Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (American game show)
|Who Wants to Be a Millionaire|
|Developed by||Michael Davies|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||20 (3 on ABC, 17 in syndication)|
|No. of episodes||ABC: 363|
|Running time||39–48 minutes (ABC)|
19–25 minutes (syndication)
|Original network||ABC (1999–2002, 2004, 2009)|
|Picture format||480i (SDTV) (1999–2011)|
720p/1080i (HDTV) (2011–2019)
August 16, 1999 – June 27, 2002
September 16, 2002 –
May 31, 2019
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (often informally called Millionaire[note 1]) is an American television game show based on the same-titled British program and developed for the United States by Michael Davies. The show features a quiz competition in which contestants attempt to win a top prize of $1,000,000 by answering a series of multiple-choice questions of increasing difficulty (although, for a time, most of the questions were of random difficulty). The program endured as one of the longest-running and most successful international variants in the Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? franchise.
The original U.S. version aired one, two or three evenings a week on ABC from August 16, 1999, to June 27, 2002, and was hosted by Regis Philbin. The weekday syndicated version of the show began airing on September 16, 2002, and was hosted for eleven seasons by Meredith Vieira until May 31, 2013. Later hosts included Cedric the Entertainer in the 2013–14 season, Terry Crews in the following season (2014–15), and Chris Harrison, who hosted from September 14, 2015, until May 31, 2019, when the syndicated series was canceled.
As the first U.S. network game show to offer a million-dollar top prize, the show made television history by becoming one of the highest-rated game shows in the history of American television. The U.S. Millionaire won seven Daytime Emmy Awards, and TV Guide ranked it No. 6 in its 2013 list of the 60 greatest game shows of all time.
- 1 Gameplay
- 2 Personnel
- 3 Production
- 4 Broadcast history
- 5 Special editions
- 6 Reception
- 7 Other media
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
At its core, the game is a quiz competition in which the goal is to correctly answer a series of fourteen (originally fifteen) consecutive multiple-choice questions. The questions are of increasing difficulty, except in the 2010–15 format overhaul, where the contestants were faced with a round of ten questions of random difficulty, followed by a round of four questions of increasing difficulty. Each question is worth a specified amount of money; the amounts are cumulative in the first round, but not in the second. If at any time the contestant gives a wrong answer, the game is over and the contestant's winnings are reduced (or increased, in the first two questions) to $1,000 for tier-one questions, $5,000 for tier-two questions, and $50,000 for tier-three questions. However, the contestant may choose to stop playing after being presented with a question, allowing them to keep all the money they have won to that point. With the exception of the shuffle format, upon correctly answering questions five and ten, contestants are guaranteed at least the amount of prize money associated with that level. If the contestant gives an incorrect answer, their winnings drop down to the last milestone achieved. Since 2015, if the contestant answers a question incorrectly before reaching question five, he or she leaves with $1,000, even on the first question that is worth only $500. For celebrities, the minimum guarantee for their nominated charities is $10,000. Prior to the shuffle format, a contestant left with nothing if they answered a question incorrectly before reaching the first milestone. In the shuffle format, contestants who incorrectly answered a question had their winnings reduced to $1,000 in round one and $25,000 in round two.
Original format (1999–2008)
From 1999 to 2002, 10 contestants played a round of the Fastest Finger to determine who would play in the hot seat. The participants would be confronted with one question and four answers, and they would have to set the four answers in the correct order (ascending, chronological, etc.) in the fastest time. The competitor who did so correctly in the fastest time would play. If nobody got the correct order, the round was played again, and when a tie breaker occurred, the remaining participants answered a second Fastest Finger question. This round was removed when the syndicated version began in 2002, though it returned in 2004 for Super Millionaire and in 2009 for the 10th Anniversary shows. The format remained unchanged, except for changes to the money staircase and the addition of a new lifeline, until 2008.
Clock format (2008–2010)
In 2008, the format was altered to include a time limit on each question. The amount of time for each question was as follows:
- Questions 1–5: 15 seconds
- Questions 6–10: 30 seconds
- Questions 11–14: 45 seconds
- Question 15: 45 seconds, plus the total of all unused time from the previous 14 questions
The timer began to run as soon as the four answer options were revealed, and the contestant had to give a final answer before it reached zero. If time ran out, the game ended and the contestant left with whatever money they had won to that point. If this happened while the Double Dip lifeline was in effect, the contestant's winnings were instead reduced to the last safe haven they had reached.
While the clock format was in use, the contestant was shown the categories of all 15 questions in the order they would be asked.
Shuffle format (2010–2015)
The format was overhauled in September 2010, splitting the game into two rounds. The first round consisted of 10 questions, each in a different category and worth a different amount from $100 to $25,000. Both the category order and the amounts were randomized at the start of the game, with the latter hidden from the contestant's view. The difficulty level and value of each question were not tied to one another. The value of each question was revealed only after the contestant answered it correctly or chose to "jump" (skip) it; a correct answer added the money to the contestant's bank, while a jump put the value out of play. The maximum bank from this round was $68,600. If the contestant missed a question in the first round, they left with $1,000, even if their bank was lower than this total. Choosing to stop allowed the contestant to keep half their bank.
The second round presented four questions of increasing difficulty in the traditional format, each of which augmented the contestant's total winnings to a set value. A miss in this round reduced their winnings to $25,000. Categories for these questions were not given ahead of time.
From 2011–2014, some weeks were "Double Your Money" weeks, in which one first-round question was randomly designated as being worth double value. The maximum potential bank from this round thus became $93,600.
Final format (2015–2019)
With the hiring of new host Chris Harrison, the format was changed once again to resemble that of the original Millionaire. Each contestant faces 14 general-knowledge questions of increasing difficulty, with no time limit or information about the categories. As of 2017, a contestant who misses any of the first five questions leaves with $1,000, even if the missed question is of a lower value.
Five different ladders have been used over the course of the series:
$100, $500, $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $5,000, $7,000, $10,000, $15,000, and $25,000
The $500,000 and $1,000,000 prizes were initially lump-sum payments, but were changed to annuities in September 2002 when the series moved to syndication. Contestants winning either of these prizes receive $250,000 thirty days after their show broadcasts and the remainder paid in equal annual payments. The $500,000 prize consists of $25,000 per year for 10 years, while the $1,000,000 prize consists of $37,500 per year for 20 years.
From 2017–2019, contestants who answered one of the first five questions incorrectly received a $1,000 consolation prize. On the original primetime version and in earlier seasons of the syndicated version prior to 2010, contestants who missed one of the first five questions left with no winnings.
Forms of assistance known as "lifelines" are available for a contestant to use if a question proves difficult. Multiple lifelines may be used on a single question, but each one can only be used once per game (unless otherwise noted below). Three lifelines are available from the start of the game. Depending on the format of the show, additional lifelines may become available after the contestant correctly answers the fifth or tenth question. In the clock format, usage of lifelines temporarily pauses the clock while the lifelines are played.
