Geisha (芸者?), geiko (芸子) or geigi (芸妓) are traditional Japanese female entertainers who act as hostesses and whose skills include performing various Japanese arts such as classical music, dance, games and conversation, mainly to entertain male customers.
- 1 Terms
- 2 History
- 3 Ranking
- 4 Stages of training
- 5 Female dominance in geisha society
- 6 Modern geisha
- 7 Arts
- 8 Geisha and prostitution
- 9 Appearance
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Geisha (//; Japanese: [ɡeːɕa]), like all Japanese nouns, has no distinct singular or plural variants. The word consists of two kanji, 芸 (gei) meaning "art" and 者 (sha) meaning "person" or "doer". The most literal translation of geisha into English would be "artist," "performing artist," or "artisan." Another name for geisha is geiko (芸子), which is usually used to refer to geisha from western Japan, which includes Kyoto.
Apprentice geisha are called maiko (舞子 or 舞妓), (literally "dance child") or hangyoku (半玉), "half-jewel" (meaning that they are paid half of the wage of a full geisha), or by the more generic term o-shaku (御酌), literally "one who pours (alcohol)". The white make-up and elaborate kimono and hair of a maiko is the popular image held of geisha. A woman entering the geisha community does not have to begin as a maiko, having the opportunity to begin her career as a full geisha. Either way, however, usually a year's training is involved before debuting either as a maiko or as a geisha. A woman above 21 is considered too old to be a maiko and becomes a full geisha upon her initiation into the geisha community. However, those who do go through the maiko stage can enjoy more prestige later in their professional lives.
The only modern maiko that can apprentice before the age of eighteen are in Kyoto. On average, Tokyo maiko (who typically begin at 18) are slightly older than their Kyoto counterparts (who usually start at 15). Historically, geisha often began the earliest stages of their training at a very young age, sometimes as early as at 3 or 5 years. The early shikomi (servant) and minarai (watching apprentice) stages of geisha training lasted years, which is significantly longer than in contemporary times.
It is still said that geisha inhabit a separate reality which they call the karyūkai or "the flower and willow world." Before they disappeared, the courtesans were the colorful "flowers" and the geisha the "willows" because of their subtlety, strength, and grace.
In the early stages of Japanese history, there were female entertainers: saburuko (serving girls) were mostly wandering girls whose families were displaced from struggles in the late 600s. Some of these saburuko girls sold sexual services, while others with a better education made a living by entertaining at high-class social gatherings. After the imperial court moved the capital to Heian-kyō (Kyoto) in 794 the conditions that would form Japanese Geisha culture began to emerge, as it became the home of a beauty-obsessed elite. Skilled female performers, such as Shirabyōshi dancers, thrived.
Traditional Japan embraced sexual delights (it is not a Shinto taboo) and men were not constrained to be faithful to their wives. The ideal wife was a modest mother and manager of the home; by Confucian custom love had secondary importance. For sexual enjoyment and romantic attachment, men did not go to their wives, but to courtesans. Walled-in pleasure quarters known as yūkaku (遊廓、遊郭?) were built in the 16th century, and in 1617 the shogunate designated "pleasure quarters", outside of which prostitution would be illegal, and within which "yūjo" ("play women") would be classified and licensed. The highest yūjo class was the Geisha's predecessor, called "Tayuu", a combination of actress and prostitute, originally playing on stages set in the dry Kamo riverbed in Kyoto. They performed erotic dances and skits, and this new art was dubbed kabuku, meaning "to be wild and outrageous". The dances were called "kabuki," and this was the beginning of kabuki theater.
18th-century emergence of the "geisha"
These pleasure quarters quickly became glamorous entertainment centers, offering more than sex. The highly accomplished courtesans of these districts entertained their clients by dancing, singing, and playing music. Some were renowned poets and calligraphers. Gradually, they all became specialized and the new profession, purely of entertainment, arose. It was near the turn of the eighteenth century that the first entertainers of the pleasure quarters, called geisha, appeared. The first geishas were men, entertaining customers waiting to see the most popular and gifted courtesans (oiran).
The forerunners of the female geisha were the teenage odoriko ("dancing girls"): expensively trained as chaste dancers-for-hire. In the 1680s, they were popular paid entertainers in the private homes of upper-class samurai, though many had turned to prostitution by the early 18th century. Those who were no longer teenagers (and could no longer style themselves odoriko) adopted other names—one being "geisha", after the male entertainers. The first woman known to have called herself geisha was a Fukagawa prostitute, in about 1750. She was a skilled singer and shamisen-player named Kikuya who was an immediate success, making female geisha extremely popular in 1750s Fukagawa. As they became more widespread throughout the 1760s and 1770s, many began working only as entertainers (rather than prostitutes) often in the same establishments as male geisha.
Rise of the geisha
The geisha who worked within the pleasure quarters were essentially imprisoned and strictly forbidden to sell sex in order to protect the business of the Oiran. While licensed courtesans existed to meet men's sexual needs, machi geisha carved out a separate niche as artists and erudite female companions.
By 1800, being a geisha was considered a female occupation (though there are still a handful of male geisha working today). Eventually, the gaudy Oiran began to fall out of fashion, becoming less popular than the chic ("iki") and modern geisha. By the 1830s, the evolving geisha style was emulated by fashionable women throughout society. There were many different classifications and ranks of geisha. Some women would have sex with their male customers, whereas others would entertain strictly with their art forms. Prostitution was legal up until the 1900s (decade), so it was practiced in many quarters throughout Japan.
World War II brought a huge decline in the geisha arts because most women had to go to factories or other places to work for Japan. The geisha name also lost some status during this time because prostitutes began referring to themselves as "geisha girls" to American military men. In 1944, the geisha world, including the teahouses, bars and geisha houses, was forced to close, and all employees were put to work in factories. About a year later, they were allowed to reopen. The few women who returned to the geisha areas decided to reject Western influence and revert to traditional ways of entertainment and life. "The image of the geisha was formed during Japan's feudal past, and this is now the image they must keep in order to remain geisha". It was up to these returning geisha to bring back traditional standards in the profession, though with increased rights for the geisha:
There is no doubt that coerced sex and bidding on a new geisha's virginity occurred in the period before WWII... After Japan lost the war, geisha dispersed and the profession was in shambles. When they regrouped during the Occupation and began to flourish in the 1960s during Japan's postwar economic boom, the geisha world changed. In modern Japan, girls are not sold into indentured service, nor are they coerced into sexual relations. Nowadays, a geisha's sex life is her private affair
Before the war, a maiko's virginity would be auctioned (the original "mizuage"). This was outlawed in 1959, but was reported to be relatively normal in the 1990s, and happening "on a limited basis" in 2001. Compulsory education laws passed in the 1960s made traditional geisha apprenticeships difficult, leading to a decline in women entering the field. The simultaneous growth of Japanese industry, which opened other opportunities for women, further contributed to the decline of the geisha industry.
