2010 Russian wildfires

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2010 Russian wildfires
2010 Russian wildfires
Smoke over western Russia on 4 August 2010
Location Russia[1]
Date(s) late July 2010 – early September 2010
Land use villages, farmland, woodlands
Buildings destroyed 2,000
Fatalities

54 in wildfires

55,736 in heat wave[2]
Pyrocumulonimbus cloud (circular cloud, left) caused by 1 August 2010 wildfires.

The 2010 Russian wildfires were several hundred wildfires that broke out across Russia, primarily in the west, starting in late July 2010. The fires were associated with record temperatures, which were attributed to climate change[3] (the hottest recorded summer in Russian history[4]) and drought in the region.[5] Russian President Dmitry Medvedev declared a state of emergency in seven regions for the fires, while 28 other regions were under a state of emergency due to crop failures caused by the Russian drought.[6] The fires cost roughly $15 billion USD in damages.

A combination of the smoke from the fires, producing heavy smog blanketing large urban regions and the record-breaking heat wave put stress on the Russian healthcare system. Munich Re estimated 56,000 people in all died from the effects of the smog and heat wave.[7] The 2010 wildfires were the worst on record to that time. However, in 2012, new wildfires broke out in Russia which proved even more extensive and damaging.[8]

Prelude[edit]

Global temperature anomalies in June 2010, showing a concentrated region of temperatures about 4–5 °C+ above average in Western Russia.

During 2010 Russia experienced dry, hot weather starting around late May – early June. Temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) first occurred after 12 June, which alone was an abnormality for the country (average mid-June temperatures seldom rise above 30 °C (86 °F)). In the late June, Russian regions such as the Eurasian Sakha Republic, as well as areas of partial taiga, had temperatures of 38–40 °C (100–104 °F). The warm ridging pattern then slowly moved westward to the Ural Mountains, and by July settled in European Russia.

On 25 June a new temperature record was set in the Asian portion of Russia, at Belogorsk, Amur Oblast, at 42.3 °C (108.1 °F). The previous record in the Asian portion was 41.7 °C (107.1 °F) at Aksha on 21 July 2004. A new record for the highest nationwide temperature in Russia was set on 11 July, at 44 °C (111 °F), in Yashkul, Kalmykia (in the European portion), beating the previous record of 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) set on 6 August 1940, in Kalmykia.[9]

Average temperatures in the region increased to over 35 °C (95 °F). The mean high for European Russia recorded on 26 July reached 40 °C (104 °F) during the day. During July 2010, a large portion of European Russia was more than 7 °C (12.6 °F) warmer than normal.[10]

Timeline[edit]

29 July[edit]

Peat fires causing significant loss of properties and an unverified number of human fatalities started in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, the Voronezh Oblast, Moscow Oblast, Ryazan Oblast and across central and western Russia due to unseasonably hot weather.[11]

31 July[edit]

Regions with wildfire spreading on 31 July.
Smoke in Voronezh Oblast.

The head of EMERCOM, Sergey Shoygu, reported on 31 July 2010 that the fire situation in the seventeen federal subjects of Russia, especially in Vladimir and Moscow Oblasts, may be complicated. He claimed that in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast the velocity of fires was 100 meters per minute, and the fiery air flow tore trees from the root, like a hurricane.[12] A YouTube video was uploaded, showing a group of men escaping from a burning village in Vyksa district by driving their car over a burning road.[13]

1 August[edit]

On 1 August 2010, the area of the forest fires was 114,000 ha (1,140 km2).[14] The Central Regional Center MOE Russia website reported that in Moscow Oblast 130 foci of natural fires were detected, covering the area of 880 hectares. Of those, 67 fires covered an area of 178 hectares.[5]

2 August[edit]

Smoke of the wildfires over Moscow.