- Ask the Audience (1999–2019): The audience members individually use four-button keypads to register the answer they believe is correct. The percentage of votes for each answer is immediately shown to the host, contestant, and home viewer. Beginning in 2004 and ending a few years later, AOL Instant Messenger users who added the screen name MillionaireIM to their buddy list and were online were able to receive and register answers they believed to be correct to Ask the Audience questions in real-time; these results were then shown as a separate chart to the contestant.
- 50:50 (1999–2008, 2015–2019): Two incorrect answers are eliminated, leaving the contestant with a choice between the correct answer and one remaining incorrect answer.
- +1 (2014–2019): The contestant may invite a friend onstage from the audience to assist with the current question. After the question result, the friend must return to the audience.
- Phone a Friend (1999–2010): The contestant called a pre-arranged friend and was then given 30 seconds to discuss the question with that person. In 2010, this lifeline was eliminated due to an increasing use of search engines by home viewers to look up answers.
- Switch/Cut the Question (2004–2008): Earned after answering 10 questions, this lifeline allowed a contestant to discard the current question and replace it with one of the same value. It has been used occasionally during Whiz Kids Week in the current version and is available from the outset.
- Double Dip (2004, 2008–2010): First used during Super Millionaire, this lifeline allowed a contestant to make a second guess at the answer if his/her first one was wrong. The contestant had to invoke the lifeline before making the first guess, and it was removed from play regardless of which guess was correct. In addition, the contestant could not walk away from the question after invoking the lifeline. It was introduced to the main series in 2008, replacing 50:50.
- Three Wise Men (2004): Used during Super Millionaire, this lifeline allowed the contestant 30 seconds of advice from a panel of three experts, who were sequestered backstage and saw the question only when their help was requested.
- Ask the Expert (2008–2010): Based on Three Wise Men, the lifeline was earned after answering five questions correctly until 2010, when it was given to the contestant immediately following the removal of Phone a Friend. The contestant was connected to an expert via a video call, and the two could discuss the question with no time limit.
- Jump the Question (2010–2015): This lifeline allowed the contestant to skip the current question, but the money associated with it was removed from play. It could be used twice per game from 2010–2014, but only once from 2014–2015.
- Crystal Ball (2012–2015): Used occasionally during the "shuffle" round, this lifeline allowed the contestant to see the value of the current question before either answering or jumping it (if Jump the Question had not yet been used).
Top prize winners
Over the course of the program's history, 12 people have answered the final question correctly and walked away with the top prize. These include:
- John Carpenter – Became the first winner of the top prize on November 19, 1999.
- Dan Blonsky – Second person to win the million on January 18, 2000.
- Joe Trela – Third person to win on March 23, 2000.
- Bob House – Won on June 13, 2000.
- Kim Hunt – Won on July 6, 2000.
- David Goodman – Won on July 11, 2000.
- Kevin Olmstead – Won the top prize on April 10, 2001; however, because of the jackpot having been set to increase by $10,000 each episode, he won $2,180,000 – making him the biggest winner in television history at the time. The jackpot never accumulated like this again.
- Bernie Cullen – Won the million just five days after Olmstead's win on April 15, 2001.
- Ed Toutant – Won on September 7, 2001. Originally appeared on January 31, 2001, when the jackpot was at $1,860,000 when he was ruled out after answering his $16,000 question wrong. However, it was determined that there was an error in the question, so he was invited back and won the jackpot as it was at the time.
- Kevin Smith – First syndicated millionaire, winning the top prize on February 18, 2003.
- Nancy Christy – Won the million on May 8, 2003. She is the only female top prize winner.
- Sam Murray – Answered the last question correctly during the Million Dollar Tournament of Ten and remained the only contestant to answer his question correctly on November 11, 2009.
The original network version of the U.S. Millionaire and the subsequent primetime specials were hosted by Regis Philbin. When the syndicated version was being developed, the production team felt that it was not feasible for Philbin to continue hosting, as the show recorded four episodes in a single day, and that the team was looking for qualities in a new host: it had to be somebody who would love the contestants and be willing to root for them. Rosie O'Donnell was initially offered a hosting position on this new edition, but declined the opportunity almost immediately. Eventually Meredith Vieira, who had previously competed in a celebrity charity event on the original network version, was named host of the new syndicated edition.
ABC originally offered Vieira hosting duties on the syndicated Millionaire to sweeten one of her re-negotiations for the network's daytime talk show The View, which she was moderating at the time. When the show was honored by GSN on its Gameshow Hall of Fame special, Vieira herself further explained her motivation for hosting the syndicated version as follows:
I did the show because I fell in love with the show, and really, first and foremost, as a parent, [I feel that] there aren't that many shows on television that you can watch as a family. And when Michael Davies approached me and said, "Would you be interested in hosting the syndicated version?", I said, "Just point me toward the contract! I am so there!"
From 2007 to 2011, when Vieira was concurrently working as a co-host of Today, guest hosts appeared in the second half of each season of the syndicated version. Guest hosts who filled in for Vieira included Philbin, Al Roker, Tom Bergeron, Tim Vincent, Dave Price, Billy Bush, Leeza Gibbons, Cat Deeley, Samantha Harris, Shaun Robinson, Steve Harvey, John Henson, Sherri Shepherd, Tim Gunn, and D. L. Hughley.
On January 10, 2013, Vieira announced that after eleven seasons with the syndicated Millionaire, she would be leaving the show as part of an effort to focus on other projects in her career. She finalized taping of her last episodes with the show in November 2012. While Philbin briefly considered a return to the show, Cedric the Entertainer was introduced as her successor when season twelve premiered on September 2, 2013. On April 30, 2014, Deadline announced that Cedric had decided to leave the show in order to lighten his workload, resulting in him being succeeded by Terry Crews for the 2014–15 season. Crews was succeeded by Chris Harrison, host of The Bachelor and its spin-offs, when season 14 premiered on September 14, 2015.
The original executive producers of the U.S. Millionaire were British television producers Michael Davies and Paul Smith, the latter of whom undertook the responsibility of licensing Millionaire to American airwaves as part of his effort to transform the UK program into a global franchise. Smith served until 2007 and Davies until 2010; additionally, Leigh Hampton (previously co-executive producer in the later days of the network version and in the syndicated version's first two seasons) served as an executive producer from 2004 to 2010. Rich Sirop, who was previously a supervising producer, became the executive producer in 2010 and held that position until 2014, when he left Millionaire to hold the same position with Vieira's newly launched syndicated talk show, and was replaced by James Rowley. Vincent Rubino, who had previously been the syndicated Millionaire's supervising producer for its first two seasons, served as that version's co-executive producer for the 2004–05 season, after which he was succeeded by Vieira herself, who continued to hold the title until her departure in 2013 (sharing her position with Sirop for the 2009–10 season).