In her book Geisha, a Life, Mineko Iwasaki said: "I lived in the karyukai during the 1960s and 1970s, a time when Japan was undergoing the radical transformation from a post-feudal to a modern society. But I existed in a world apart, a special realm whose mission and identity depended on preserving the time-honored traditions of the past."
At the pinnacle of the complex geisha ranking system are the grand dowagers of Kyoto. The gokagai of Kyoto are its five geisha districts, also known as hanamachi ("flower towns"). Gion Kōbu, Pontochō and Kamishichiken have the highest status; they are very expensive, and are frequented by powerful businessmen and politicians (Gion Kōbu is sometimes seen as having the very highest ranking). Geikos from the other two hanamachi (Gion Higashi and Miyagawa-cho) have high prestige but are considered to be one rank lower.
At the opposite end of the spectrum are the hot-spring geisha. These geisha work in the spa resorts and are viewed by most Japanese as no better than a common prostitute. They normally cater to far less exclusive patrons, and are much less expensive. If their income is supplemented by selling sex, they remain distinct from regular prostitutes; like all geisha, they are trained in the art of Japanese dance and music. Even so, hanamachi geisha might be horrified if categorized with hot-spring geisha.
Stages of training
Traditionally, Geisha began their training at a young age. Some girls were bonded to geisha houses (okiya) as children. These girls were referred to as hangyoku and were as young as nine years old. This was not a common practice in reputable districts and disappeared in the 1950s with the outlawing of child labor. Daughters of geisha were often brought up as geisha themselves, usually as the successor (atotori, meaning "heir" or "heiress" in this particular situation) or daughter-role (musume-bun) to the okiya.
A maiko is an apprentice and is therefore bonded under a contract to her okiya. The okiya supplies her with food, board, kimonos, obis, and other tools of her trade. Her training is very expensive, and her debt must be repaid to the okiya with the earnings she makes. This repayment may continue after the maiko becomes a full-fledged geisha and only when her debts are settled is she permitted to move out to live and work independently.
A maiko will start her formal training on the job as a minarai, which literally means "learning by watching". Before she can do this she must find an onee-san ("older sister": an older geisha acting as her mentor). It is the onee-san's responsibility to bring her to the ozashiki (お座敷, a banquet in any traditional Japanese building with tatami), to sit and observe as the onee-san is at work. This is a way in which she will gain insights of the job, and seek out potential clients. Although minarai attend ozashiki, they do not participate at an advanced level. Their kimono, more elaborate than a geiko's, are intended to do the talking for them. Minarai can be hired for parties but are usually uninvited (yet welcomed) guests at parties that their onee-san attends. They only charge a third of the usual fee. Minarai generally work with a particular tea house (minarai-jaya) learning from the okaa-san (literally "mother," the proprietress of the house). From her, they would learn techniques such as conversation and gaming, which would not be taught to them in school. This stage lasts only about a month or so.
After a short period the final stage of training begins, and the students are now called "maiko", rather than minarai. Maiko (literally "dance girl") are apprentice geisha, and this stage can last for years. Maiko learn from their senior geisha mentor and follow them to all their engagements. The onee-san and imouto-san (senior/junior, literally "older sister/younger sister") relationship is important. The onee-san teaches her maiko everything about working in the hanamachi. The onee-san will teach her proper ways of serving tea, playing shamisen, dancing, casual conversation and more. The onee-san will even help pick the maiko's new professional name with kanji or symbols related to her name.
There are three major elements of a maiko's training. The first is the formal arts training. This takes place in special geisha schools which are found in every hanamachi. The second element is the entertainment training which the maiko learns at various teahouses and parties by observing her onee-san. The third is the social skill of navigating the complex social web of the hanamachi. This is done on the streets. Formal greetings, gifts, and visits are key parts of any social structure in Japan and for a maiko, they are crucial for her to build the support network she needs to survive as a geisha.
Maiko are considered one of the great sights of Japanese tourism, and look very different from fully qualified geisha. They are at the peak of traditional Japanese femininity. The scarlet-fringed collar of a maiko's kimono hangs very loosely in the back to accentuate the nape of the neck, which is considered a primary erotic area in Japanese sexuality. She wears the same white makeup for her face on her nape, leaving two or sometimes three stripes of bare skin exposed. Her kimono is bright and colorful with an elaborately tied obi hanging down to her ankles. She takes very small steps and wears traditional wooden shoes called okobo which stand nearly ten centimeters high. There are 5 different hairstyles that a maiko wears, that mark the different stages of her apprenticeship. The "Nihongami" hairstyle with "kanzashi" hair-ornamentation strips is most closely associated with maiko, who spend hours each week at the hairdresser and sleep on holed-pillows to preserve the elaborate styling. Maiko can develop a bald spot on their crown caused by rubbing from Kanzashi strips and tugging in hairdressing. This was associated with the maiko's womanhood, as it came from a pulled knot in the ofuku hairstyle that a maiko would wear after her mizuage or first sexual experience (before which, the maiden wareshinobu style was worn).
Around the age of 20–22, the maiko is promoted to a full-fledged geisha in a ceremony called erikae (turning of the collar). This could happen after two to five years of her life as a maiko or hangyoku, depending on at what age she debuted. She now charges full price for her time. Geisha remain as such until they retire.
Female dominance in geisha society
"The biggest industry in Japan is not shipbuilding, producing cultured pearls, or manufacturing transistor radios or cameras. It is entertainment."— Boye De Mente, Some Prefer Geisha
The term geisha literally translates to mean "entertainer". Some prostitutes refer to themselves as "geisha", but they are not. A geisha's sex and love life is usually distinct from her professional life. A successful geisha can entertain her male customers with music, dance, and conversation.
"Geishas are not submissive and subservient, but in fact they are some of the most financially and emotionally successful and strongest women in Japan, and traditionally have been so."— Iwasaki Mineko, Geisha, A Life
Geisha learn the traditional skills of dance and instruments and hold high social status. Geisha are single women, though they may have lovers or boyfriends whom they have personally picked, who support them financially.
