Ventral striatum

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Ventral striatum
Details
Latin Striatum ventrale
Identifiers
NeuroLex ID Ventral striatum
TA A14.1.09.439
FMA 77614
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The ventral striatum is a portion of the striatum which functions as part of the reward system.[1] It consists of the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle.[2] In non-primate species, the islands of Calleja are included.

Outputs[edit]

The primary outputs of the ventral striatum project to the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. Some of its other outputs include projections to the extended amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, and pedunculopontine nucleus.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gregorios-Pippas L, Tobler PN, Schultz W (March 2009). "Short-term temporal discounting of reward value in human ventral striatum". J. Neurophysiol. 101 (3): 1507–23. doi:10.1152/jn.90730.2008. PMC 2666398. PMID 19164109. 
  2. ^ Ubeda-Bañon I, Novejarque A, Mohedano-Moriano A et al. (2007). "Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli". BMC Neurosci 8: 103. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-8-103. PMC 2216080. PMID 18047654. 
  3. ^ Ferré S, Lluís C, Justinova Z, Quiroz C, Orru M, Navarro G, Canela EI, Franco R, Goldberg SR (June 2010). "Adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions. Implications for striatal function". Br. J. Pharmacol. 160 (3): 443–453. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00723.x. PMC 2931547. PMID 20590556. Two classes of MSNs, which are homogeneously distributed in the striatum, can be differentiated by their output connectivity and their expression of dopamine and adenosine receptors and neuropeptides. In the dorsal striatum (mostly represented by the nucleus caudate-putamen), enkephalinergic MSNs connect the striatum with the globus pallidus (lateral globus pallidus) and express the peptide enkephalin and a high density of dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors (they also express adenosine A1 receptors), while dynorphinergic MSNs connect the striatum with the substantia nigra (pars compacta and reticulata) and the entopeduncular nucleus (medial globus pallidus) and express the peptides dynorphin and substance P and dopamine D1 and adenosine A1 but not A2A receptors (Ferréet al., 1997; Gerfen, 2004; Quiroz et al., 2009). These two different phenotypes of MSN are also present in the ventral striatum (mostly represented by the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle). However, although they are phenotypically equal to their dorsal counterparts, they have some differences in terms of connectivity. First, not only enkephalinergic but also dynorphinergic MSNs project to the ventral counterpart of the lateral globus pallidus, the ventral pallidum, which, in fact, has characteristics of both the lateral and medial globus pallidus in its afferent and efferent connectivity. In addition to the ventral pallidum, the medial globus pallidus and the substantia nigra-VTA, the ventral striatum sends projections to the extended amygdala, the lateral hypothalamus and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Finally, unlike the dorsal striatum, the substantia nigra pars reticulata is not a main target area for the ventral striatum, which preferentially directs its midbrain output to the substantia nigra pars compacta and the VTA (Heimer et al., 1995; Robertson and Jian, 1995; Ferré, 1997). It is also important to mention that a small percentage of MSNs have a mixed phenotype and express both D1 and D2 receptors (Surmeier et al., 1996). 

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