Isela Vega,[103] popular Mexican film actress, who scandalized audiences with her provocative shows in the stage, and Princesa Yamal,[104] famous by her Arabian exotic dances.

Other outstanding figures were Brigitte Aubé, Cleopatra,[105] Alejandra del Moral,[106] Mora Escudero,[107] Gioconda,[108] Ivonne Govea,[109] Iris Cristal,[110] Yolanda Liévana,[111] Norma Lee,[112] Mara Marú,[113] Miss Melina Mey,[114] Gina Morett, the transgender Jessica Muriel,[115] Valeria Pani,[116] Noelia Noel,[110] Gabriela Ríos,[117] Olga Ríos,[110] Lina Santos,[118] Merle Uribe[119] and Judith Velasco Herrera,[107] among many others.

In the year 2016, the filmmaker María José Cuevas made the documentary Beauties of the Night, which portrays the life of five of these great vedettes.[120]

One of the last great vedettes in Mexico was Francis García, a transvestite artist who was the main star of the Teatro Blanquita for more than a decade.[121] In recent years, large night centers have virtually disappeared from Mexico. Some actresses and singers perform shows of vedettes in other venues, such as the Palenques. Among them are figures such as Costa Rican Maribel Guardia,[122] Mexicans Lorena Herrera, Mariana Seoane,[123] the transgender Alejandra Bogue[124] and Ninel Conde and the Cubans Niurka Marcos[125] and Lis Vega.[126]

United States[edit]

Although the term "vedette" is not commonly used in the United States or other Anglo-Saxon countries, the fact is that this country has highlighted many vedettes (here called "showgirls"). Las Vegas is considered, after Paris, as the main venue for revue shows and musicals worldwide.

The British Lydia Thompson became a leading dancer and actress in burlesques on the London stage. She introduced Victorian burlesque to America with her troupe the "British Blondes", in 1868, to great acclaim and notoriety.[127]

Of the most famous American vedettes, stand out May Yohé, one of the most valued figures of the vaudeville at the beginning of the century;[128] The aforementioned Josephine Baker, who ended up consecrating herself in France, where she was more popular than in her own country; Fanny Brice, star of the famous Ziegfeld Follies, queen of the theater, revues and later also star of cinema and the radio;[129] Sally Rand, actress and dancer, specializing in fan dancing, which she popularized at the Paramount Club, and who because of the postures considered indecent she adopted with the dance was sometimes arrested. Also conceived the famous dance of the bubble;[130] Zorita, famous for her shows where she played double roles and for her dances where she used boas and other exotic animals;[131] Evelyn West, also known as "The Hubba Hubba Girl", a burlesque legend of the forties, fifties and sixties;[132] Ann Corio, who also works in several Hollywood films;[133] Mae West, who achieved tremendous fame, first in theater and then in Hollywood, where she scandalized censorship for her provocative behavior and spicy phrases. In the 1950s and 1960s, she achieved fame in her shows, which included groups of dancers and bodybuilders;[134] Gypsy Rose Lee, immortalized in the famous autobiographical musical Gypsy. Her innovations consisted of a casual style, against the spasmodic movements of other strippers (she emphasized the joke during the striptease) and brought a keen sense of humor to her performances. She was one of the main stars of the Minsky's Burlesque, with whom she worked four years. Working with the Minsky brothers was arrested several times.[135] Another important figure of this time was Novita "The Pixie of Burlesque", one of the founders of the Exotic Dancers League (EDL).[136]

In the 1960s and 1970s some burlesque figures peaked in the United States, particularly at the shows offered in Las Vegas. Of these are highlighted Tempest Storm,[137] Lili St. Cyr,[138] Blaze Starr,[139] Tura Satana,[140] Bambi Jones[141] and Satan's Angel.[142]

The most important in recent years has undoubtedly been Liza Minnelli[143]

Today, among the most famous vedettes in the United States are Dita Von Teese, who was the star of Crazy Horse,[144] Julie Atlas Muz,[145] Michelle L'amour,[146] Catherine D'lish,[147] Miss Dirty Martini,[148] the British Immodesty Blaze,[149] Angie Pontani,[150] Roxi Dlite,[151] Jo Weldon[152] and the Singaporean Sukki Singapora, the first international burlesque artist in Singapore. Singapora became the first burlesque artist in the world to be invited to tea at Buckingham Palace as a recognition of her contribution to the arts as an Asian model.[153]

Other vedettes[edit]

Other prominent vedettes who have appeared in the world are the Puerto Rican Iris Chacón,[154] the Brazilian Luz del Fuego,[155] the Cubans Chelo Alonso and Rita Montaner,[156] the Peruvian Amparo Brambilla[157] and the Venezuelan Diosa Canales.[158]