"There is currently no western equivalent for a geisha—they are truly the most impeccable form of Japanese art."— Kenneth Champeon, The Floating World
Relationships with male guests
The appeal of a high-ranking geisha to her typical male guest has historically been very different from that of his wife. The ideal geisha showed her skill, while the ideal wife was modest. The ideal geisha seemed carefree, the ideal wife somber and responsible. Historically, geisha did sometimes marry their clients but marriage necessitated retirement, as there were never married geisha. However, in modern hanamachi there are married geisha, as well as geisha with children.
Geisha may gracefully flirt with their (often infatuated) guests, but they will always remain in control of the hospitality. Over their years of apprenticeship they learn to adapt to different situations and personalities, mastering the art of the hostess.
Geisha as a women-centered society
Women in the geisha society are some of the most successful businesswomen in Japan. In the geisha society, women run everything. Without the impeccable business skills of the female teahouse owners, the world of geisha would cease to exist. The teahouse owners are entrepreneurs, whose service to the geisha is highly necessary for the society to run smoothly. Infrequently, men take contingent positions such as hair stylists, dressers (dressing a maiko requires considerable strength) and accountants, but men have a limited role in geisha society.
The geisha system was founded, actually, to promote the independence and economic self-sufficiency of women. And that was its stated purpose, and it actually accomplished that quite admirably in Japanese society, where there were very few routes for women to achieve that sort of independence.
The majority of women were wives who did not work outside of their familial duties. Becoming a geisha was a way for women to support themselves without becoming a wife. Thus, some argue that geisha women live in a women-centered society. Women run the geisha houses, they are teachers, they run the teahouses, they recruit aspiring geisha, and they keep track of geishas' finances. The only major role men play in geisha society is that of guest, though women sometimes take that role as well.
Historically, Japanese feminists have seen geisha as exploited women but some modern geisha see themselves as liberated feminists. "We find our own way, without doing family responsibilities. Isn't that what feminists are?". These women leave their families at a young age to immerse themselves in their art. Some believe that since men can make a life for themselves, always being in control, why can't women? They "have grown adept at using their silken charms to wind their men around their little fingers... [to] manipulate the dumb, unsuspecting male of the species... to make a man think that he is the one who has the brilliant ideas". Not all geisha identify themselves with feminism, and there is a concern that the geisha tradition holds back progress for Japanese women.
Modern geisha still live in traditional geisha houses called okiya in areas called hanamachi (花街 "flower towns"), particularly during their apprenticeship. Many experienced geisha are successful enough to choose to live independently. The elegant, high-culture world that geisha are a part of is called karyūkai (花柳界 "the flower and willow world").
Before the twentieth century, geisha training began when a girl was around the age of four. Now, girls usually go to school until they are teenagers and then make the personal decision to train to become a geisha. Young women who wish to become geisha now most often begin their training after completing middle school, high school, or even college. Many women begin their careers in adulthood.
Geisha still study traditional instruments: the shamisen, shakuhachi, and drums, as well as learning games, traditional songs, calligraphy, Japanese traditional dances (in the nihonbuyō style), tea ceremony, literature, and poetry. Women dancers drawing their art from butō (a classical Japanese dance) were trained by the Hanayagi school, whose top dancers performed internationally. Ichinohe Sachiko choreographed and performed traditional dances in Heian court costumes, characterized by the slow, formal, and elegant motions of this classical age of Japanese culture in which geisha are trained.
By watching other geisha, and with the assistance of the owner of the geisha house, apprentices also become skilled dealing with clients and in the complex traditions surrounding selecting and wearing kimono, a floor length silk robe embroidered with intricate designs which is held together by a sash at the waist which is called an obi.
Kyoto is considered by many to be where the geisha tradition is the strongest today, including Gion Kobu. The geisha in these districts are known as geiko. The Tokyo hanamachi of Shimbashi, Asakusa and Kagurazaka are also well known.
In modern Japan, geisha and maiko are now a rare sight outside hanamachi. In the 1920s, there were over 80,000 geisha in Japan, but today, there are far fewer. The exact number is unknown to outsiders and is estimated to be from 1,000 to 2,000, mostly in the resort town of Atami. Most common are sightings of tourists who pay a fee to be dressed up as a maiko.
A sluggish economy, declining interest in the traditional arts, the exclusive nature of the flower and willow world, and the expense of being entertained by geisha have all contributed to the tradition's decline.
Geisha are often hired to attend parties and gatherings, traditionally at ochaya (お茶屋?, literally "tea houses") or at traditional Japanese restaurants (ryōtei). The charge for a geisha's time (measured by burning incense stick) is called senkōdai (線香代, "incense stick fee") or gyokudai (玉代 "jewel fee"). In Kyoto, the terms ohana (お花) and hanadai (花代), meaning "flower fees", are preferred. The customer makes arrangements through the geisha union office (検番 kenban), which keeps each geisha's schedule and makes her appointments both for entertaining and for training.
In recent times, non-Japanese women have also become geisha. Liza Dalby worked briefly with geishas as part of her doctorate research in the 1970s, although she did not formally debut. In 2007, Australian national Fiona Graham formally debuted under the name Sayuki in the Asakusa district of Tokyo. She has been reported to be the first Caucasian to become a full-fledged geisha. As of 2013[update], Sayuki worked as an independent geisha in Japan and overseas.
Other foreign nationals who have worked as geisha in Japan include Ibu, a geiko of Ukrainian ancestry working in Anjo, Juri, a Peruvian geisha working in the resort town of Yugawara, and Fukutarō (Isabella Onou), a Romanian national working in the Izu-Nagaoka district of Shizuoka. As of October 2015, Kimicho, an American, is in training in the Oimachi district of Shinagawa, Tokyo.
While traditionally geisha have led a cloistered existence, in recent years they have become more publicly visible, and entertainment is available without requiring the traditional introduction and connections.
The most visible form of this are public dances, or odori (generally written in traditional kana spelling as をどり, rather than modern おどり), featuring both maiko and geisha. All the Kyoto hanamachi hold these annually (mostly spring, one in autumn), dating to the Kyoto exhibition of 1872, and there are many performances, with tickets being inexpensive, ranging from around 1500 yen to 4500 yen – top-price tickets also include an optional tea ceremony (tea and wagashi served by maiko) before the performance; see Kyoto hanamachi for a detailed listing. Other hanamachi also hold public dances, including some in Tokyo, but have very few performances.