According to "Interfax" referring to the head of the National Center for Crisis Management of EMERCOM Vladimir Stepanov, as of 2 August 2010, Russia revealed approximately 7,000 fires in the area over 500,000 ha (5,000 km2). Fire was also burning in fourteen federal subjects of Russia, and on 2 August 2010, officials reported the death of 34 people.[14]

Moscow on Monday was covered in smoke, with reduced road visibility.[5] On Monday, 2 August 2010, Vladimir Putin scheduled a meeting with the Governors of Voronezh, Novgorod, Samara, Moscow, Ryazan, and Vladimir Oblasts, as well as the Head of the Republic of Mordovia.[5]

4 August[edit]

By 4 August, the wildfires were still burning over 188,525 ha (1,885.25 km2), with a death toll of at least 48. Some fires burned in areas near the nuclear research center in Sarov. However Rosatom head Sergey Kiriyenko dismissed apprehension of an atomic explosion.[15]

President Dmitry Medvedev cut short his summer break to return to Moscow for an emergency meeting of the national security council to address the crisis.[16] At an international meeting on 30 July, amid the ongoing heat wave and wildfires, Medvedev announced on television that "practically everything is burning. The weather is anomalously hot. What's happening with the planet's climate right now needs to be a wake-up call to all of us, meaning all heads of state, all heads of social organizations, in order to take a more energetic approach to countering the global changes to the climate."[17][18][19]

Medvedev sacked some of his senior navy officers after one fire destroyed Russian navy equipment.[20][21] The officers were accused of "incomplete professional responsibility" after several buildings were allowed to burn down and vehicles and equipment destroyed.[22] He suggested anyone who had neglected their duties would be prosecuted.[23] On the same day it was reported that another fire was approaching a major secret nuclear research facility in the city of Sarov.[22]

Environmental groups and opposition politicians suggested firefighting has been slowed down by the Forest Code law passed by the Duma in 2006 at the order of Putin. The legislation transferred responsibility for the country's vast woodlands to regional authorities, putting 70,000 forestry guards out of work.[24]

5 August[edit]

According to the Emergencies Ministry, there were 843 reported outbreaks of fires, including 47 peat fires. There were 73 large fires.[25] The fires threatened an animal sanctuary for over 1,800 animals, including dogs and retired circus animals. Almost 600 fires were still burning in the country, and around 2,000 homes had been destroyed. The President fired several high-ranking military officials after fires burned through a secret military base.[26]

Carbon monoxide pollution in Moscow was four times above normal. Firefighters fought to prevent the wildfires from reaching Bryansk, an area bordering Ukraine contaminated with radioactive material, including cesium-137 and strontium-90, in the soils following the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Emergencies Minister Sergey Shoygu warned that fires could release radionuclides into the air. He said that a new zone of radioactive pollution could emerge. Two fires broke out in the region but were contained.[27][28][29]

6 August[edit]

Smoke in Moscow on 6 August 2010
Smoke in Kharkov on 14 August

According to the Emergencies Ministry, there were registered 831 fires, including 42 peat fires. 80 large fires were registered in an area of 150,800 ha (1,508 km2).[25] Almost 162,000 people were reported to be fighting with the flames in the regions of Moscow, Voronezh, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Tver, Yekaterinburg, Republic of Mordovia, and Mari El Republic.[30]

According to the State environmental agency "Mosekomonitoring", in the morning in Moscow, the maximum concentration of carbon monoxide in the air exceeded the acceptable norm by 3.6 times, the content of suspended particles by 2.8 times, and specific hydrocarbons by 1.5 times. The Moscow airports of Domodedovo and Vnukovo were unable to land more than 40 planes and were only able to send about 20 planes due to the strong haze caused by the smoke. As of 10 am, visibility at Domodedovo was 350 m and 300 m at Vnukovo. According to the Federal Air Transportation Agency, the Sheremetyevo airport works as usual because of visibility of about 800 m.[25]

An international football friendly match (Russia–Bulgaria) scheduled for 11 August was moved to Saint Petersburg.[31] Two Russian Premier League football games were postponed because of the severe environmental situation.[32]

According to the spectrometric data received from the NASA satellites Terra and Aqua, the smoke from the fires in some places rose to a height of about 12 kilometers and ended up in the stratosphere, which usually only occurs during volcanic eruptions.[33] Satellite imagery showed that a cloud of smoke 1,850 mi (2,980 km) wide covered Western Russia.[34]

7 August[edit]

Moscow, Yasenevo, Aivazovskogo street. Left – 17 June 2010, 20:22. Right – 7 August 2010, 17:05.
Smoke in Sheremetyevo 7 August 2010.
The upper border of the smoke layer (7–8 km) above the Moscow region.