Producers of the network version included Hampton, Rubino, Leslie Fuller, Nikki Webber, and Terrence McDonnell. For its first two seasons the syndicated version had Deirdre Cossman for its managing producer, then Dennis F. McMahon became producer for the next two seasons (joined by Dominique Bruballa as his line producer), after which Jennifer Weeks produced the next four seasons of syndicated Millionaire shows, initially accompanied by Amanda Zucker as her line producer, but later joined for the 2008–09 season by Tommy Cody (who became sole producer in the 2009–10 season). The first 65 shuffle format episodes were produced by McPaul Smith, and from 2011 onward, the title of producer was held by Bryan Lasseter. The network version had Ann Miller and Tiffany Trigg for its supervising producers; they were joined by Wendy Roth in the first two seasons, and by Michael Binkow in the third and final season. After Rubino's promotion to co-executive producer, the syndicated version's later supervising producers included Sirop (2004–09), Geena Gintzig (2009–10), Brent Burnette (2010–12), Geoff Rosen (2012–14), and Liz Harris (2014–16), who was the show's last co-executive producer.
The original network version of Millionaire was directed by Mark Gentile, who later served as the syndicated version's consulting producer for its first two seasons; he went on to serve as the director of Duel (which ran on ABC from December 2007 to July 2008) and Million Dollar Password (which aired on CBS from June 2008 to June 2009). The syndicated version was directed by Matthew Cohen from 2002 to 2010, by Rob George from 2010 to 2013, and by Brian McAloon in the 2013–14 season. Former The Price Is Right director Rich DiPirro (who later directed Mental Samurai) became Millionaire's director in 2014, and was later replaced by Ron de Moraes after the 2016–17 season, who remained as director until the show's cancellation.
The U.S. version of Millionaire was a co-production of 2waytraffic, a division of Sony Pictures Entertainment, and Valleycrest Productions, a division of The Walt Disney Company. 2waytraffic purchased Millionaire's original production company Celador in 2008, while Valleycrest remained throughout the show's history, and holds the copyright on all U.S. Millionaire episodes to date. The show was distributed by Valleycrest's corporate sibling Disney-ABC Home Entertainment & Television Distribution (previously known as Buena Vista Television).
The U.S. Millionaire was taped at ABC's Television Center East studio on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York from 1999 to 2012. Tapings were moved to NEP Broadcasting's Metropolis Studios in East Harlem in 2013, and production moved to studios located in Stamford, Connecticut the following year. For the final three seasons, production relocated to Bally's Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. Episodes of the syndicated version were produced from June to December. The show originally taped four episodes in a single day, but that number later changed to five.
When the U.S. version of Millionaire was first conceived in 1998, Michael Davies was a young television producer who was serving as the head of ABC's little-noticed reality programming division (at a time when reality television had not yet become a phenomenon in America). At that time, ABC was lingering in third place in the ratings indexes among U.S. broadcast networks, and was on the verge of losing its status as one of the "Big Three" networks. Meanwhile, the popularity of game shows was at an all-time low, and with the exception of The Price Is Right, the genre was absent from networks' daytime lineups at that point. Having earlier created Debt for Lifetime Television and participated with Al Burton and Donnie Brainard in the creation of Win Ben Stein's Money for Comedy Central, Davies decided to create a primetime game show that would save the network from collapse and revive interest in game shows.
Davies originally considered reviving CBS's long-lost quiz show The $64,000 Question, with a new home on ABC. However, this effort's development was limited as when the producer heard that the British Millionaire was about to make its debut, he got his friends and family members in the UK to record the show, and subsequently ended up receiving about eight FedEx packages from different family members, each containing a copy of Millionaire's first episode. Davies was so captivated by everything that he had seen and heard, from host Chris Tarrant's intimate involvement with the contestant to the show's lighting system and music tracks, that he chose to abandon his work on the $64,000 Question revival in favor of introducing Millionaire to American airwaves, convinced that it would become extraordinarily popular.
When Davies presented his ideas for the U.S. Millionaire to ABC, the network's executives initially rejected them, so he resigned his position there and became an independent producer. Determined to bring his idea for the show to fruition, Davies decided that he was betting his whole career on Millionaire's production, and the first move that he made was planning to attach a celebrity host to the show. Along with Philbin, a number of other popular television personalities were considered for hosting positions on the U.S. Millionaire during its development, including Peter Jennings, Bob Costas, Phil Donahue, and Montel Williams, but among those considered, it was Philbin who wanted the job the most, and when he saw an episode of the British Millionaire and was blown away by his content, Davies and his team ultimately settled on having him host the American show. When Davies approached ABC again after having hired Philbin, the network finally agreed to accept the U.S. Millionaire. With production now ready to begin, the team had only five months to finish developing the show and get it launched, with Davies demanding perfection in every element of Millionaire's production.
With few exceptions, any legal resident of the United States who was 18 years of age or older had the potential of becoming a contestant through Millionaire's audition process. Those ineligible included employees, immediate family or household members, and close acquaintances of SPE, Disney, or any of their respective affiliates or subsidiaries; television stations that broadcast the syndicated version; or any advertising agency or other firm or entity engaged in the production, administration, or judging of the show. Also ineligible were candidates for political office and individuals who had appeared on a different game show outside of cable that had been broadcast within the past year, was intended to be broadcast within the next year, or had played the main game on any of the U.S. versions of Millionaire itself.
Potential contestants of the original primetime version had to compete in a telephone contest which had them dial a toll-free number and answer three questions by putting objects or events in order. Callers had ten seconds to enter the order on a keypad, with any incorrect answer ending the game/call. The 10,000 to 20,000 candidates who answered all three questions correctly were selected into a random drawing in which approximately 300 contestants competed for ten spots on the show using the same phone quiz method.[note 2] Accommodations for contestants outside the New York City area included round trip airfare (or other transportation) and hotel accommodations.
The syndicated version's potential contestants, depending on tryouts, were required to pass an electronically scored test comprising a set of thirty questions which had to be answered within a 10-minute time limit. Contestants who failed the test were eliminated, while those who passed were interviewed for an audition by the production staff, and those who impressed the staff the most were then notified by postal mail that they had been placed into a pool for possible selection as contestants. At the producers' discretion, contestants from said pool were selected to appear on actual episodes of the syndicated program; these contestants were given a phone call from staff and asked to confirm the information on their initial application form and verify that they met all eligibility requirements. Afterwards, they were given a date to travel to the show's taping facilities to participate in a scheduled episode of the show. Unlike its ABC counterpart, the syndicated version did not offer transportation or hotel accommodations to contestants at the production company's expense; that version's contestants were instead required to provide transportation and accommodations of their own.
The syndicated Millionaire also conducts open casting calls in various locations across the United States to search for potential contestants. These are held in late spring or early summer, with all dates and locations posted on the show's official website. The producers make no guarantee on how many applicants will be tested at each particular venue; however, the show will not test any more than 2,500 individuals per audition day.