Another notable event is that the geisha (including maiko) of the Kamishichiken district in northwest Kyoto serve tea to 3,000 guests on February 25 in an annual open-air tea ceremony (野点, nodate) at the plum-blossom festival (梅花祭, baikasai) at Kitano Tenman-gū shrine. As of 2010[update], these geisha also serve beer in a beer garden at Kamishichiken Kaburenjo Theatre during summer months (July to early September); another geisha beer garden is available at the Gion Shinmonso ryokan in the Gion district. These beer gardens also feature traditional dances by the geisha in the evenings.
Geisha begin their study of music and dance when they are very young and continue it throughout their lives. Geisha can work into their eighties and nineties, and are expected to train every day even after seventy years of experience.
The word geisha literally means "artist" and late in the eighteenth century this could have described an array of Japanese women artists: Shiro, purely an entertainer; kerobi, a tumbling geisha; kido, a geisha who stood at the entrance to carnivals; or joro, a prostitute and the type of woman that professional geishas have been wrongly mistaken as for many years.
The dance of the geisha has evolved from the dance performed on the kabuki stage. The "wild and outrageous" dances transformed into a more subtle, stylized, and controlled form of dance. It is extremely disciplined, similar to t'ai chi. Every dance uses gestures to tell a story and only a connoisseur can understand the subdued symbolism. For example, a tiny hand gesture represents reading a love letter, holding the corner of a handkerchief in the mouth represents coquetry and the long sleeves of the elaborate kimono are often used to symbolize dabbing tears.
The dances are accompanied by traditional Japanese music. The primary instrument is the shamisen. The shamisen was introduced to the geisha culture in 1750 and has been mastered by female Japanese artists for years. This shamisen, originating in Okinawa, is a banjo-like three-stringed instrument that is played with a plectrum. It has a very distinct, melancholy sound that is often accompanied by flute. The instrument is described as "melancholy" because traditional shamisen music uses only minor thirds and sixths. All geisha must learn shamisen-playing, though it takes years to master. Along with the shamisen and the flute, geisha also learned to play a ko-tsuzumi, a small, hourglass-shaped shoulder drum, and a large floor taiko (drum). Some geisha would not only dance and play music, but would write beautiful, melancholy poems. Others painted pictures or composed music.
Geisha and prostitution
There is debate over whether or not geisha are prostitutes. While both sides of the debate acknowledge that until the 1950s, geisha routinely performed one initial act of paid sex, there has been a sharp dispute over whether this act – called mizuage – should be considered an act of prostitution.
K.G. Marshall wrote that geisha's purpose was "to entertain their customer, be it by dancing, reciting verse, playing musical instruments, or engaging in light conversation. Geisha engagements may include flirting with men and playful innuendos; however, clients know that nothing more can be expected. In a social style that is common in Japan, men are amused by the illusion of that which is never to be."
Furthermore, Sheridan Prasso wrote that Americans had "an incorrect impression of the real geisha world, where geisha means "arts person" trained in music and dance, not in the art of sexual pleasure."
In contrast, a Seton Hall law article said that although "geisha were seen as trained entertainers and forbidden to engage in the practice of prostitution, one knowledgeable official estimated that three-fourths of geisha were prostitutes in 1929."
Geisha evolved from the Edo period's high-class courtesans known as oiran, who (like geisha) wore elaborate hairstyles and white makeup, but knotted their obi in the front. During the Edo period, prostitution in Japan was legal. Prostitutes such as the oiran worked within walled-in districts licensed by the government. In the late eighteenth century, dancing women called "odoriko" and newly popular female geisha began entertaining men at banquets in unlicensed districts. Some were apprehended for illegal prostitution and sent to the licensed quarters, where there was a strict distinction between geisha and prostitutes, and the former were forbidden to sell sex. In contrast, "machi geisha", who worked outside the licensed districts, often engaged in illegal prostitution.
In 1872, shortly after the Meiji Restoration, the new government passed a law liberating "prostitutes (shōgi) and geisha (geigi)". The wording of this statute was the subject of controversy. Some officials thought that prostitutes and geisha worked at different ends of the same profession—selling sex— and that all prostitutes should henceforth be called "geisha". In the end, the government decided to maintain a line between the two groups, arguing that geisha were more refined and should not be soiled by association with prostitutes.
Also, geisha working in onsen towns such as Atami are dubbed onsen geisha. Onsen geisha have been given a bad reputation due to the prevalence of prostitutes in such towns who market themselves as "geisha," as well as sordid rumors of dance routines like Shallow River (which involves the "dancers" lifting the skirts of their kimono higher and higher). In contrast to these "one-night geisha," the true onsen geisha are in fact competent dancers and musicians. However, the autobiography of Sayo Masuda, an onsen geisha who worked in Nagano Prefecture in the 1930s, reveals that in the past, such women were often under intense pressure to sell sex.
Personal relationships and danna
Geisha are expected to be single women; those who choose to marry must retire from the profession.
It was traditional in the past for established geisha to take a danna, or patron. A danna was typically a wealthy man, sometimes married, who had the means to support the very large expenses related to a geisha's traditional training and other costs. This sometimes occurs today as well, but very rarely. A geisha and her danna may or may not be in love, but intimacy is never viewed as a reward for the danna's financial support. The traditional conventions and values within such a relationship are very intricate and not well understood, even by many Japanese.
While it is true that a geisha is free to pursue personal relationships with men she meets through her work, such relationships are carefully chosen and unlikely to be casual. A hanamachi tends to be a very tight-knit community and a geisha's good reputation is not taken lightly.
"Geisha girls" were Japanese women who worked as prostitutes (not entertainers) during the period of the Allied Occupation of Japan. They almost exclusively serviced American GIs stationed in the country, who referred to them as "Geesha girls" (a mispronunciation).
These women dressed in kimono and imitated the look of geisha. Many Americans unfamiliar with the Japanese culture could not tell the difference between legitimate geisha and these costumed performers. Shortly after their arrival in 1945, some occupying American GIs are said to have congregated in Ginza and shouted, "We want geesha girls!"
Mizuage (水揚げ) was a ceremony frequently undergone by courtesans, and rumored to have been undergone by maiko, where a man paid money for the privilege of having sex with the apprentice. Historical sources paint a confusing picture as to whether or not true maiko underwent this ceremony, as prostitutes posing as geisha often used this term to refer to their acts with customers. Such prostitutes often called themselves "geisha" in the company of foreign soldiers and even Japanese customers, thus leading to the confusion between the roles of the two.
During the Edo period, courtesans undergoing mizuage were sponsored by a patron who had the right of taking their virginity. This practice became illegal in 1959. Once the mizuage patron's function was served (of deflowering the young courtesan) he was to have no further relations with the girl.
