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Coarse bulgur

Bulgur (Turkish: bulgur; Armenian: բլղուր, romanizedblghur; Persian: بلغور, romanizedbolġur/balġur, lit.'groats'),[1] or burghul (Arabic: برغل, romanizedburġul),[2] is a cracked wheat foodstuff found in West Asian cuisine.


Bulgur, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy83 kcal (350 kJ)
18.58 g
Sugars0.10 g
Dietary fiber4.5 g
0.24 g
3.08 g
Vitamin A equiv.
0.0 μg
Vitamin A1 IU
Thiamine (B1)
0.057 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.028 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.000 mg
Vitamin B6
0.083 mg
Folate (B9)
18 μg
Vitamin C
0.0 mg
Vitamin D
0 μg
Vitamin E
0.01 mg
Vitamin K
0.5 μg
10 mg
0.96 mg
32 mg
40 mg
68 mg
5 mg
0.57 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water78 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[3] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[4]

Bulgur is sometimes confused with cracked wheat, which is crushed wheat grain that, unlike bulgur, has not been parboiled.[5] Bulgur is a common ingredient in cuisines of many countries of the West Asian cuisine and Mediterranean Basin.[6][self-published source?][7][8] It has a light, nutty flavor.[9]

Bulgur is recognized as a whole grain by the United States Department of Agriculture.[10]

Composition and nutrition


Cooked bulgur is 78% water, 19% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). A 100 gram (3.5 oz) reference serving supplies 83 kilocalories. A study of uncooked samples from different sources found, with some variation between samples, about 9% protein, 11% moisture, 1% ash, 70% starch of which 2–2.8% beneficial resistant starch, 7% fibre, mostly beneficial insoluble fibre.[11]

Culinary uses

Coarse bulgur

Bulgur does not require cooking, although it can be included in cooked dishes; soaking in water is all that is needed.[12]

Coarse bulgur is used to make pottages,[13] while the medium and fine grains are used for breakfast cereals,[14] salads such as kısır, pilavs, breads,[15] and in dessert puddings such as kheer.[16][17] Bulgur porridge is similar to frumenty, a cracked wheat porridge that was a staple of medieval cuisine.[18][19]

In breads, it adds a whole-grain component. It is a main ingredient in kibbeh and in tabbouleh salad. It is often used where rice or couscous could be used. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine, bulgur is often used as a cereal to make a porridge with milk and sugar, or a savory porridge with vegetables and spices. It can be used to accompany other dishes in the same way as pasta or rice; it may be mistaken for rice because it has a similar appearance, although the texture is different.

Armenians prepare bulgur as a pilaf in chicken stock, with or without sautéed noodles, or cooked with tomatoes, onions, herbs and red pepper. The fine grind is used for making eech, a bulgur salad similar to tabbouleh, prepared with tomato paste, fresh tomatoes, cucumbers, parsley, olive oil, and other salad ingredients to personal taste. Pomegranate molasses, which is sour and sweet, is commonly used instead of lemon juice to add tartness.

In Greece, it is known as πλιγούρι (pligouri) and in Cyprus as πουρκούρι (pourkouri), where it is used to make κούπες (koupes, known as içli köfte in Turkish), a variety of kibbeh. It is deep-fried, with a crust made of fine bulgur, flour, oil, salt and egg, filled with ground meat (beef and/or pork), onions, parsley and spices.

The Saudi Arabian version of bulgur, popular in Nejd and Al-Hasa, is known as jarish (Arabic: جَريش).[20]

See also



  1. ^ "Bulgur". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 15 July 2023.
  2. ^ "Burghul | Define Burghul at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Archived from the original on 2016-02-17. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  3. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 2024-03-27. Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  4. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 2024-05-09. Retrieved 2024-06-21.
  5. ^ Celine Steen; Tamasin Noyes (15 November 2015). The Great Vegan Grains Book: Celebrate Whole Grains with More than 100 Delicious Plant-Based Recipes * Includes Soy-Free and Gluten-Free Recipes!. Fair Winds Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-62788-826-4. Archived from the original on 4 July 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  6. ^ Irina Petrosian; David Underwood (2006). Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore. Lulu.com. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4116-9865-9. Archived from the original on 2023-07-04. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  7. ^ LeeAnne Gelletly (17 November 2014). The Kurds. Mason Crest. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-63355-946-2. Archived from the original on 4 July 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  8. ^ Ken Albala (25 May 2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia [4 volumes]: [Four Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-313-37627-6. Archived from the original on 4 July 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  9. ^ Victoria Wise (3 December 2004). The Pressure Cooker Gourmet: 225 Recipes for Great-Tasting, Long-Simmered Flavors in Just Minutes. Harvard Common Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-55832-201-1. Archived from the original on 4 July 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  10. ^ Jacqueline B. Marcus (15 April 2013). Culinary Nutrition: The Science and Practice of Healthy Cooking. Academic Press. p. 561,300. ISBN 978-0-12-391883-3.
  11. ^ Tacer Caba, Zeynep; Boyacioglu, M. Hikmet; Boyacioglu, Dilek (2012). "Bioactive healthy components of bulgur". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 63 (2): 250–256. doi:10.3109/09637486.2011.639748. ISSN 0963-7486. PMID 22136100.
  12. ^ Yonan, Joe (15 July 2014). "Weeknight Vegetarian: Don't cook these grains. Soak them". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  13. ^ Shulman, Martha Rose. "Winter Tomato Soup With Bulgur Recipe". NYT Cooking. Archived from the original on 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  14. ^ "Breakfast Bulgur Porridge". Martha Stewart. 2011-01-03. Archived from the original on 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  15. ^ Shulman, Martha Rose. "Whole Wheat Irish Soda Bread With Bulgur Recipe". NYT Cooking. Archived from the original on 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  16. ^ Salloum, Habeeb (2012-02-28). The Arabian Nights Cookbook: From Lamb Kebabs to Baba Ghanouj, Delicious Homestyle Arabian Cooking. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0524-9. Archived from the original on 2023-08-15. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  17. ^ "Recipe: Bulgur pudding with fruit, nuts and honey". Los Angeles Times. 11 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  18. ^ Rogosa, Eli (2016-07-01). Restoring Heritage Grains: The Culture, Biodiversity, Resilience, and Cuisine of Ancient Wheats. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60358-671-9. Archived from the original on 2023-08-15. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  19. ^ Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (2011-04-13). Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-4430-0. Archived from the original on 2023-08-15. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  20. ^ Maby, Lyn (November–December 1975). "Food from Saudi Arabia". Saudi Aramco World. pp. 32–40. Archived from the original on 2015-01-07.