In cases when the show features themed episodes with two people playing as a team, auditions for these episodes' contestants are announced on the show's website. Both members of the team must pass the written test and the audition interview successfully in order to be considered for selection. If only one member of the team passes, he or she is placed into the contestant pool alone and must continue the audition process as an individual in order to proceed.
Originally, the U.S. Millionaire carried over the musical score from the British version, composed by father-and-son duo Keith and Matthew Strachan. Unlike older game show musical scores, Millionaire's musical score was created to feature music playing almost throughout the entire show. The Strachans' main Millionaire theme song took some inspiration from the "Mars" movement of Gustav Holst's The Planets, and their question cues from the $2,000 to the $32,000/$25,000 level, and then from the $64,000/$50,000 to $500,000 level, took the pitch up a semitone for each subsequent question, in order to increase tension as the contestant progressed through the game. On GSN's Gameshow Hall of Fame special, the narrator described the Strachan tracks as "mimicking the sound of a beating heart", and stated that as the contestant worked their way up the money ladder, the music was "perfectly in tune with their ever-increasing pulse".
The original Millionaire musical score holds the distinction of being the only game show soundtrack to be acknowledged by the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, as the Strachans were honored with numerous ASCAP awards for their work, the earliest of them awarded in 2000. The original music cues were given minor rearrangements for the clock format in 2008; for example, the question cues were synced to the "ticking" sounds of the game clock. Even later, the Strachan score was removed from the U.S. version altogether for the introduction of the shuffle format in 2010, in favor of a new musical score with cues written by Jeff Lippencott and Mark T. Williams, co-founders of the Los Angeles-based company Ah2 Music.
The U.S. Millionaire's basic set was a direct adaptation of the British version's set design, which was conceived by Andy Walmsley. Paul Smith's original licensing agreement for the U.S. Millionaire required that the show's set design, along with all other elements of the show's on-air presentation (musical score, lighting system, host's wardrobe, etc.), adhere faithfully to the way in which they were presented in the British version; this same licensing agreement applied to all other international versions of the show, making Walmsley's Millionaire set design the most reproduced scenic design in television history. The original version of the U.S. Millionaire's set cost $200,000 to construct. The U.S. Millionaire's production design was handled at different times by David Weller, Jim Fenhagen and George Allison.
Unlike older game shows whose sets are or were designed to make the contestant(s) feel at ease, Millionaire's set was designed to make the contestant feel uncomfortable, so that the program feels more like a movie thriller than a typical quiz show. The floor is made of Plexiglas beneath which lies a huge dish covered in mirror paper. Before the shuffle format was implemented in 2010, the main game had the contestant and host sit in chairs in the center of the stage, known as "Hot Seats"; these measured 3 feet (0.91 m) high, were modeled after chairs typically found in hair salons, and each seat featured a computer monitor directly facing it to display questions and other pertinent information. Shortly after the shuffle format was introduced to Millionaire, Vieira stated in an interview with her Millionaire predecessor on his morning talk show that the Hot Seat was removed because it was decided that the seat, which was originally intended to make the contestant feel nervous, actually ended up having contestants feel so comfortable in it that it did not service the production team any longer.
The lighting system was programmed to darken the set as the contestant progressed further into the game. There were also spotlights situated at the bottom of the set area that zoomed down on the contestant when they answered a major question; to increase the visibility of the light beams emitted by such spotlights, oil was vaporized, creating a haze effect. Media scholar Dr. Robert Thompson, a professor at Syracuse University, stated that the show's lighting system made the contestant feel as though they were outside of prison when an escape was in progress.
When the shuffle format was introduced, the Hot Seats and corresponding monitors were replaced with a single podium, so that the contestant and host stood throughout the game and were also able to walk around the stage. Also, two video screens were installed–one that displayed the current question in play, and another that displayed the contestant's cumulative total and progress during the game. In September 2012, the redesigned set was improved with a modernized look and feel, in order to take into account the show's transition to high-definition broadcasting, which had just come about the previous year. The two video screens were replaced with two larger ones, having twice as many projectors as the previous screens had; the previous contestant podium was replaced with a new one; and light-emitting diode (LED) technology was integrated into the lighting system to give the lights more vivid colors and the set and gameplay experience a more intimate feel.
The U.S. version of Millionaire was launched by ABC as a half-hour primetime program on August 16, 1999. When it premiered, it became the first U.S. network game show to offer a million-dollar top prize to contestants. After airing thirteen episodes and reaching an audience of 15 million viewers by the end of the show's first week on the air, the program expanded to an hour-long format when it returned in November. The series, of which episodes were originally shown only a day after their initial taping, was promoted to regular status on January 18, 2000 and, at the height of its popularity, was airing on ABC five nights a week. The show was so popular during its original primetime run that rival networks created or re-incarnated game shows of their own (e.g., Greed, Twenty One, etc.), as well as importing various game shows of British and Australian origin to America (such as Winning Lines, Weakest Link, and It's Your Chance of a Lifetime).
The nighttime version initially drew in up to 30 million viewers a day three times a week, an unheard-of number in modern network television. In the 1999–2000 season, it averaged No. 1 in the ratings against all other television shows, with 28,848,000 viewers. In the next season (2000–01), three nights out of the five weekly episodes placed in the top 10. However, the show's ratings began to fall during the 2000–01 season, so that at the start of the 2001–02 season, the ratings were only a fraction of what they had been one year before, and by season's end, the show was no longer even ranked among the top 20. ABC's reliance on the show's popularity led the network to fall quickly from its former spot as the nation's most watched network.
As ABC's overexposure of the primetime Millionaire led the public to tire of the show, there was speculation that the show would not survive beyond the 2001–02 season. The staff planned on switching it to a format that would emphasize comedy more than the game and feature a host other than Philbin, but in the end, the primetime show was canceled, with its final episode airing on June 27, 2002.
On May 8, 2003 (the same day that Nancy Christy became the second top-prize winner on the syndicated version), ABC broadcast footage from Charles Ingram's run on the British version of Millionaire as a special episode of Primetime; the documentary was originally broadcast in the United Kingdom on April 21, 2003 as an episode of Tonight that was hosted by Martin Bashir. During that program, Ingram was interviewed by Diane Sawyer.
In 2001, Millionaire producers began work on a half-hour daily syndicated version of the show, with the idea being that it would serve as an accompaniment to the network series which was still in production. ABC's cancellation of the network Millionaire ended that idea; however, the syndicated Millionaire still had enough interest to be greenlit and BVT sold the series to local stations for the 2002–03 season. The syndicated series nearly met the same fate as its predecessor, however, due in part to worries that stemmed from a decision made by one of its affiliates.