The money acquired for an apprentice's mizuage was a great sum and it was used to promote her debut as a full-fledged courtesan. The ceremonial deflowering of the young girl was not only a commercial transaction, but was a rite of passage: The idea that maiko underwent mizuage can be attributed to both confusion between true geisha and courtesan, as well as the idea that a fully fledged geisha is a sophisticated "professional woman" expected to have worldly knowledge of the opposite sex.
mizuage is technically illegal. Yet it is one of those things that while officially denied, still undoubtedly occurs sub rosa. Since apprentice maiko are now all over the age of consent anyway, they currently have a say in whether they have a mizuage or not, and it is no longer mandatory to be deflowered in order to come of age as a geisha.— Liza Dalby, East Wind Melts the Ice
A geisha's appearance changes throughout her career, from the girlish, heavily made-up maiko, to the more sombre appearance of an older established geisha. Different hairstyles and hairpins signify different stages of a girl's development and even a detail as minute as the length of one's eyebrows is significant. Short eyebrows are for the young and long eyebrows display maturity.
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In modern times the traditional makeup of apprentice geisha is one of their most recognizable characteristics, though established geisha generally only wear full white face makeup characteristic of maiko during special performances.
The traditional makeup of an apprentice geisha features a thick white base with red lipstick and red and black accents around the eyes and eyebrows. Originally, the white base mask was made with lead; after the discovery that it poisoned the skin and caused terrible skin and back problems for the older geisha towards the end of the Meiji Era, it was replaced with rice powder.
The application of makeup is hard to perfect and is time-consuming. Makeup is applied before dressing to avoid dirtying the kimono. First, a wax or oil substance called bintsuke-abura is applied to the skin. Next, white powder is mixed with water into a paste and applied with a bamboo brush starting from the neck and working upwards. The white makeup covers the face, neck, and chest, with two or three unwhitened areas (forming a W or V shape, usually a traditional W shape) left on the nape, to accentuate this traditionally erotic area, and a line of bare skin around the hairline, which creates the illusion of a mask.
After the foundation layer is applied, a sponge is patted all over the face, throat, chest, the nape and neck to remove excess moisture and to blend the foundation. Next the eyes and eyebrows are drawn in. Traditionally, charcoal was used, but today, modern cosmetics are used. The eyebrows and edges of the eyes are colored black with a thin charcoal; a maiko also applies red around her eyes.
The lips are filled in using a small brush. The color comes in a small stick, which is melted in water. Crystallized sugar is then added to give the lips lustre. Rarely will a geisha color in both lips fully in the Western style, as white creates optical illusions and colouring the lips fully would make them appear overly large. The lower lip is colored in partially and the upper lip left white for maiko in her first year, after which the upper lip is colored. Newly full-fledged geisha will color in only the top lip fully. Most geisha wear the top lip colored in fully or stylized, and the bottom lip in a curved stripe that does not follow the shape of the lip. Geisha round the bottom lips to create the illusion of a flower bud.
Maiko who are in their last stage of training sometimes color their teeth black for a brief period. This practice used to be common among married women in Japan and, earlier, at the imperial court, but survives only in some districts. It is done partly because uncoloured teeth seem very yellow in contrast to white face makeup; colouring the teeth black means that they seem to "disappear" in the darkness of the open mouth. This illusion is of course more pronounced at a distance.
For the first three years, a maiko wears this heavy makeup almost constantly. During her initiation, the maiko is helped with her makeup either by her onee-san, or "older sister" (an experienced geisha who is her mentor), or by the okaa-san, or "mother" of her geisha house. After this, she applies the makeup herself.
After a maiko has been working for three years, she changes her make-up to a more subdued style. The reason for this is that she has now become mature, and the simpler style shows her own natural beauty. For formal occasions, the mature geisha will still apply white make-up. For geisha over thirty, the heavy white make-up is only worn during those special dances that require it.
Geisha always wear kimono. Apprentice geisha wear highly colorful kimono with extravagant obi. The obi is brighter than the kimono she is wearing to give a certain exotic balance. Maiko of Kyoto wear the obi tied in a style called "darari" (dangling obi), while Tokyo "hangyoku" wear it tied in various ways, including taiko musubi. Older geisha of Kyoto wear more subdued patterns and styles (most notably the obi tied in a simpler knot used by married women known as the "taiko musubi" (太鼓結び), or "drum knot"). Tokyo and Kanazawa geisha wear "yanagi musubi" (柳結び?, willow style), taiko musubi and "tsunodashi musubi" (甬出結び?).
An apprentice geisha's kimono will have, in addition to the heavy dangling obi, pocketed sleeves called "furi" that dangle all the way to the ground. During a dance or performance, an apprentice must wrap the pocketed sleeves around her arms many times to avoid tripping.
The color, pattern, and style of kimono is dependent on the season and the event the geisha is attending. In winter, geisha can be seen wearing a three-quarter length haori lined with hand-painted silk over their kimono. Lined kimono are worn during colder seasons, and unlined kimono during the summer. A kimono can take from two to three years to complete, due to painting and embroidering.
Geiko wear red or pink nagajuban, or under-kimono. A maiko wears red with white printed patterns. The junior maiko's collar is predominantly red with white, silver, or gold embroidery. Two to three years into her apprenticeship, the red collar will be entirely embroidered in white (when viewed from the front) to show her seniority. At around age 20, her collar will turn from red to white.
Geisha wear the flat-soled sandal zori outdoors and wear only tabi (white split-toed socks) indoors. In inclement weather geisha wear raised wooden clogs, called geta. Maiko wear a special wooden clog known as okobo.
Under modern labor laws, girls cannot begin apprenticeship in the geisha world until they are eighteen (with an exception for Kyoto, where fifteen-year-old girls can become full-time apprentice maiko) but they used to enter at age eleven or twelve and be full geisha by eighteen. Mineko Iwasaki, the inspirational character for Arthur Golden's Memoirs of a Geisha explains, "The whole idea is perfection. That's why we need so much training. We can't charge guests to look at imperfection. It has to be perfect."
The hairstyles of geisha have varied through history. In the past, it has been common for women to wear their hair down in some periods and up in others. During the 17th century, women began putting all their hair up again, and it is during this time that the traditional shimada hairstyle, a type chignon worn by most established geisha, developed.
