Wheat beer

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Augustiner Weißbier, a naturally cloudy Bavarian wheat beer

Wheat beer is beer that is brewed with a large proportion of wheat relative to the amount of malted barley; it is usually top-fermented. The two main varieties are Weissbier and Witbier, with minor types such as lambic, Berliner Weisse and gose also produced.

Varieties[edit]

Two common varieties of wheat beer are Weißbier (German – "white beer") based on the German tradition of mixing at least 50% wheat to barley malt to make a light coloured top-fermenting beer, and witbier (Dutch – "white beer") based on the Belgian tradition of using flavorings such as coriander and orange peel. Belgian white beers are often made with raw unmalted wheat, as opposed to the malted wheat used in other varieties.

Both German Weißbier and Belgian witbier are termed "white beers" because "wheat" has the same etymological root as "white" in most West Germanic languages (including English).[1]

U.S. brewers and Canadian brewers follow both of the main wheat beer traditions, usually with greater variation.[2][3]

In Britain, wheat beer is not considered traditional, however sales over the years in wheat beer have soared.[4] It tends to be a hybrid of the continental style with an English bitter, rather than an exact emulation.[5][6]

Other minor wheat beer styles such as Berliner Weiße, Gose, and lambic are made with a significant proportion of wheat.

Weizenbier[edit]

A kristallweizen (left) and a hefeweizen (right)

Weizenbier or Hefeweizen, in the southern parts of Bavaria usually called Weißbier (literally "white beer", but the name is believed to come from Weizenbier ("wheat beer"), which is how it is still called in some regions), is a Bavarian beer in which a significant proportion of malted barley is replaced with malted wheat. By German law, Weißbiers brewed in Germany must be top-fermented.[7] Specialized strains of yeast are used which produce overtones of banana and clove as by-products of fermentation.[7] Weißbier is so called because it was, at the time of its inception, paler in color than Munich brown beer. It is well known throughout Germany, though better known as weizen ("wheat") outside Bavaria. The terms Hefeweizen ("yeast wheat") or Hefeweißbier refer to wheat beer in its traditional, unfiltered form. The term Kristallweizen (crystal wheat), or kristall Weiß (crystal white beer), refers to a wheat beer that is filtered to remove the yeast from suspension. Additionally, the filtration process removes wheat proteins present in the beer which contribute to its cloudy appearance.

The Hefeweizen style is particularly noted for its low hop bitterness (about 15 IBUs) and relatively high carbonation (approaching four volumes), considered important to balance the beer's relatively malty sweetness. Another balancing flavor note unique to Hefeweizen beer is its phenolic character; its signature phenol is 4-vinyl guaiacol,[8] a metabolite of ferulic acid, the result of fermentation by top-fermenting yeast appropriate for the style. Hefeweizen's phenolic character has been described as "clove" and "medicinal" ("Band-aid") but also smoky. Other more typical but less assertive flavour notes produced by Weißbier yeast include "banana" (amyl acetate), "bubble gum", and sometimes "vanilla" (vanillin).

Weißbier is available in a number of other forms including Dunkelweizen (dark wheat) and Weizenstarkbier (strong wheat beer), commonly referred to as Weizenbock. The dark wheat varieties are made with darker, more highly kilned malts (both wheat and barley). The Weizenbocks typically have a much higher alcohol content than their lighter cousins.

The three major brands in Germany are Erdinger, Paulaner and Franziskaner. Other renowned brands are Weihenstephaner, Schneider, Maisel and Andechser. Regional brands in Bavaria are Hopf, Unertl, Ayinger, Schweiger and Plank. Aventinus is an example of Dunkelweizen made by the G. Schneider & Sohn brewery in Kelheim.

British wheat beer tends to be a hybrid of the continental style with an English bitter, rather than an exact emulation.[5][6] Brewers producing cask-conditioned varieties include Oakleaf Eichenblatt Bitte, Hoskins White Dolphin, Fyfe Weiss Squad and Oakham White Dwarf.

Witbier[edit]

Witbier, white beer, bière blanche, or simply witte is a barley/wheat, top-fermented beer brewed mainly in Belgium and the Netherlands. It gets its name due to suspended yeast and wheat proteins which cause the beer to look hazy, or white, when cold. It is a descendant from those medieval beers which were flavored and preserved with a blend of spices and other plants such as coriander, orange, and bitter orange referred to as "gruit" instead of using hops.

The style was revived by Pierre Celis at the Hoegaarden Brewery in Belgium[9] and the Celis Brewery in Austin, Texas,[10] and may also be made with raw wheat in addition to wheat malt.[11] The beers have a somewhat sour taste due to the presence of lactic acid, much more pronounced in the past than today.[12] Also, the suspended yeast in the beer causes some continuing fermentation in the bottle.