In the New York media market, BVT sold the syndicated Millionaire to CBS's flagship station, WCBS-TV. In the season that had passed, WCBS' mid-afternoon schedule included the syndicated edition of NBC's Weakest Link, which aired at 4 pm from its January 2002 premiere. Joining Millionaire as a new syndicated series was a spinoff of The Oprah Winfrey Show hosted by Dr. Phil McGraw. WCBS picked up both series for 2002–03, with Dr. Phil serving as lead-in for the syndicated Millionaire, which was plugged into the time slot that Weakest Link had been occupying.
At mid-season, WCBS announced that for the 2003–04 season it had acquired the broadcast rights to The People's Court after WNBC, which had been airing the revived series since its 1997 debut, dropped it from its lineup. WCBS announced plans to move The People's Court into the time slot that was occupied by Millionaire and the still-airing 4:30 pm local newscast once it joined the station's lineup in September 2003. This led to speculation that the syndicated Millionaire would not be returning for a second season, and BVT's concerns over losing its New York affiliate were compounded by the fact that there were not many time slots available for the show in New York outside of the undesirable late-night slots that syndicators try to avoid.
In June 2003, a shakeup at one of BVT's corporate siblings provided the series with an opening. ABC announced that it would be returning the 12:30 pm network time slot to its affiliates in October of that year following the cancellation of the soap opera Port Charles. ABC's flagship, WABC-TV, was thus in need of a program to fill the slot and BVT went to them asking if the station would pick up Millionaire. WABC agreed to do this and when the new season launched that fall, the station began airing Millionaire at 12:30 pm. Millionaire continued to air on WABC in the afternoon for over a decade, eventually moving to the 2:00 p.m. hour to accommodate an expansion of the station's midday Eyewitness News broadcast in 2014. Millionaire briefly was reduced to an overnight slot when WABC picked up the talk show FABLife for its afternoon lineup; as a contingency Disney sold the series to WLNY for its daytime lineup. The arrangement did not last beyond the 2015–16 season as FABlife was cancelled at midseason, leading WABC to bring Millionaire back to daytime and WLNY to drop the show.
According to e-mails released in the Sony Pictures Entertainment hack, Millionaire narrowly avoided cancellation after the 2014–15 season. The show's declining ratings prompted DADT to demand a dramatically reduced licensing fee for renewal, which SPE was hesitant to accept. The series was nonetheless renewed for the 2015–16 season, with various cuts to the show's production budget and a return to the original format (but with only 14 questions). Had the show not been renewed, SPE would have placed the show on extended hiatus for three years, reclaimed full rights to the show (without the innovations and format added in the syndicated run, to which DADT owns intellectual property rights), and shopped the revived show to another network or syndicator. On January 17, 2017, it was announced that Millionaire has been renewed through 2018. Millionaire was subsequently renewed through the 2018–19 season on January 17, 2018.
On May 17, 2019, it was announced that Millionaire would be canceled after the 2018–19 season and would not be returning in syndication for the 2019–20 season.
Game Show Network (GSN) acquired the rerun rights to the U.S. Millionaire in August 2003. The network initially aired only episodes from the three seasons of the original prime-time run; however, additional episodes were later added. These included the Super Millionaire spin-off, which aired on GSN from May 2005 to January 2007, and the first two seasons of the syndicated version, which began airing on November 10, 2008. On December 4, 2017, GSN acquired the rerun rights to the Harrison episodes of Millionaire (seasons fourteen and fifteen), which began airing December 18, 2017.
Various special editions and tournaments have been conducted which feature celebrities playing the game and donating winnings to charities of their choice. During celebrity editions on the original ABC version, contestants were allowed to receive help from their fellow contestants during the first ten questions. The most successful celebrity contestants throughout the show's run were Drew Carey, Rosie O'Donnell, Norm Macdonald, and Chip Esten, all of whom won $500,000 for their respective charities. The episode featuring O'Donnell's $500,000 win averaged 36.1 million viewers, the highest number for a single episode of the show.
There have also been special weeks featuring two or three family members or couples competing as a team, a "Champions Edition" where former big winners returned and split their winnings with their favorite charities, a "Zero Dollar Winner Edition" featuring contestants who previously missed one of the first-tier questions and left with nothing, and a "Tax-Free Edition" in which H&R Block calculated the taxes of winnings to allow contestants to earn stated winnings after taxes, and various theme weeks featuring college students, teachers, brides-to-be, etc. as contestants. Additionally, the syndicated version once featured an annual "Walk In & Win Week" with contestants who were randomly selected from the audience without having to take the audition test.
Special weeks have also included shows featuring questions concerning specific topics, such as professional football, celebrity gossip, movies, and pop culture. During a week of episodes in November 2007, to celebrate the 1,000th episode of the syndicated Millionaire, all contestants that week started with $1,000 so that they could not leave empty-handed, and only had to answer ten questions to win $1,000,000. During that week, twenty home viewers per day also won $1,000 each.
Who Wants to Be a Super Millionaire
In 2004, Philbin returned to host 12 episodes of a spin-off program titled Who Wants to Be a Super Millionaire in which contestants could potentially win $10,000,000. ABC aired five episodes of this spin-off during the week of February 22, 2004, and an additional seven episodes later that year in May. As usual, contestants had to answer a series of 15 multiple-choice questions of increasing difficulty, but the dollar values rose substantially. The questions for Super Millionaire were worth $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $4,000, $5,000 (the first safe haven), $10,000, $20,000, $30,000, $50,000, $100,000 (the second safe haven), $500,000, $1,000,000, $2,500,000, $5,000,000, and $10,000,000.
Contestants were given the standard three lifelines in place at the time (50:50, Ask the Audience, and Phone-a-Friend) at the beginning of the game. However, after correctly answering the $100,000 question, the contestant earned two additional lifelines: Three Wise Men and Double Dip. The Three Wise Men lifeline involved a panel of three experts, one of whom was always a former Millionaire contestant and at least one of whom was female. When this lifeline was used, the contestant and panel had 30 seconds to discuss the question and choices before the audio and video feeds were dropped. Double Dip gave a contestant two chances to answer a question. Once used, the contestant must answer the question without using any further lifelines; moreover, if the "first final answer" was incorrect, the contestant could not walk away. If the "second final answer" was also wrong, the contestant left with $100,000.
10th Anniversary Celebration
To celebrate the tenth anniversary of Millionaire's U.S. debut, the show returned to ABC primetime for an eleven-night event hosted by Philbin, which aired from August 9 to 23, 2009. The Academy Award-winning movie Slumdog Millionaire and the 2008 economic crisis helped boost interest of renewal of the game show.
The episodes featured game play based on the previous rule set of the syndicated version (including the rule changes implemented in season seven) but used the Fastest Finger round to select contestants. Various celebrities also made special guest appearances at the end of every episode; each guest played one question for a chance at $50,000 for a charity of their choice, being allowed to use any one of the four lifelines in place at the time (Phone-a-Friend, Ask the Audience, Double Dip, and Ask the Expert), but still earned a minimum of $25,000 for the charity if they answered the question incorrectly.
