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List of cryptocurrencies

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Market capitalizations of cryptocurrencies as of January 27, 2018

The number of cryptocurrencies available over the internet as of 19 August 2018 is over 1600 and growing.[1] A new cryptocurrency can be created at any time.[2] By market capitalization, Bitcoin is currently (December 15, 2018) the largest blockchain network, followed by Ripple, Ethereum and Tether.[3]

As of 15 December 2018, total cryptocurrencies market capitalization is $100bn and larger than GDP of 127 countries.[citation needed]

Cryptocurrencies

Active

Below are some notable cryptocurrencies:

Release Currency Symbol Founder(s) Hash algorithm Programming language of implementation Cryptocurrency blockchain
(PoS, PoW, or other)
Notes
2009 Bitcoin BTC,[4] XBT, Satoshi Nakamoto[nt 1] SHA-256d[5][6] C++[7] PoW[6][8] The first and most widely used decentralized ledger currency,[9] with the highest market capitalization.[10]
2011 Litecoin LTC, Ł Charlie Lee Scrypt C++[11] PoW One of the first cryptocurrencies to use Scrypt as a hashing algorithm.
2011 Namecoin NMC Vincent Durham[12][13] SHA-256d C++[14] PoW Also acts as an alternative, decentralized DNS.
2012 Peercoin PPC Sunny King
(pseudonym)[citation needed]
SHA-256d[citation needed] C++[15] PoW & PoS The first cryptocurrency to use POW and POS functions.
2013 Dogecoin DOGE, XDG, Ð Jackson Palmer
& Billy Markus[16]
Scrypt[17] C++[18] PoW Based on the Doge internet meme.
2013[citation needed] Gridcoin GRC Rob Hälford[citation needed] Scrypt C++[19] Decentralized PoS Linked to citizen science through the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing[20]
2013 Primecoin XPM Sunny King
(pseudonym)[citation needed]
1CC/2CC/TWN[21] TypeScript, C++[22] PoW[21] Uses the finding of prime chains composed of Cunningham chains and bi-twin chains for proof-of-work.
2013 Ripple[23][24] XRP Chris Larsen &
Jed McCaleb[25]
ECDSA[26] C++[27] "Consensus" Designed for peer to peer debt transfer. Not based on bitcoin.
2013 Nxt NXT BCNext
(pseudonym)
SHA-256d[28] Java[29] PoS Specifically designed as a flexible platform to build applications and financial services around its protocol.
2014 Auroracoin AUR Baldur Odinsson
(pseudonym)[30]
Scrypt C++[31] PoW Created as an alternative currency for Iceland, intended to replace the Icelandic króna.
2014 Dash DASH Evan Duffield &
Kyle Hagan[32]
X11 C++[33] PoW & Proof of Service[nt 2] A bitcoin-based currency featuring instant transactions, decentralized governance and budgeting, and private transactions.
2014 NEO NEO Da Hongfei & Erik Zhang SHA-256 & RIPEMD160 C#[34] dBFT China based cryptocurrency, formerly ANT Shares and ANT Coins. The names were changed in 2017 to NEO and GAS.
2014 MazaCoin MZC BTC Oyate Initiative SHA-256d C++[35] PoW The underlying software is derived from that of another cryptocurrency, ZetaCoin.
2014 Monero XMR Monero Core Team CryptoNight[36] C++[37] PoW Privacy-centric coin using the CryptoNote protocol with improvements for scalability and decentralization.
2014 NEM XEM UtopianFuture (pseudonym) SHA3-512 Java[38] POI The first hybrid public/private blockchain solution built from scratch, and first to use the Proof of Importance algorithm using EigenTrust++ reputation system.
2014 PotCoin POT Potcoin core dev team Scrypt C++[39] PoS Developed to service the legalized cannabis industry in the United States.
2014 Titcoin TIT Edward Mansfield & Richard Allen[40] SHA-256d TypeScript, C++[41] PoW The first cryptocurrency to be nominated for a major adult industry award.[42]
2014 Verge XVG Sunerok Scrypt, x17, groestl, blake2s, and lyra2rev2 C, C++[43] PoW Features anonymous transactions using Tor.
2014 Stellar XLM Jed McCaleb Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) [44] C, C++[45] Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) [44] Open-source, decentralized global financial network.
2014 Vertcoin VTC Bushido Lyra2RE[46] C++[47] PoW Aims to be ASIC resistant.
2015 Ether or "Ethereum" ETH Vitalik Buterin[48] Ethash[49] C++, Go[50] PoW Supports Turing-complete smart contracts.
2015 Ethereum Classic ETC Ethash[49] PoW An alternative version of Ethereum[51] whose blockchain does not include the DAO Hard-fork.[52] Supports Turing-complete smart contracts.
2015 Tether USDT Jan Ludovicus van der Velde[53] Omnicore [54] PoW Tether claims to be backed by USD at a 1 to 1 ratio. The company has been unable to produce promised audits.[55]
2016 Zcash ZEC Zooko Wilcox Equihash C++[56] PoW The first open, permissionless financial system employing zero-knowledge security.
2017 Bitcoin Cash BCH[57] SHA-256d PoW Hard fork from Bitcoin, Increased Block size from 1mb to 8mb
2017 EOS.IO EOS Dan Larimer WebAssembly, Rust, C, C++[58] delegated PoS Feeless Smart contract platform for decentralized applications and decentralized autonomous corporations with a block time of 500 ms.[58]