Emergency officials registered 853 outbreaks of fire by 7 August, including 32 peat fires, with a total area of 193,516 ha (1,935.16 km2), in which 244 islands of fire were put out, and 290 new fires sprung up.[35]

In Moscow, by noon the concentration of airborne pollutants intensified and reached at 6.6 times normal level for carbon monoxide, and 2.2 times for suspended particulate matter.[36] Seven flights heading for Domodedovo and Vnukovo airports were redirected to alternative airfields.[37] The temperature may have reached 40 °C (104 °F) in Moscow Oblast.[38] At Sheremetyevo International Airport, visibility was reduced to 325 meters.[10]

8 August[edit]

Smoke from fires in the Novgorod region travel north, arriving in Saint Petersburg.[39]

10 August[edit]

Early in the afternoon of 10 August Greenpeace Russia stated that fires were raging in radioactive polluted areas near Bryansk, which is quite polluted due to the Chernobyl disaster of 1986. This area is still heavily contaminated and has no inhabitants. In the Moscow area a heavy thunderstorm broke over the city. NO2 rates decreased from 8 times normal to normal NO2 rates. Unfortunately expectations are not favorable with temperatures over 35 degrees Celsius. Experts stated that the polluted air would continue again within a few days. Environmental scientists stated that the brown cloud produced by the fires may cause soot to land on Arctic sea ice, causing faster melting. The release of industrial polychlorinated biphenyls from the fires[40] and cryoconite causing melting on the Greenland Ice Sheet were also concerns.

12 August[edit]

With the number of fires being reduced from 612 to 562, the skies over Moscow were mostly clear on 12 August, giving the city a much needed break from the devastating smog. Residents in the city told reporters that they were overjoyed with the suddenly improved air; most of whom stopped wearing their masks as the air was safe to breathe. However, forecasts indicated that a shift in the winds was likely to occur in the coming days, likely bringing the smog back into Moscow.[41] Reports indicated that roughly 80,000 hectares of land were still burning.[42]

Press reports stated that a preliminary estimate of damage to the Russian economy as a result of the fires was €11.4 billion ($15 billion USD).[43]

13 August[edit]

Front end of forest forest-peat fire fighting near Roshal town (Shatursky district) on 13 August 2010.

After weeks without rain, heavy downpours soaked Moscow and nearby areas, bringing further relief to the extended heat wave. However, in Sarov, about 480 kilometres (300 mi) east of Moscow, a new fire started near the country's top nuclear research center. Earlier in August, radioactive and explosive materials were moved out of the facility due to the threat of fires; however, they were later returned when the threat lessened.[44] Over 3,400 firefighters were battling the blaze and were being assisted by a special firefighting train.[45]

2 September[edit]

A new wave of wildfires flared up in Russia in September, killing at least 8 people and destroying nearly 900 buildings.[citation needed]

Public health effects[edit]

Temperatures on 31 July 2010.

Deaths in Moscow were averaged 700 a day, about twice the average number.[46][47] The heat wave is believed to have been unprecedented in Russian history,[46] and killed 55,736 people, according to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.[48]

Fires have affected areas contaminated by the Chernobyl incident, specifically the surroundings of Bryansk and border regions with Belarus and Ukraine. Due to this, soil and plant particles contaminated by radioactive material could be released into the air and spread over wider areas.[49] The Russian government indicates that there has been no discernible increase in radiation levels, while Greenpeace accuses the government of denial.[49] France's Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) issued its own analysis of the risk of fires in Chernobyl-affected areas on 12 August, concluding there would be no health risk currently, but marginally elevated levels of radiation could potentially be detected in the future.[50]

International assistance and response[edit]

Russia has received assistance in extinguishing the fires from China,[51] Serbia,[52][53] Italy,[54] Ukraine,[55] Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Poland,[56] Lithuania,[57] Iran,[58] Estonia,[59] Uzbekistan,[60] Venezuela,[61] France,[62] Germany,[63] Latvia[64] and Finland[65]

Many diplomats and a number of embassies temporarily closed, among them those of Austria, Canada, Germany, Poland and Norway.[66] On its website, the United States Department of State advised Americans traveling to Moscow and surrounding areas should "carefully consider" their plans because of "hazardous levels of air pollution" and "numerous flight delays". Italy's Foreign Ministry advised people to "postpone any travel plans to Moscow that aren’t strictly necessary".[citation needed]

Volunteer efforts[edit]

Volunteers near the town of Roshal (Shatursky district on 14 August 2010 sawed through burnt forest, cleared debris and extinguished small fires.