On August 18, 2009, New York City resident Nik Bonaddio appeared on the program, winning $100,000 with the help of the audience and later, Gwen Ifill as his lifelines. Bonaddio then used the proceeds to start the sports analytics firm numberFire, which was sold in September 2015 to FanDuel, a fantasy sports platform.
|$1,000,000 (15 of 15) – 4:39 time limit|
|For ordering his favorite beverages on demand, LBJ had four buttons installed in the Oval Office labeled "coffee", "tea", "Coke" and what?|
|• A: Fresca||• B: V8|
|• C: Yoo-hoo||• D: A&W|
|Ken Basin's million-dollar question|
The finale of the tenth anniversary special, which aired on August 23, 2009, featured Ken Basin, an entertainment lawyer from Los Angeles, CA., who went on to become the first contestant to play a $1,000,000 question in the "clock format". With a time of 4:39 (45 seconds + 3:54 banked time), Basin was given a question involving President Lyndon Baines Johnson's fondness for Fresca. Using his one remaining lifeline, Basin asked the audience, which supported his own hunch of Yoo-hoo rather than the correct answer. He decided to answer the question and lost $475,000, becoming the first contestant in the U.S. version to answer a $1,000,000 question incorrectly. After Basin finished his run, Vieira appeared on-camera and announced that all remaining Fastest Finger contestants would play with her on the first week of the syndicated version's eighth season. After this, the million dollar question was not played again on a standard episode until September 25, 2013, when Josina Reaves became the second U.S. Millionaire contestant to incorrectly answer her $1,000,000 question, but only lost $75,000 as she used her Jump the Question lifelines on her $250,000 and $500,000 questions.
Million Dollar Tournament of Ten
Although the syndicated Millionaire had produced two millionaires in its first season, Nancy Christy's May 2003 win was still standing as the most recent when the program began its eighth season in fall of 2009. Deciding that six-plus years had been too long since someone had won the top prize, producers conducted a tournament to find a third million dollar winner. For the first nine weeks of the 2009–10 season, each episode saw contestants attempt to qualify for what was referred to as the "Tournament of Ten". Contestants were seeded based on how much money they had won, with the biggest winner ranked first and the lowest ranked tenth. Ties were broken based on how much time a contestant had banked when they had walked away from the game.
The tournament began on the episode aired November 9, 2009, and playing in order from the lowest to the highest seed, tournament contestants played one at a time at the end of that episode and the next nine. The rules were exactly the same as they were for a normal million dollar question under the clock format introduced the season before, except here, the contestants had no lifelines at their disposal. Each contestant received a base time of 45 seconds. For each question they had answered before walking away, the contestants received any unused seconds that were left when they gave their answers. The accumulated total of those unused seconds was then added to the base time to give the contestants their final question time limit.
Each contestant had the same decision facing them as before, which was whether to attempt to answer the question or walk away with their pre-tournament total intact. Attempting the question and answering incorrectly incurred the same penalty as in regular play, with a reduction of their pre-tournament winnings to $25,000. If the question was answered correctly, the player that did so became the tournament leader. If another player after him/her answered correctly, that player assumed the lead and the previous leader kept their pre-tournament winnings. The highest remaining seed to have attempted and correctly answered their question at the end of the tournament on November 20, 2009 would be declared the winner and become the syndicated series' third millionaire.
The first contestant to attempt to answer the million dollar question was Sam Murray, the tournament's eighth-seeded qualifier. On November 11, Murray was asked approximately how many people had lived on Earth in its history and correctly guessed 100 billion. Murray was still atop the leaderboard entering the November 20 finale as he remained the only contestant to even attempt to answer his or her question. The only person who could defeat him was top seed and $250,000 winner Jehan Shamsid-Deen, who was asked a question regarding the Blorenge, cited as "a rare example of a word that rhymes with orange". Shamsid-Deen considered taking the risk, believing (correctly) that the name belonged to a mountain in Wales. However, she decided that the potential of losing $225,000 did not justify the risk and elected to walk away from the question, giving Murray the win and the million dollar prize.
Since its introduction to the United States, GSN credited Who Wants to Be a Millionaire with not only single-handedly reviving the game show genre, but also breaking new ground for it. The series revolutionized the look and feel of game shows with its unique lighting system, dramatic music cues, and futuristic set. The show also became one of the highest-rated and most popular game shows in U.S. television history, and has been credited with paving the way for the rise of the primetime reality TV phenomenon to prominence throughout the 2000s.
The U.S. Millionaire also made catchphrases out of various lines used on the show. In particular, "Is that your final answer?", asked by Millionaire's hosts whenever a contestant's answer needs to be verified, was popularized by Philbin during his tenure as host, and was also included on TV Land's special "100 Greatest TV Quotes and Catch Phrases", which aired in 2006. Meanwhile, during his tenure as host, Cedric signed off shows with a catchphrase of his own, "Watch yo' wallet!"
The original primetime version of the U.S. Millionaire won two Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Game/Audience Participation Show in 2000 and 2001. Philbin was honored with a Daytime Emmy in the category of Outstanding Game Show Host in 2001, while Vieira received one in 2005, and another in 2009. TV Guide ranked the U.S. Millionaire #7 on its 2001 list of the 50 Greatest Game Shows of All Time, and later ranked it #6 on its 2013 "60 Greatest Game Shows" list. GSN ranked Millionaire #5 on its August 2006 list of the 50 Greatest Game Shows of All Time, and later honored the show in January 2007 on its only Gameshow Hall of Fame special.
In 2000, Pressman released two board game adaptions of Millionaire as well as a junior edition recommended for younger players. Several video games based on the varying gameplay formats of Millionaire have also been released throughout the course of the show's U.S. history.
Between 1999 and 2001, Jellyvision produced five video game adaptations based upon the original primetime series for personal computers and Sony's PlayStation console, all of them featuring Philbin's likeness and voice. The first of these adaptations was published by Disney Interactive, while the later four were published by Buena Vista Interactive which had just been spun off from DI when it reestablished itself in attempts to diversify its portfolio. Of the five games, three featured general trivia questions, one was sports-themed, and another was a "Kids Edition" featuring easier questions. In 2007, Imagination Games released a DVD version of the show, based on the 2004–08 format and coming complete with Vieira's likeness and voice, as well as a quiz book and a 2009 desktop calendar. Additionally, two Millionaire video games were released by Ludia in conjunction with Ubisoft in 2010 and 2011; the first of these was a game for Nintendo's Wii console and DS handheld system based on the clock format, while the second, for Microsoft's Xbox 360, was based on the shuffle format.