There are four major types of the shimada: the taka shimada, a high chignon usually worn by young, single women; the tsubushi shimada, a more flattened chignon generally worn by older women; the uiwata, a chignon that is usually bound up with a piece of colored cotton crepe; and a style that resembles a divided peach, which is worn only by maiko. This is sometimes called "momoware", or "split peach". Additional hairstyles are Ofuku, Katsuyama, Yakko-shimada, and Sakko. Maiko of Miyagawa-chō and Pontochō will wear an additional six hairstyles leading up to the Sakko, including Umemodoki, Oshidori no Hina, Kikugasane, and Osafune.
These hairstyles are decorated with elaborate hair-combs and hairpins (kanzashi). In the seventeenth century and after the Meiji Restoration period, hair-combs were large and conspicuous, generally more ornate for higher-class women. Following the Meiji Restoration and into the modern era, smaller and less conspicuous hair-combs became more popular.
Geisha sleep with their necks on small supports (takamakura), instead of pillows, so they keep their hairstyle perfect. To reinforce this habit, their mentors would pour rice around the base of the support. If the geisha's head rolled off the support while she slept, rice would stick to the pomade in her hair. Even if there are no accidents, a maiko will need her hair styled every week. Many modern geisha use wigs in their professional lives, while maiko use their natural hair. Either must be regularly tended by highly skilled artisans. Traditional hairstyling is a slowly dying art. Over time, the hairstyle can cause balding on the top of the head.
In popular culture
The growing interest in geisha and their exotic appearance have spawned various popular culture phenomena both in Japan and in the West. Western interest in geisha increased with the 1997 novel and 2005 film Memoirs of a Geisha and the autobiography of former geisha Iwasaki Mineko, titled Geisha of Gion.
- Masuda, Sayo (1957). Autobiography of a Geisha (芸者,苦闘の半生涯 Geisha, kutō no hanshōgai, lit. Geisha, Half a Lifetime of Pain and Struggle). ISBN 0-231-12951-3.
- Dalby, Liza (1983). Geisha. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04742-7.
- Dalby, Liza (1993). Kimono: Fashioning Culture. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05639-7.
- Dalby, Liza (2000). The Tale of Murasaki. First Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-49795-4.
- Dalby, Liza (2007). East Wind Melts the Ice. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-25053-2.
- Dalby, Liza (2009). Hidden Buddhas. Stone Bridge Press.
- Mineko, Iwasaki & Brown, Rande Gail (2002). Geisha of Gion. Atria.
- Shikibu, Murasaki (early 11th century). The Tale of Genji (源氏物語 Genji Monogatari). Check date values in:
In geisha photography
- Ogino, Naoyuki (2007). A Girl Inherited Maiko (Apprentice Geisha) Life. Japan: Canon Gallery.
- Ogino, Naoyuki (photographs) & Komomo (text) (2008). A Geisha's Journey. Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4-7700-3067-2.
- Perkins, P.D. (text) & Haar, Francis (photographs) (1954). Geisha of Pontocho. Tokyo News Service.
- Sisters of the Gion (1936)—Dir. Kenji Mizoguchi
- The Life of Oharu (西鶴一代女 Saikaku Ichidai Onna) (1952)—Dir. Kenji Mizoguchi
- A Geisha (祇園囃子, Gion bayashi) (1953)—Dir. Kenji Mizoguchi
- The Teahouse of the August Moon (1956)—Dir. Daniel Mann
- The Barbarian and the Geisha (1958)—Dir. John Huston
- The Geisha Boy (1958)—Dir. Frank Tashlin
- Late Chrysanthemums (Bangiku) (1958)—Dir. Mikio Naruse
- Cry for Happy (1961)—George Marshall comedy
- My Geisha (1962)—Dir. Jack Cardiff
- The Wolves (1971)—Dir. Hideo Gosha
- The World of Geisha (1973)—Dir. Tatsumi Kumashiro
- In the Realm of the Senses (1976)—Dir. Nagisa Oshima
- Ihara Saikaku Koshoku Ichidai Otoko (1991)—Dir. Yukio Abe
- The Geisha House (1999)—Dir. Kinji Fukasaku
- The Sea is Watching (2002)—Dir. Kei Kumai
- Zatoichi (2003)—Dir. Takeshi Kitano
- Fighter in the Wind (2004)—Dir. Yang Yun-ho
- Memoirs of a Geisha (2005)—Dir. Rob Marshall
- Wakeful Nights (2005)—Dir. Masahiko Tsugawa
- Maiko Haaaan!!! (2007)—Dir. Nobuo Mizuta
- "Geisha Girl" on Foreign Love—Hank Locklin (#4 in US Country in 1957)
- "Lost to a Geisha Girl" on Blueberry Hill—Skeeter Davis (#15 in US Country in 1958, answer to the previous)
- Ichiriki Chaya
- Yiji, a similar profession in China
- Kisaeng, a similar profession in Korea
- Ca trù, a similar profession in Vietnam
- 'Geisha' pronounced in Japanese, Forvo, the pronunciation dictionary
- Masuda, Sayo, 2003, Autobiography of a Geisha, trans. G.G. Rowley, Columbia University Press, New York ISBN 0-231-12951-3
- "World's oldest geisha looks to future to preserve past". 2007-12-03.
Girls in the past could become apprentice geishas from the age of 13, but it is now illegal to become an apprentice before 18 except in Kyoto where a girl can be an apprentice at 15.
- Prasso (May 2006). "The Real Memoirs of Geisha". The Asian Mystique: Dragon Ladies, Geisha Girls, and Our Fantasies of the Exotic Orient. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-58648-394-4.
- Downer, L. (February 2004) . "In Search of Sadayakko". Madame Sadayakko The Geisha Who Bewitched the West. Gotham. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-59240-050-8.
- Gallagher, John. Geisha: A Unique World of Tradition, Elegance, and Art. London: PRC, 2003. ISBN 1-85648-697-4
- "History of geisha". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- Lesley Downer, "The City Geisha and Their Role in Modern Japan: Anomaly or artistes", in Martha Feldman and Bonnie Gordon, eds, The Courtesan's Arts: Cross-Cultural Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006; ISBN 0-19-517028-8), pp. 223–242.[vague]
- Fujimoto, Taizo (1917). The Story of the Geisha Girl. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4086-9684-2.
- Seigle, C. S. (March 1993) . "Rise of the Geisha". Yoshiwara: the glittering world of the Japanese courtesan (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8248-1488-5.
- Fiorillo, J. "Osaka Prints: Glossary".
geiko: 'Arts child,' originally dancing girls who were too young to be called geisha but too old (more than twenty years of age) to be called odoriko. Geiko was the pronunciation used in the Kamigata region. Some geiko operated as illegal prostitutes. By the nineteenth century the term became synonymous with geisha.