Inactive

Release Currency Symbol Founder(s) Hash algorithm Programming language of implementation Cryptocurrency blockchain
(PoS, PoW, or other)
Notes
2014 Coinye KOI, COYE Scrypt PoW Used American hip hop artist Kanye West as its mascot, abandoned after he filed a trademark lawsuit.
2017 BitConnect BCC BitConnect was described as an open source, all-in-one bitcoin and crypto community platform but was later described as a Ponzi scheme.
2018 KodakCoin Kodak and WENN Digital Ethash[59] KodakCoin is a "photographer-centric" blockchain cryptocurrency used for payments for licensing photographs.
2018 Petro Venezuela Government onixCoin[60] C++[61] Stated by Nicolás Maduro to be backed by Venezuela's reserves of oil. As of August 2018 it does not appear to function as a currency.[62]

Notes

  1. ^ It is not known whether the name "Satoshi Nakamoto" is real or a pseudonym, nor whether it represents one person or a group.
  2. ^ Via Masternodes containing 1000 DASH held as collateral for "Proof of Service". Through an automated voting mechanism, one Masternode is selected per block and receives 45% of mining rewards.

See also

References

  1. ^ "All Cryptocurrencies | Coinlore". coinlore.com. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  2. ^ Cryptocurrencies: A Brief Thematic Review. Economics of Networks Journal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Date accessed August 28, 2017.
  3. ^ "All Currencies | CryptoCurrency Market Capitalizations". Coinmarketcap.com. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  4. ^ Dixon, Lance (December 24, 2013). "Building Bitcoin use in South Florida and beyond". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  5. ^ Taylor, Michael Bedford (2013). "Bitcoin and the age of bespoke silicon" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Compilers, Architectures and Synthesis for Embedded Systems. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press. ISBN 978-1-4799-1400-5. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  6. ^ a b Steadman, Ian (May 7, 2013). "Wary of Bitcoin? A guide to some other crypto currencies". Wired UK. Condé Nast UK.
  7. ^ "Bitcoin on GitHub".
  8. ^ Hobson, Dominic (2013). "What is Bitcoin?". XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students. 20 (1). Association for Computing Machinery. pp. 40–44. doi:10.1145/2510124. ISSN 1528-4972.
  9. ^ Reynard, Cherry (May 25, 2018). "What are the top 10 cryptocurrencies?". The Telegraph. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  10. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (February 6, 2018). "Over $550 billion of value wiped off cryptocurrencies since their record high just under a month ago". CNBC. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  11. ^ "Litecoin on GitHub".
  12. ^ "vinced/namecoin: Vince's tree – see namecoin/namecoin for main integration tree". GitHub. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  13. ^ Keller, Levin (March 19, 2011). "Namecoin – a distributed name system based on Bitcoin". Prezi.
  14. ^ "Namecoin on GitHub". Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  15. ^ "Peercoin on GitHub".
  16. ^ A History of Dogecoin. Dogecoin Analysis Report. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed December 28, 2017.
  17. ^ "Intro – Dogecoin # Technical specifications". Dogeco.in. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  18. ^ "Dog E Coin on GitHub".
  19. ^ "GridCoin on GitHub".