Ludia made a Facebook game based on Millionaire available from 2011 to 2016. This game featured an altered version of the shuffle format, condensing the number of questions to twelve—eight in round one and four in round two. Contestants competed against eight other Millionaire fans in round one, with the top three playing round two alone. There was no "final answer" rule; the contestant's responses were automatically locked in. Answering a question correctly earned a contestant the value of that question, multiplied by the number of people who responded incorrectly. Contestants were allowed to use two of their Facebook friends as Jump the Question lifelines in round one, and to use the Ask the Audience lifeline in round two to invite up to 50 such friends of theirs to answer a question for a portion of the prize money of the current question.
Disney Parks attraction
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire – Play It! was an attraction at the Disney's Hollywood Studios theme park (when it was known as Disney-MGM Studios) at the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida and at Disney California Adventure Park in Anaheim, California. Both the Florida and California Play It! attractions opened in 2001; the California version closed in 2004, and the Florida version closed in 2006 and was replaced by Toy Story Midway Mania!
The format in the Play It! attraction was very similar to that of the television show that inspired it. When a show started, a Fastest Finger question was given, and the audience was asked to put the four answers in order; the person with the fastest time was the first contestant in the Hot Seat for that show. However, the main game had some differences: for example, contestants competed for points rather than dollars, the questions were set to time limits, and the Phone-a-Friend lifeline became Phone a Complete Stranger which connected the contestant to a Disney cast member outside the attraction's theater who would find a guest to help. After the contestant's game was over, they were awarded anything from a collectible pin, to clothing, to a Millionaire CD game, to a 3-night Disney Cruise.
- The simplified title was often used by hosts and in promotional materials.
- To qualify for 2004's Super Millionaire spin-off, potential contestants were required to answer five questions. Each person who successfully answered all five questions chose one tape date, and the contestants for that tape date were drawn from that pool.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire". Gameshow Hall of Fame. GSN. January 21, 2007.
- Otterson, Joe (May 17, 2019). "'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire' to End After 17 Years in Syndication (Exclusive)". Variety.com. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Syndicated Version original rules". Valleycrest Productions, Ltd. and Buena Vista Television. June 28, 2002. Archived from the original on July 5, 2002.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Official Rules (Season 13)". dadt.com. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "The New Season of "Millionaire" is a Real Game-Changer". Disney-ABC Domestic Television. August 16, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
- "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire: Official Rules (Archive)". Archived from the original on June 29, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- McGee, Matt. "How Google Killed "Phone A Friend" From "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?"". Search Engine Land. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
- "Taxman scoops a million". BBC News. November 21, 1999. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Millionaire Makeovers!". People. Vol. 54 no. 20. Time Inc. November 13, 2000. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Double jackpot winner on US Millionaire". BBC News. April 11, 2001. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Kaplan, Don (April 16, 2001). "Improbably, Millionaire Strikes Again". New York Post. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. Season 3. Episode 1. September 7, 2001. ABC.
- Grosvenor, Carrie. "'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire' Tournament of Ten Results". ThoughtCo. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Weprin, Alex (April 22, 2009). "Who Wants To Be a Millionaire? Returning To ABC". Broadcasting & Cable. Archived from the original on April 20, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- "Daytime 'Millionaire' Considered". ABC News. June 8, 2001. Retrieved June 5, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire Kicks Off Coast to Coast Bus Tour". BusinessWire. July 23, 2002.
The weekday version of Who Wants To Be A Millionaire, featuring Meredith Vieira as host, premieres on Monday, September 16 in nationwide syndication.
- Andreeva, Nellie (January 10, 2013). "Meredith Vieira Leaving Syndicated "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire" Series". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Seidman, Robert (November 25, 2009). "Regis Philbin Hosts Daytime Millionaire November 30 – December 4". TV By the Numbers (Press release). Zap2it. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Al Roker Fills in on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, 1st Contestant from Jacksonville". First Coast News. Gannett Company. March 5, 2007. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Mumford, Lou (May 18, 2007). "Who doesn't want to win a million?". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Folkerth, Kathleen (July 12, 2007). "Resident Takes Turn in Millionaire Hot Seat". Akron.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Nachman, Laura (March 4, 2008). "Former Good Day Philadelphia Host Dave Price Subs on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire". Philly TV and Radio. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Cast". tv.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Arnold, Holly (October 3, 2008). "Cat Deeley to present Who Wants To Be A Millionaire in the States". NOW. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Rizzo, Monica (May 8, 2009). "Samantha Harris to Host Millionaire – For a Week". People. Time Inc. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Monroe Native to Appear on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire". WKOW. June 4, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- The Jersey Journal (April 14, 2010). "Jersey City Man Wins $15,000 on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire". nj.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Wipeout: John Henson". ABC. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Needham, Bob (March 14, 2011). "Ann Arbor Resident Appearing on Who Wants To Be a Millionaire this Week". The Ann Arbor News. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Bergmann, Caitlin (April 11, 2011). "Tim Gunn Takes over Millionaire". Lifetime. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "DL Hughley, Tony Roberts, Timmy Hall and Hope Flood". UpOut. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Stelter, Brian (January 11, 2013). "Vieira to leave "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire"". The New York Times Media Decoder. Retrieved July 17, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Shain, Michael (January 11, 2013). "Regis considering return to Who Wants to be a Millionaire". New York Post. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- "Cedric the Entertainer Will Host "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire", Replace Meredith Vieira". The Huffington Post. March 20, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- Andreeva, Nellie (February 7, 2013). "Cedric The Entertainer To Succeed Meredith Vieira As Host Of Syndicated Who Wants To Be A Millionaire". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014.
- Andreeva, Nellie (April 30, 2014). "'Who Wants To Be Millionaire' Host Cedric The Entertainer To Depart". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Andreeva, Nellie (May 7, 2014). "Terry Crews Named New Host of Who Wants To Be A Millionaire". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Andreeva, Nellie (April 13, 2015). "Chris Harrison Named New Host Of 'Who Wants To Be A Millionaire', Replacing Terry Crews". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- End credits lists of appropriate U.S. Millionaire episodes.
- "Millionaire". Andy Walmsley, Production Designer. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- The Meredith Vieira Show. Season 1. Episode 1. September 8, 2014. Syndication.
- "'Switch the Question' Added as New Lifeline on 'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire'". August 24, 2004. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Sony buys Who Wants To Be a Millionaire? parent". mcvuk.com. March 13, 2008. Archived from the original on July 25, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- Loveday, Samantha (December 1, 2006). "New owners take on Celador International and Millionaire brand". toynews-online.biz. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- "Valleycrest Productions LTD". PowerProfiles. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire has the First Million Dollar Question of the Season!". Fox 43 Central Pennsylvania. September 24, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Just, Olivia (July 3, 2014). "Disney moves filming of 'Millionaire' to Stamford". CT Post. Hearst Media Services Connecticut, LLC. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Holloway, Daniel (May 20, 2016). "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Relocates to Las Vegas". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
- Furman, Elina; Furman, Leah (2000). So You'd Like to Win a Million: Facts, Trivia, and Inside Hints on Game Show Success. Macmillan. ISBN 9780312976354.