- Tiefenbrun, S (2003). "Copyright Infringement, Sex Trafficking, and the Fictional Life of a Geisha". Michigan Journal of Gender & Law 10: 32. doi:10.2139/ssrn.460747. SSRN 460747.
- Gallagher, J. (October 2003). "Appendix II a timeline of geisha and related history". Geisha: a unique world of tradition, elegance, and art. PRC Publishing. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-85648-697-2.—Gallagher says that "Kiku" from Fukugawa district founded the profession in 1750, and that by 1753 one hundred odoriko were consigned to Yoshiwara, which licensed (female) Geisha in 1761.
- Seigle (1931) p. 172-174
- Haworth, Abigail (November 2009). "Meet Japan’s First Western Geisha". Marie Claire. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Dalby, L. C. "The paradox of modernity". geisha. p. 74. OCLC 260152400.
- Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (October 2002). Kamikaze, Cherry Blossoms, and Nationalisms: The Militarization of Aesthetics in Japanese History. University Of Chicago Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-226-62091-6.
[Before 1796] kuruwa geisha referred to the geisha in the geisha quarters who entertained their clients with the skills and performing arts and also offered their bodies. The term yūjo and jorō were used to distinguish them from machi geisha, who were exclusively entertainers [...] some of the latter too engaged in sexual services
- Dalby, Liza (1998). Geisha. Berkeley: University of California.
- Dalby, Liza. "Do They or Don't They". Retrieved 12 January 2010.
The question always comes up...just how 'available' is a geisha? [...] There is no simple answer.
- Melissa Hope Ditmore (2006). Encyclopedia of prostitution and sex work. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32969-9., page 184 
- Japan encyclopedia. Belknap Pr of Harvard U. 2005. ISBN 0-674-01753-6.page 234
- Reynolds, Wayne; Gallagher, John (2003). Geisha : A Unique World of Tradition, Elegance and Art. PRC Publishing. p. 135. ISBN 1-85648-697-4.
- Struck, Doug (2000-03-26). "'Memoirs of a Geisha': From a silken world, feelings of betrayal". The Seattle Times.
Until about three years ago, there was bidding for mizuage. For an 18-year-old geiko, the average was about 15 million yen," or $143,000, says a young geisha now working in Gion. She claims that men bid for her virginity three years ago.
- Sims, C. (2001-06-19). "ARTS ABROAD; A Geisha, a Successful Novel and a Lawsuit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
Mr. Golden has said in past interviews with other publications that Ms. Iwasaki told him that her mizuage in 1970 set a bidding record, a contention she strongly denies.
- Taubman, Howard. "Geisha Tradition Is Bowing Out in Japan; Geishas Fighting Losing Battle Against New Trends in Japan", The New York Times. June 12, 1968. Page 49. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Mineko, Iwasaki; Rande Brown (2003). Geisha, A Life. New York: Washington Square.
- "Kyoto Gokagai". Kyoto Traditional Musical Art Foundation.—At the time Liza Dalby was studying the Kyoto geiko community (1975) Shimabara was a working hanamachi; it has since become a museum. The total number of Kyoto geisha had declined to 196 by 2007 (and 77 maiko) -see: "Preface "Geisha in the 21st Century" in the 25th anniversary edition of Geisha". 2008.
- Dalby—Geisha 2008 p. 17–18
- Russell, J. (1995-02-27). "Rebel geisha wanna-bes strike out on their own".
Traditionally patronized by the rich, maiko at establishment houses charge $400 to $600 an hour(This was the half-jewel fee.)
- As reported by Dalby (1983) from her impressions in 1975 (Geisha 2008 p.18,77,&148)
- In 1975 Liza Dalby's okāsan said "you should know about Miyagawa-chō. There's a word called 'double registration'—that's what many of the geisha in areas like that are." (Geisha 2008 p.6)
- Miles, S. "Gion, the Geisha District of Kyoto".
The estimated cost for the 5 year apprenticeship, $0.50M US. This may explain that the number of registered Geisha's in Kyoto is now just 223, less than a 5th of the numbers during the peak of area in the early 1900s
- Iwasaki, Rande (October 2002). Geisha: A Life (first ed.). Atria. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7434-4432-3.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Tetsuo, I. Nihongami no sekai [The World of traditional hairstyles and hair ornaments]. Nihongami Shiryōkan. ISBN 4-9902186-1-2.
- Layton, J. "Dressing as a Geisha".
- Bacarr, J. (May 2004). The Japanese Art of Sex: How to Tease, Seduce, and Pleasure the Samurai in Your Bedroom. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-880656-84-6.
- Reynolds, Wayne; Gallagher, John (2003). Geisha : A Unique World of Tradition, Elegance and Art. PRC Publishing. ISBN 1-85648-697-4. page 159
- De Mente, Boye (1966). Some Prefer Geisha. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company.
- Champeon, Kenneth (3 November 2002). "The Floating World". Things Asian. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- McCurry, J. (2005-12-11). "Career geisha outgrow the stereotype". The Age (Melbourne). p. 3. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Wieder, Tamara (17 October 2002). "Remaking a memoir". Boston Phoenix. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Collins, Sarah (24 December 2007). "Japanese Feminism". Serendip's Exchange. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Hua, Julietta (2009). ""Gucci Geishas" and Post-feminism". Academic Search Premier.
- Jones, N. (2007-04-20). "Japan's geisha hit by poor economy". The Washington Times.
now more [university] students are interested in becoming geisha
- Kalman, B. (2008). Japan the Culture. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7787-9298-7.
- McCurry, J. (2005-12-11). "Career geisha outgrow the stereotype, page 2". Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Coutsoukis, Photius (2004-11-10). "Japan Performing Arts". Retrieved 2009-06-02. Originally from The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook.
- Coutsoukis, Photius (2004-11-10). "Japan Dance". Retrieved 2009-06-02. Originally from The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook.
- Tames, Richard (September 1993). A Traveller's History of Japan. Brooklyn, New York: Interlink Books. ISBN 1-56656-138-8.
- Kalman, Bobbie (March 1989). Japan the Culture. Stevens Point, Wisconsin: Crabtree Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86505-206-9.
- Dougill, John (2006). Kyoto: a cultural history. Oxford University Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-19-530137-4.
- Merriam-Webster, Inc (2000). Merriam-Webster's collegiate encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster, Inc. p. 639. ISBN 0-87779-017-5.
- Lies, Elaine (2008-04-23). "Modern-day geisha triumphs in closed, traditional world". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- "Near extinction". Reuters. December 2007.
