Zcoin

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The Zcoin logo.svg
Zcoin official logo
Ticker symbolXZC
Development
Original author(s)Matthew D. Green
White paperZerocoin: Anonymous Distributed E-Cash from Bitcoin
Initial release0.1[1] / 28 September 2016; 2 years ago (2016-09-28)[2]
Latest release0.13.8.2[3] / 17 July 2019[3]
Code repositoryhttps://github.com/zcoinofficial/zcoin
Development statusActive
Written inJavaScript, C, Python, Go, C++[4]
Developer(s)Poramin Insom[5]
Peter Shugalev
Andrey Bezrukov
Tadhg Riordan[6]
Source modelBitcoin codebase[7]
Websitehttps://zcoin.io/
Ledger
Hash functionMerkle Tree Proof[8]
Block reward50 XZC per block[9] (next halving in year 2020)[10]
Block time5 minutes[11]
Block explorerhttps://explorer.zcoin.io/
Circulating supply8.05 million XZC (1 August 2019)[12]
Supply limit21.4 million XZC[12]
Valuation
Exchange rateUS$ 8.54/XZC (1 August 2019)[12]
Market capUS$ 69,448,655 (1 August 2019)[12]

Zcoin is a cryptocurrency aimed at using cryptography to provide better privacy for its users compared to other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin.

History[edit]

In the late 2014, Poramin Insom, a student in Masters in Security Informatics from Johns Hopkins University wrote a paper on implementing the zerocoin protocol into a cryptocurrency with Matthew Green as faculty member.[13][5] The project to create a standalone cryptocurrency implementing the Zerocoin protocol was named "Moneta".[14]

On 28 September 2016, Zcoin (XZC), the first cryptocurrency to implement the zerocoin protocol, was launched by Poramin Insom and team.[2] Roger Ver[2] and Tim Lee were Zcoin's initial investors.[15] Poramin also set up an exchanged named "Satang" that can convert Thai Baht to Zcoin directly.[5]

On 20 February 2017, a malicious coding attack on Zerocoin protocol created 370,000 fake tokens which perpetrators sold for over 400 Bitcoins ($440,000). Zcoin team announced that a single-symbol error in a piece of code "allowed an attacker to create Zerocoin spend transactions without a corresponding mint".[16] Unlike Ethereum during the DAO event, developers have opted not to destroy any coins or attempt to reverse what happened with the newly generated ones.[17]

In April 2018, a cryptographic flaw was found in the Zerocoin protocol which allowed attackers to steal, destroy, and create Zcoins.[18] The Zcoin cryptocurrency team while acknowledging the flaw, stated the high difficulty in performing such attacks and the low probability of giving economic benefit to the attacker.[19]

In September 2018, Zcoin introduced the Dandelion protocol that hides the origin IP address of a sender without using a The Onion Router (Tor) or Virtual Private Network (VPN).[20][21] In October 2018, an unknown user had uploaded a banned video on Zcoin blockchain in order to avoid Thai government censorship.[22]

In November 2018, Zcoin conducted the world's first large-scale party elections for Thailand Democrat Party using InterPlanetary File System (IPFS).[23][24]

In December 2018, Zcoin implemented Merkle tree proof, a mining algorithm that deters the usage of Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) in mining coins by being more memory intensive for the miners. This allows ordinary users to use central processing unit (CPU) and graphics card for mining, so as to enable egalitarianism in coin mining.[8] In the same month, Zcoin released an academic paper proposing the Lelantus protocol that remove the need of trusted setup and hides the origin and the amount of coins in a transaction.[25][26]

On 30 July 2019, Zcoin formally departed from the zerocoin protocol by adopting a new protocol called "Sigma" that prevents counterfeit privacy coins from inflating coin supply. This is achieved by removing a feature called "trusted setup" from the zerocoin protocol.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Release for v0.1". Github. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "Cryptocurrency Zcoin Have Just Released 'French Drop' Their Best Privacy Update Yet". Business Insider. Zcoin team. 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Releases". Github. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  4. ^ "ZCoin". Github. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Ezra Kryill, Erker (4 April 2019). "Cyberwarfare to cryptocurrency". Elite Plus Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Team". Zcoin.io. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  7. ^ Miers, Ian; Garman, Christina; Green, Matthew; Rubin, Aviel D. (May 2013). Zerocoin: Anonymous Distributed E-Cash from Bitcoin (PDF). 2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Services. pp. 397–411. doi:10.1109/SP.2013.34. ISSN 1081-6011.
  8. ^ a b "Zcoin Moves Against ASIC Monopoly With Merkle Tree Proof". Finance Magnates. 6 December 2018. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Znodes Specifications Release and Founders' Rewards Reduction". Zcoin.io. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  10. ^ "Zcoins Distribution". Zcoin.io. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  11. ^ "MTP – Zcoin's New Proof-of-Work Algorithm". Zcoin.io. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d "Zcoin (XZC)". Coingecko.com. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  13. ^ Reuben, Yap. "An Interview with Poramin Insom, Zcoin's lead developer and founder". zcoin.io. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  14. ^ "Moneta - Engineering an ideal cryptocurrency". Moneta.cash. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  15. ^ Reuben, Yap. "A message from our new investor in Zcoin, Tim Lee". Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  16. ^ Osborne, Charlie. "The risky business of bitcoin: High-profile cryptocurrency catastrophes". ZDNet. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  17. ^ Rob, Price (20 February 2017). "A single typo let hackers steal $400,000 from a bitcoin rival". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  18. ^ Tim, Ruffing; Sri Avavinda, Krishnan; Viktoria, Ronge; Dominique, Schröder (12 April 2018). "A Cryptographic Flaw in Zerocoin (and Two Critical Coding Issues)". Chair of Applied Cryptography. Germany: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  19. ^ Reuben, Yap. "A statement on the paper "Burning Zerocoins for fun and profit"". Zcoin.io. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  20. ^ Jintana, Panyaarvudh (15 December 2018). "The distributed passion of a crypto pioneer Insom". The Nation (Thailand). Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Zcoin is the first cryptocurrency to implement Dandelion privacy protocol". finder.com.au. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  22. ^ David, Hundeyin (12 November 2018). "Activists Use Crypto to Protect 'Rap Against Dictatorship' from Government Censorship". Yahoo Finance. Archived from the original on 29 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  23. ^ Jimmy, Aki (13 November 2018). "Thailand Uses Blockchain-Supported Electronic Voting System in Primaries". Nasdaq.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  24. ^ Jintana, Panyaarvudh; Kas, Chanwanpen. "Reliable voting TECHNOLOGY". The Nation (Thailand). Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  25. ^ "Lelantus: Private transactions with hidden origins and amounts based on DDH" (PDF). Zcoin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  26. ^ Aram, Jivanyan (7 April 2019). "Lelantus: Towards Confidentiality and Anonymity of Blockchain Transactions from Standard Assumptions". eprint (373). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  27. ^ Andrew, Munro (30 July 2019). "Zcoin cryptocurrency introduces zero knowledge proofs with no trusted set-up". Finder Australia. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.