- Davies, Michael (2000). Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: The Official Book from the Hit TV Show. Hyperion Books. p. 14. ISBN 9780786885770.
- Tracy, Kathleen (2000). Regis!: The Unauthorized Biography. ECW Press. p. 147. ISBN 9781550224399.
- Grosvenor, Carrie. "Be a Contestant on Who Wants to be a Millionaire". about.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Perry, Claudia (March 28, 2007). "Who wants to be a game-show contestant?". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- Smurthwaite, Nick (March 21, 2005). "Million Pound Notes: Keith Strachan". The Stage. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011.
- "Ah2 Music Marks 10th Anniversary". TrailerMusicVibe. August 21, 2014.
- Disney-ABC Domestic Television (September 15, 2010). "Season 23, Episode 8". Live! with Regis and Kelly. Syndicated.
- Nordyke, Kimberly (September 10, 2012). "Anderson Live, Wendy Williams, Rachael Ray Among Syndicated Shows Getting Set Makeovers (Photos)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Seidman, Robert (August 9, 2009). "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Returns for its Ten Year Anniversary". TV By the Numbers. Zap2it. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Carter, Bill (August 9, 2009). "Millionaire Far From Its Final Answer". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
- Walt Disney Company (February 5, 2001), Disney Factbook 2000 – Year in Review, p. 7
- Bauder, David (August 4, 2009). ""ABC Hopes "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire" Lightning Can Strike Twice"". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
- "TV Ratings 1999–2000". fbibler.chez.com. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "TV Ratings 2000–2001". fbibler.chez.com. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "TV Ratings 2001–2002". fbibler.chez.com. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- Carter, Bill (November 29, 2001). "ABC's Millionaire May Not Survive Beyond the Current Season". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: ABC Game Show Returning to primetime". TV Series Finale. April 22, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Millionaire's route to top prize BBC News, 7 April 2003
- Carter, Bill (June 20, 2001). "TV Notes: Games to Clash on Syndication". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Pendleton, Jennifer (May 13, 2002). "'Dr. Phil,' 'Millionaire,' 'John Walsh' arrive, but heat factor is lacking". Advertising Age. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Millionaire poorer in N.Y." The Hollywood Reporter. Highbeam Business. December 2, 2002. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Millionaire nabs key slots in syndication". The Hollywood Reporter. September 2, 2003. Archived from the original on September 7, 2003.
- "Local Listings". Millionaire TV. Retrieved August 20, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Anotado, Cory (June 29, 2015). "Millionaire re-introduces ladder format for 2015 season". Buzzerblog. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Anotado, Cory (April 17, 2015). "What Millionaire Needed to Stay On The Air". Buzzerblog. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Lincoln, Ross (January 17, 2017). "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire & RightThisMinute Renewed For Syndication On ABC Stations Through 2018". Deadline Hollywood. PMC. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- Sandberg, Bryn Elise (January 17, 2018). "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Renewed for 17th Season on ABC Stations". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- Calvario, Liz. "'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire' Canceled After Nearly 20 Years". ETOnline.com. CBS Studios, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- Brennan, Steve (September 23, 2003). "GSN Wins Millionaire Rerun Rights". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- "GSN Renews and Expands Its 'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire' Inventory and Acquires 'Super Millionaire' Series" (Press release). PR Newswire. April 18, 2005. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "Meredith Vieira-Hosted Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Episodes Make Cable Debut Beginning November 10, 2008" (Press release). GSN Corporate. November 10, 2008. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "GSN Adds Who Wants to Be a Millionaire to Daytime Schedule, 12/18". GSN Corporate (Press release). Broadway World. December 4, 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- Avalos, Regina (December 6, 2017). "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: Seasons 14 and 15 Coming to GSN". TV Series Finale. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- Moraski, Lauren (May 7, 2014). "Chip Esten on Nashville Finale, Show's Future". CBS News. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Huff, Richard (May 5, 2000). "Starstruck Millionaire: Celebrity Specials Win Show its Best Ratings Ever". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2009.
- "Season Premiere". Digital Spy. Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: Walk in and Win". dadt.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire, and Host Meredith Vieira, Celebrate 1,000 Episodes by Giving $100,000 Away to Home Viewers!". Marketwired. October 23, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- Levin, Gary (February 24, 2004). "Millionaire could be ABC's Interim Answer". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire Returns With A Hollywood Makeover". AccessHollywood.com. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: 10th Anniversary Celebration. Episode 6. August 18, 2009. ABC.
- "numberFire: Moneyball for Fantasy Football Leagues". FastCompany.com. Retrieved September 3, 2016.
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: 10th Anniversary Celebration. Episode 11. August 23, 2009. ABC.
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. Season 12. Episode 18. September 25, 2013. Syndicated.
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. Season 8. Episode 1. September 7, 2009. Syndicated.
- "'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire' Tournament of Ten". about.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- The Star Ledger. December 11, 2006
- "Meredith Vieira biography". www.hollywood.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "TV Guide Names the 50 Greatest Game Shows of All Time". TV Guide. February 2, 2001.
- Fretts, Bruce (June 17, 2013). "Eyes on the Prize". TV Guide. pp. 14–15.
- The 50 Greatest Game Shows of All Time. August 31, 2006. GSN.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (Second Edition)". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Junior". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? ". IGN. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Second Edition". IGN. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? 3rd Edition". IGN. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Sports Edition". IGN. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Kids Edition". IGN. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: DVD Game". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Millionaire: Quiz Book". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- "Millionaire 2009 Desktop Calendar". Desk Calendar Pad. Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- "Ubisoft Releases Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Video Game for Wii and DS". IGN. October 6, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? 2012 Edition". GameFAQs. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- Shaul, Brandy (April 7, 2011). "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire now on Facebook: Compete with others for virtual riches". AOL. Archived from the original on April 4, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "Keith Strachan & Matthew Strachan – Who Wants To Be A Millionaire (The Album)". Discogs. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Shaffer, Joshua C. (2010). Discovering the Magic Kingdom: An Unofficial Disneyland Vacation Guide. Author House. p. 207. ISBN 9781452063133.
- Marx, Jennifer and Dave (December 29, 2006). "Who Wants to Be a Winner? Passport Tips for Who Wants to Be a Millionaire – Play It!". PassPorter.com.
- Fisher, David; Davies, Michael P. (2000). Who Wants to Be a Millionaire: The Official Book from the Hit TV Show. Cader Books. ISBN 0-7868-8577-7.
- Official website
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (US – 1999–2002) on IMDb
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire at TV.com
- Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (US – current) on IMDb
- Who Wants to Be a Super Millionaire (US) on IMDb
Win Ben Stein's Money
| Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Game/Audience Participation Show