  20. ^ Halford, Rob. "Gridcoin: Crypto-Currency using Berkeley Open Infrastructure Network Computing Grid as a Proof Of Work" (PDF). Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  21. ^ a b "FAQ · primecoin/primecoin Wiki · GitHub". Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  22. ^ "Primecoin on GitHub".
  23. ^ Chayka, Kyle (July 2, 2013). "What Comes After Bitcoin?". Pacific Standard. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  24. ^ Vega, Danny (December 4, 2013). "Ripple's Big Move: Mining Crypto currency with a Purpose". Seattlepi.com. Hearst Seattle Media, LLC, a division of The Hearst Corporation.
  25. ^ Simonite, Tom (April 11, 2013). "Big-name investors back effort to build a better Bitcoin". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  26. ^ "How it works – Ripple Wiki". Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  27. ^ "Rippled on GitHub".
  28. ^ "NXT Whitepaper". NxtWiki – Whitepaper. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  29. ^ "NXT on Bitbucket".
  30. ^ Casey, Michael J. (March 5, 2014). "Auroracoin already third-biggest cryptocoin–and it's not even out yet". The Wall Street Journal.
  31. ^ "Auroracoin on GitHub".
  32. ^ Scharr, Jill (May 28, 2014). "What is Dash? An FAQ". Tom's Guide.
  33. ^ "Dash on GitHub".
  34. ^ "NEO on GitHub".
  35. ^ "MazaCoin on GitHub".
  36. ^ "CryptoNight – Bitcoin Wiki". En.bitcoin.it. June 19, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  37. ^ "Monero on GitHub".
  38. ^ "NEM on GitHub".
  39. ^ "PotCoin on GitHub".
  40. ^ Mercier Voyer, Stephanie. "Titcoin Is a Brand New Cryptocurrency for Porn Purchases". Vice Magazine. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  41. ^ "Titcoin on GitHub".
  42. ^ "Titcoin Receives Two Web & Tech XBIZ Nominations". Payout Magazine. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  43. ^ "Verge on GitHub".
  44. ^ a b "Stellar.org White Papers" (PDF). Stellar.org.
  45. ^ "Stellar on GitHub".
  46. ^ "Lyra2RE – A new PoW algorithm for an ASIC-free future" (PDF). November 29, 2014.
  47. ^ "Vertcoin on GitHub".
  48. ^ "Out in the Open: Teenage Hacker Transforms Web Into One Giant Bitcoin Network". Wired.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  49. ^ a b "Ethash". Github.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  50. ^ "Ethereum on GitHub".
  51. ^ "README/README.md at master". Github.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  52. ^ Adinolfi, Joseph. "Exclusive: Grayscale launches digital-currency fund backed by Silver Lake's co-founder Hutchins". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  53. ^ "Mystery Shrouds Tether". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  54. ^ ""Tether White Paper"" (PDF). Tether. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  55. ^ Leising, Matthew (June 20, 2018). "Tether Hired Former FBI Director's Law Firm to Vet Finances". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  56. ^ "Zcash on GitHub".
  57. ^ "Bitcoin Cash Markets and Dillema". CryptoCoinCharts. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  58. ^ a b "Documentation: EOS.IO Documents". February 10, 2018 – via GitHub.
  59. ^ Ray, Tiernan (January 9, 2018). "Kodak CEO: Blockchain Significant, Though Not a Doubling in Stock Price". Barrons. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  60. ^ "Onix's white paper" (PDF). www.onixcoin.com. January 13, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  61. ^ "OnixCoin on GitHub".
  62. ^ Ellsworth, Brian (August 30, 2018). "Special Report: In Venezuela, new cryptocurrency is nowhere to be found". Reuters. Retrieved August 30, 2018. The coin is not sold on any major cryptocurrency exchange. No shops are known to accept it.