Ancient French regulation (part of Belgium was French in the 14th century) excluded the use of hops in gruit.[11]

Other varieties[edit]

Main articles: Berliner Weiße, Gose and Lambic

A minor variety of wheat beer is represented by Berliner Weiße (Berlin White), which is low in alcohol (2.5% to 3% ABV) and quite tart. Sweetened syrups of lemon, raspberry or woodruff herb are often added before drinking.[citation needed]

Leipziger Gose is similar to Berliner Weiße but slightly stronger at around 4% ABV. Its ingredients include coriander and salt, which are unusual for German beers.

Belgian lambic is also made with wheat and barley, but differs from witbier in allowing wild yeast to cause spontaneous fermentation.

Names and types[edit]

Wheat beers vary in name according to the place in which they are brewed and small variations in the recipe. Among those used are:

  • Weißbier, short Weiße: "Weiß" is German for "white". These terms are used almost exclusively in the southern German state of Bavaria.
  • Weizenbier, short Weizen: "Weizen" is German for "wheat". These terms are used in the western (Baden-Württemberg) and northern German regions for Weißbier.
  • Hefeweißbier or Hefeweizen: "Hefe" is the German word for yeast, added to indicate that the beer is bottle-conditioned (unfiltered) and thus might have sediment.
  • Kristallweißbier or Kristallweizen: "Kristall" being German for crystal, added if Weißbier is filtered clear of sediment.
  • Dunkles Weißbier or Dunkelweizen: a dark version of a wheat beer ("dunkel" is the German word for "dark").
  • Weizenbock is a wheat beer made in the bock style originating in Germany.
  • Witbier or simply Wit: Dutch language name for the Belgian style of wheat beer.
  • La bière blanche (Literally, "white beer"): The French language name for wheat beer.

Serving[edit]

Bavarian-style wheat beer is usually served in 500 ml, vase-shaped glasses. In Belgium, witbier is usually served in a 25cl glass; each brewery (Hoegaarden, Dentergems, etc.) has its own shape of glass. Berliner Weiße is often served in a schooner.

Kristallweizen (especially in Austria) and American styles of wheat beer are sometimes served with a slice of lemon or orange in the glass; this is generally frowned upon in Bavaria.[7]

In northern Bavaria, it is common to add a grain of rice to kristallweizen, which causes a gentle bubbling effect and results in a longer lasting foam.[13] A common item on pub menus in Bavaria is cola-weizen, which is a mix of cola and Weizenbier. Another mixture popular during the summer is a radler variant with a 50–50 mix of Weißbier with lemonade called "Russ", which is the German term for Russian.

When serving a bottled unfiltered wheat beer hold the glass on an angle and pour slowly. With about 10% or 15% left swirl smoothly to suspend the yeast, then add to improve the flavor, scent and appearance.[citation needed]

Sensory profile[edit]

Weißbiers feature fermentation by-products such as esters (which lend fruity flavors and aromas), especially isoamyl acetate, reminiscent of bananas, and the phenolic compound guaiacol, a metabolite of ferulic acid, which smells and tastes like cloves. Other phenolics sometimes found in Weißbiers evoke medicinal or smoky sensations. The bittering level of most Weißbiers is close to 15 International Bitterness Units, a very low level. Hop flavor and aroma are typically low.[7]

The ester and phenolic aspects are produced by the special type of yeast, rather than the high fraction of wheat in the grain bill.[citation needed]

The carbonation level can range from 5.5 grams per liter (approximately 2.7 volumes; slightly higher than that of most other German beers) to 7 grams per liter, or more. This produces a generous stand of foam, especially in light of the high protein content of wheat malt.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=wheat
  2. ^ Palmer, John (2001). How to Brew: Ingredients, Methods, Recipes, and Equipment for Brewing Beer at Home. Defenestrative Pub Co. ISBN 0-9710579-0-7. 
  3. ^ "American Wheat Beers: Heritage and History". Brewing Insights Blog. Anchor Brewing Company. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  4. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/news/the-bitter-truth-were-wheatbeer-drinkers-now-499890.html
  5. ^ a b "Adrian Tierney-Jones". Realbeer.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  6. ^ a b "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter". Beerhunter.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Eric Warner, German Wheat Beer. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1992. ISBN 978-0-937381-34-2
  8. ^ Donaghy, John A.; Paul F. Kelly; Alan McKay (15 October 1998). "Conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinyl guaiacol by yeasts isolated from unpasteurized apple juice". Society of Chemical Industry. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(19990301)79:3<453::AID-JSFA284>3.0.CO;2-H. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  9. ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter – Belgium's Great Beers". www.beerhunter.com. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  10. ^ Jackson, Michael (10 August 2000). Pocket Guide to Beer (Hardcover) (7 ed.). Running Press. p. 208. ISBN 0-7624-0885-5.  ISBN 978-0-7624-0885-6.
  11. ^ a b Eßlinger, Hans Michael (2009-06-30). Handbook of Brewing: Processes ... – Google Books. ISBN 978-3-527-31674-8. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  12. ^ "BT - Witbier: Belgian White". Morebeer.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  13. ^ Weizenbier or wheat beer[dead link]
Bibliography

External links[edit]