An economic downturn in the 1990s forced businessmen to cut back on entertainment expenses, while high-profile scandals in recent years have made politicians eschew excessive spending. A dinner can cost around 80,000 yen (US$1,058) per head, depending on the venue and the number of geishas present. But even before the 90s, men were steadily giving up on late-night parties at 'ryotei", restaurants with traditional straw-mat tatami rooms where geishas entertain, in favour of the modern comforts of hostess bars and karaoke rooms.
- Hyslop, Leah (4 October 2010). "Liza Dalby, the blue-eyed geisha". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Liza, Dalby (1983). Geisha. London: Vintage U.K. pp. 106–109. ISBN 9780099286387.
- "Turning Japanese: the first foreign geisha". London: The Independent. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- Ryall, Julian (2008-01-09). "Westerner inducted into mysteries of geisha". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- Cybriwsky, Roman A. "significant entries and terms". Historical Dictionary of Tokyo. Scarecrow Press. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "The Western woman who became a geisha". Tokyo: The National. Retrieved 2014-11-14.
- Chunichi Shimbun, 1 October 2011, 3rd opening
- Gilhooly, Rob (2011-07-23). "Romanian woman thrives as geisha". Tokyo: The Japan Times. Retrieved 2014-10-26.
- "Life inside the Flower and Willow World - Wattention". Wattention (in Japanese). Retrieved 2015-10-23.
- "インタビュー01 君蝶 | 東京花柳界情報舎". karyuukai.jp. August 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-21.
- Maiko Dance
- Geisha dances
- Baika-sai (Plum Festival), Kyoto Travel Guide
- Open-Air Tea Ceremony with the Scent of Plum Blossoms: Plum Blossom Festival at Kitano Tenman-gu Shrine, Kyoto Shimbun, 2007.2.25
- Demetriou, Danielle (2010-07-16). "Geishas serve beer instead of tea and conversation as downturn hits Japan". Telegraph.co.uk.
- "Geisha beer garden opens in Kyoto". Sydney Morning Herald. 2010-07-09.
- Geisha gardens in Kyoto, 12 Jul 2010 – contact information
- Jones, N. (2007-04-20). "Japan's geisha hit by poor economy". The Washington Times.
Even the older sisters who became geisha as teenagers, they are [now] over 80 but still train every day
- Maske, Andrew L. "Geisha Beyond the Painted Smile." Peabody:Peabody Essex Museum, 2004:104
- Henshall, K. G., 1999, A History of Japan, Macmillan Press LTD, London, ISBN 0-333-74940-5, page 61
- Asian Mystique, page 52
- Peterfreund, Tenica. "Japan's prostitiution prevention law: the case of the missing geisha". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Seigle, Cecilia Segawa (1993). Yoshiwara: the glittering world of the Japanese courtesan. [Honolulu]: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1488-6. pages 170–175.
- Matsugu, Miho, 2006, "In the Service of the Nation: Geisha and Kawabata Yasunari's "Snow Country"", in Martha Feldman and Bonnie Gordon, ed. The Courtesan's Arts, Oxford University Press, London, ISBN 0-19-517028-8, page 244
- Though all geisha have been unmarried, married women, like Sada Yacco, have been described as geisha after having retired, for example see: Downer, L. (February 2004) . "4". Madame Sadayakko The Geisha Who Bewitched the West. Gotham. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-1-59240-050-8.
- Some geisha say that a man will always be in a sexual relationship with a geisha before he will sponsor her: Graham, K. (2006-01-08). "Geisha confidential". London: The Telegraph.
Given that geishas themselves, it seems, can't agree on what they do or don't do, it's not a surprise that outsiders sometimes struggle to get their facts straight.[dead link]
- Prasso, Sheridan. "The Asian Mystique." New York: Public Affairs, 2005:206
- Ozeki, R. (2005). Inside and other short fiction: Japanese women by Japanese women. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-3006-1.
- Alan Booth, Looking for the Lost: Journeys Through a Vanishing Japan Kodansha Globe Series, 1995. ISBN 1-56836-148-3
- Dalby, L. (February 2009). "waters dry up". East Wind Melts the Ice: A Memoir through the Seasons by Liza Dalby. University of California Press. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0-520-25991-1.
the resulting official line that geisha live by art alone is unrealistically prudish
- Seigle, Cecilia Segawa (1993). Yoshiwara: the glittering world of the Japanese courtesan. [Honolulu]: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1488-6. page 179.
- Liza Crihfield Dalby. Geisha. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)
- Lesley Downer. Geisha: The Secret History of a Vanishing World. (London: Headline Book Publishing, 2000) Pages 256–266.
- "Yukina: Japan". BBC. 2005-02-21.
At the age of 15, a Japanese girl is allowed by law to become a "maiko" or apprentice geisha
- "Career geisha". The Age (Melbourne). 2005-12-11.
Fifteen-year-old Shinaka [...] has just started her training.
- "A Week in the Life of: Koaki, Apprentice Geisha – Schooled in the arts of pleasure". London: The Independent. 1998-08-08.
- Aihara, Kyoko. Geisha: A Living Tradition. London: Carlton Books, 2000. ISBN 1-85868-937-6, ISBN 1-85868-970-8.
- Ariyoshi Sawako, The Twilight Years. Translated by Mildred Tahara. New York: Kodansha America, 1987.
- Burns, Stanley B., and Elizabeth A. Burns. Geisha: A Photographic History, 1872–1912. Brooklyn, N.Y.: powerHouse Books, 2006. ISBN 1-57687-336-6.
- Downer, Lesley. Women of the Pleasure Quarters: The Secret History of the Geisha. New York: Broadway Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7679-0489-3, ISBN 0-7679-0490-7.
- Foreman, Kelly. "The Gei of Geisha. Music, Identity, and Meaning." London: Ashgate Press, 2008.
- Ishihara, Tetsuo. Peter MacIntosh, trans. Nihongami no Sekai: Maiko no kamigata (The World of Traditional Japanese Hairstyles: Hairstyles of the Maiko). Kyōtō: Dōhōsha Shuppan, 1993. ISBN 4-8104-1294-6.
- Iwasaki, Mineko, with Rande Brown. Geisha, A Life (also known as Geisha of Gion). New York: Atria Books, 2002. ISBN 0-7434-4432-9, ISBN 0-7567-8161-2; ISBN 0-7434-3059-X.
- Scott, A.C. The Flower and Willow World; The Story of the Geisha. New York: Orion Press, 1960.
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