Fictional vedettes[edit]

Film[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Le Dictionnaire: Definition of vedette
  2. ^ Biographies of "The Three Graces" of the Belle Epoque at Edwardian Promenade.com
  3. ^ Biography of Mistinguett
  4. ^ PortalSolidario.net: Article about Cléo de Mérode
  5. ^ Joséphine Baker's official biography
  6. ^ Biography of Coccinelle in her official web page
  7. ^ Culturagalega.org: La Bella Otero
  8. ^ Article about Encarnación Fernández
  9. ^ The Career of Celia Gámez
  10. ^ Hemeroteca ABC: Paquita Garzón
  11. ^ ABC.es: The Mysterious vedette Tina de jarque
  12. ^ Biography of Rosario Soler in her Official page
  13. ^ Jotdown. es: La Tórtola Valencia
  14. ^ Hemeroteca ABC: Laura Pinillos
  15. ^ La Zarzuela Webcindario.org
  16. ^ History of the Spanish Revue
  17. ^ El Mundo.es: Queta Claver
  18. ^ MadridDiario.es: Raquel Daina
  19. ^ Carmen de Lirio in the Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa.
  20. ^ El Mundo.es: Katia Loritz
  21. ^ Article about Lina Morgan
  22. ^ Hemeroteca ABC: Article about María José Cantudo
  23. ^ Biografías.es: Eva León Conde
  24. ^ Javier Barreiro: Lita Claver "La Maña"
  25. ^ Hola.com: Norma Duval
  26. ^ La revista Musical Blog: Maripepa
  27. ^ Official biography of Marlène Mourreau(in French)
  28. ^ Article about the Teatro Maipo and its Revue shows
  29. ^ Article about Tita Merello in La Nación
  30. ^ Article about Blanquita Amaro in tangoreporter
  31. ^ Biography of Amelita Vargas
  32. ^ Rosita Fornés Official page
  33. ^ Article about Nélida Roca
  34. ^ Zulma Faiad in IMDb
  35. ^ Article about Nélida Lobato
  36. ^ Interview with Egle Martin
  37. ^ Biography of Iris Chacón
  38. ^ Interview with Graciela Alfano in La Nación
  39. ^ Article about Ethel Rojo y Gogo Rojo
  40. ^ Article about Susana Giménez
  41. ^ Interview with Moria Casán
  42. ^ Article about Bettina Vardé
  43. ^ Article about Cris Miró
  44. ^ "Article in Spanish:The Vedette doesn't die: They transform". Primera Hora. 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  45. ^ "Article: La Vedette Revelación del 1981-1982". Lourdes Chacón. 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  46. ^ "Article: Vedette of the decade: "Golden Owl" Award. (Premio Búho de Oro)". Lourdes Chacón. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  47. ^ Article about Mónica Ayos
  48. ^ Article about Florencia de la V
  49. ^ Biography of María Eugenia Ritó
  50. ^ Biography of Adabel Guerrero in her Official Webpage
  51. ^ Article about Valeria Archimó
  52. ^ History of the Teatro Principal of México (1753-1931)
  53. ^ Clarín.com: El Teatro Colón
  54. ^ Article about the Teatro Arbeu
  55. ^ Short biography of Lupe Velez
  56. ^ Biography of María Conesa
  57. ^ Biography of Esperanza Iris
  58. ^ Mexican Silent Cinema and its stars
  59. ^ Mexican Comedians: Lupe Rivas Cacho
  60. ^ Biography of Amparo Arozamena
  61. ^ about Prudencia Griffel
  62. ^ Pinterest: Celia Padilla, tiple and vedette
  63. ^ MuseoCjv.com: Delia Magaña
  64. ^ Reliquias ideológicas: Article about Amelia Wilhelmy
  65. ^ Article about Mimí Derba
  66. ^ Cabarets in Mexico in the 1950s
  67. ^ Article about the Teatro Lírico
  68. ^ "Tongolele" and the "Exóticas"
  69. ^ "Tongolele", Legendary Vedette
  70. ^ Article about Su Muy Key
  71. ^ Por esto Yucatán: The Amazing World of the Exoticas
  72. ^ The Rumberas film
  73. ^ Biography of María Antonieta Pons in IMBd
  74. ^ Biography of Amalia Aguilar in her Web Site
  75. ^ Biography of Ninón Sevilla
  76. ^ Short biography of Rosa Carmina
  77. ^ Short biography of Meche Barba
