Flatbread

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Flatbread
Flatbread.JPG
Homemade flatbread
TypeBread
Main ingredientsFlour, water, salt

A flatbread is a bread made with flour, water and salt, and then thoroughly rolled into flattened dough. Many flatbreads are unleavened—although some are slightly leavened, such as pita bread.

There are many other optional ingredients that flatbreads may contain, such as curry powder, diced jalapeños, chili powder, or black pepper. Olive oil or sesame oil may be added as well. Flatbreads can range from below one millimeter to a few centimeters thick.

History[edit]

In 2018 charred bread crumbs were found at a Natufian site called Shubayqa 1 in Jordan (n Harrat ash Shaam, the Black Desert) dating to 14,400 BC, some 4000 years before the start of agriculture in the region. Analysis showed that they were probably from flatbread containing wild barley, einkorn wheat, oats, and Bolboschoenus glaucus tubers (a kind of rush).[1][2]

List of flatbreads[edit]

Europe[edit]

Middle East and Africa[edit]

Different types of pita, Mahane Yehuda marketplace, Jerusalem

Asia[edit]

A selection of Tajik non (naan)
Afghan bread

Americas[edit]

Preparing tortillas

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Colin Barras (21 July 2018). "Stone Age bread predates farming". New Scientist.
  2. ^ Amaia Arranz-Otaegui; et al. (16 July 2018). "Archaeobotanical evidence reveals the origins of bread 14,400 years ago in northeastern Jordan". PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1801071115.
  3. ^ Rodolfo Toe (3 May 2013). "Sarajevo Bakery Braces for Ramadan Bonanza". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  4. ^ Celjo, Farah. "Serbian crepes are just one reason to try Fabrika by Madera: SBS Food". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved 5 September 2018.

Further reading[edit]

  • 2005. "High-Profile Flatbreads - Say Goodbye to Insipid White Bread When Tortillas and Flatbreads Come to Town". FOOD PRODUCT DESIGN -NORTHBROOK-. 15, no. 1: 96-114. ISSN 1065-772X.
  • 2008. "Flatbreads Old World: Meets New Flatbreads from All Over the World-Including Tortillas, Arepas and Naan-Are the Newest Hot Ticket in Both Retail and Foodservice Products". FOOD PRODUCT DESIGN -NORTHBROOK-. 18, no. 11: 38-43.
  • 2008. "Storied Breads: With a Continuing Focus on Food Origin, Flatbreads Offer Manufacturers a Way to Tempt Consumers with Authentic Products Celebrating the Oldest-Known Bread Traditions". BAKING AND SNACK. 30, no. 7: 35-42. ISSN 1092-0447.
  • 2010. "Glycaemic Index of Indian Flatbreads (Rotis) Prepared Using Whole Wheat Flour and Atta Mix-Added Whole Wheat Flour". British Journal of Nutrition. 103, no. 11: 1642-1647. ISSN 0007-1145.
  • 2011. "Flat-Out in Love with Flatbread Here Are 5 Reasons Foodservice Is Smitten with Flatbreads". FOOD MANAGEMENT -NEW YORK THEN CLEVELAND OH-. 46, no. 11: 30-35. ISSN 0091-018X.
  • Alford, Jeffrey, and Naomi Duguid. Flatbreads and Flavors: A Baker's Atlas. New York: W. Morrow, 1995. Summary: Recipes for more than sixty varieties of flatbreads along with 150 recipes for traditional accompaniments to the breads, including chutneys, curries, salsas, stews, mezze, smorgasbord, kebabs, etc.
  • Craddock, Anne. Textural Characteristics of Bagels and Ethnic Flatbreads. 1998. Thesis. 124 leaves.
  • German, Donna Rathmell. Flatbreads from Around the World. San Leandro, Calif: Bristol Pub, 1994.
  • Hansen, Eric. 2015. "Fabled Flatbreads of Uzbekistan." Aramco World. July/August 2015. Pages 32–39.
  • Helou, Anissa. Savory Baking from the Mediterranean: Focaccias, Flatbreads, Rusks, Tarts, and Other Breads. New York: William Morrow, 2007.
  • Kahlon, Talwinder Singh, and Mei-Chen Maggie Chiu. 2014. "Ancient Whole Grain Gluten-Free Flatbreads". Food and Nutrition Sciences. 05, no. 17: 1717-1724.
  • Khawaja K.I., et al. 2012. "Glycaemic, Insulin and Ghrelin Responses to Traditional South Asian Flatbreads in Diabetic and Healthy Subjects". British Journal of Nutrition. 108, no. 10: 1810-1817.
  • Reinhold, John G., Bahram Faraji, Parichehr Abadi, and Faramarz Ismail‐Beigi. 1981. "An Extended Study of the Effect of Iranian Village and Urban Flatbreads on the Mineral Balances of Two Men Before and After Supplementation with Vitamin D†". Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 10, no. 3: 169-177.