  78. ^ Rosita Fornés, the "First Vedette of America"
  79. ^ Por esto Yucatán: Ana Luisa Peluffo
  80. ^ Article about Ana Bertha Lepe
  81. ^ Article about Malú Reyes
  82. ^ Venamimundo.com: Article about Emily Cranz
  83. ^ ArtículoSiete.com: The A Go go Girls
  84. ^ DiarioJudío.com: Article about Irán Eory
  85. ^ Revista Cinefagia: Tivoli and other cabarets in México
  86. ^ Article about Cine de ficheras
  87. ^ Cinematerapia: Variedades de Medianoche
  88. ^ DurangoMas: Olga Breeskin
  89. ^ Biography and photos of Angélica Chain
  90. ^ El Universal: Amira Cruzat and other vedettes
  91. ^ Article about Lila Deneken
  92. ^ Short biography of Zulma Faiad
  93. ^ Cinefagia.com: Article about Gloriella
  94. ^ Short article about Princesa Lea
  95. ^ Azteca Noreste: Lyn May
  96. ^ Cinepapaya.com: Biography of Rossy Mendoza
  97. ^ Article about Sasha Montenegro
  98. ^ Debate.com: Article about Gina Montes
  99. ^ El Universal: The Vedettes of the Seventies
  100. ^ Biography of Irma Serrano
  101. ^ Article about Wanda Seux
  102. ^ Article about Thelma Tixou
  103. ^ Globedia.com: Artículo sobre Isela Vega
  104. ^ Short article about Princesa Yamal
  105. ^ Bitácora Blog: Article about Cleopatra and other vedettes
  106. ^ Letras explicitas.com: Alejandra del Moral
  107. ^ a b Article about Norma Lee y other vedettes
  108. ^ La Jornada: Artículo sobre Gioconda
  109. ^ Article about Ivonne Govea
  110. ^ a b c Vedettes of "Variedades de medianoche"
  111. ^ Short biography of Yolanda Liévana in IMDb
  112. ^ Norma Lee in ImDb
  113. ^ MXCity.mx: Mara Marú & El Capri
  114. ^ Cinematerapia Blog: Vedettes de Variedades de medianoche
  115. ^ Jessica Muriel "El milagro" in YouTube
  116. ^ Hazte pa' aca Blog: Valeria Pani
  117. ^ Cinematerapia Blog: Vedettes of "Variedades de medianoche"
  118. ^ Chilango.com: Article about Lina Santos and other actresses
  119. ^ Article about Merle Uribe
  120. ^ Arca.tv: Beauties of the Night, documentary about the Mexican vedettes
  121. ^ Article about Francis
  122. ^ Esmas.com: Article about Maribel Guardia
  123. ^ Article about Mariana Seoane
  124. ^ InfoUam blog: Article about Alejandra Bogue
  125. ^ Article about Niurka Marcos
  126. ^ Multimedios.com: Article about Lis Vega
  127. ^ Streetswing.com: Burlesque and Lydia Thompson
  128. ^ Fascinating Women: May Yohé
  129. ^ Biography of Fanny Brice
  130. ^ Biography of Sally Rand in Britannica.com
  131. ^ Scalar.usc: Zorita y sus bailes exóticos
  132. ^ Evelyn West en IMdB
  133. ^ Burlesque Hall of Fame: Ann Corio
  134. ^ Biography of Mae West
  135. ^ Biography of Gypsy Rose Lee
  136. ^ Burlesque Hall of Fame: Novita
  137. ^ Tempest Storm en BurlesqueHall.com
  138. ^ Biografía de Lili St. Cyr in IMdB
  139. ^ Biography of Blaze Starr in BigStory
  140. ^ El País.com: Article aboutTura Satana
  141. ^ Burlesque Hall of Fame: Bambi Jones
  142. ^ Satan's Angel in her official website
  143. ^ Biography of Liza Minnelli
  144. ^ Interview with Dita Von Teese El Mundo
  145. ^ Gothamist.com: Article about Julie Atlas Muz
  146. ^ Michelle L'amour Official Website
  147. ^ The New York Times: Catherin D'lish
  148. ^ RevelingNewYork.com: Miss Dirty Martini
  149. ^ Independent.ie: Immodesty Blaze
  150. ^ ChicagoMetromix.com: Angie Pontani
  151. ^ Las Vegas Weekly.com: Roxi Dlite
  152. ^ Coilhouse.net: Jo Weldon
  153. ^ TimeOut.com: Interview with Sukki Singapora
  154. ^ Biography of Iris Chacón
  155. ^ Biografía de Luz del Fuego (en portugués)
  156. ^ Article about Rita Montaner
  157. ^ Article about Amparo Branbilla
  158. ^ Diosa Canales in her Official Website

External links[edit]