Volunteers took part in fire fighting and helping those affected by the fires. In some cases, informal help is faster and more effective than official help.[67][68] Volunteers buy and transport equipment such as fire suppression materials, chainsaws, engine-driven water pumps, respirators, food for firemen and volunteers, soap, and drinking water. Volunteer coordination was via LiveJournal communities, the main one being pozar_ru.[69] There is also a website Russian-fires.ru working on Ushahidi platform that was used at Haiti and Chile earthquakes to coordinate volunteers.[70][71]

The Moscow Times wrote on 17 August 2010:

Volunteers, widely snubbed by professional firefighters because of their lack of experience, have saved several villages by using basic shovels and buckets of water and sand. Even after a larger fire is suppressed with a fire hose, the underbrush often continues to burn, and a gust of wind can ignite it into a blaze once again. Using shovels and water backpacks, volunteers in Yuvino isolated burning groundcover, cleared a fire line around the village, and loaned firefighters a pump to fill their trucks.[72]

Volunteer casualties[edit]

One volunteer died in action in the Lukhovitsy District on 29 July 2010 and the body was found on 15 August 2010.[73]

One volunteer died in Mordovia from carbon monoxide poisoning on 4 August 2010; the body was found by Police patrol days later.[74][75] Another volunteer died in a car crash in the Shatursky District on 14 August 2010.[76]

Information censorship[edit]

Local Russian commercial and governmental mass media did not provide actual real-time information for the general public. In the case of a fast-moving wildfire there would be no chance to inform people via mass media about emergency evacuation. Furthermore, there was no official of Medvedev's administration personally responsible for providing emergency information of this kind.[77]

In a piece under his byline on the Moscow Times website, "Right Cause" party co-founder Georgy Bovt wrote that:

"State-controlled television revealed as little information as possible to the public about the fires and smog. Its primary goal was to prevent panic. This eerily reminded me of how the Soviet government reacted to the Chernobyl explosion in April 1986. In a similar manner, the authorities withheld information about the extent of the nuclear fallout to “avoid panic."[78]

In some cases, no information about villages affected by wildfire was available for two weeks.[79] Doctors from several medical institutions in Moscow, interviewed by an Interfax correspondent, acknowledged that medical professionals are now forbidden to make a diagnosis of "thermal shock".[80]

According to a poll on information about fires found in the Vedomosti newspaper, 68% of people trust online media such as blogs, 28% trust independent media and 4% trust government media.[81]

Government Radio Mayak broadcast on 13 August:

Vice-minister of Ministry of Emergency Situations Alexander Chupriyan said on Friday (13 August 2010) that the peat fires were extinguished completely in the Noginsk, Kolomna, Pavlovsky Posad and Orekhovo-Zuyevo areas near Moscow.[82]

A volunteer wrote about the same events on 13 August 2010 in the Orekhovo-Zuyevo area in his blog:

I have never seen such ... Along the roads — the burned forest. Here and there still smoldering, smoking. The road blocks smoke. What you saw in Moscow — it is nothing you have seen.[83]

Independent radio РСН on 14 August:

The MOE said that nothing is burning ... TV show that nothing is burning ... Civilians forced to buy fire equipment for firemen ... I saw open fire at Orekhovo-Zuyevo area.[84]

Another volunteer wrote about the events on 15 August 2010 in the same Orekhovo-Zuyevo area in his blog:

The situation in Orekhovo is stable, i.e. a stable grassroots fire.[85]

Criticism[edit]

The swamps and bogs surrounding Moscow had been drained in the 1960s for agricultural use and mining of peat to generate energy.[86] In 2002, a series of hard-to-extinguish peat fires led the government to the recognition that peat fields needed to be rewatered to prevent wildfires.[86] By 2010, however, large peat areas that had not been rewatered contributed to the wildfires. Government officials said they could not have anticipated the heatwave that caused the fires. However, critics have blamed complacent officials for ignoring warnings of blazes near villages.[87] Sergey Robaten, Vadim Tatur, and Maksim Kalashnikov argued that the fires and the inability to contain and extinguish them was due to “the inaction of bureaucrats” and Putin's elimination of the Russian State Fire Service in 2007. Putin had transferred responsibility for fighting fires to those renting state property and the subjects of the federation, with the assumption that owners or renters would spend the money necessary to prevent forest fires. However, the reality in Russia was that companies were seeking to make quick profits and so neglected forest fire fighting. Putin's spokesman stated "this is a well functioning system which only needs some minor adjustments".[88][89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Henry, Patrick (3 August 2010). "Russian Wildfires' Death Toll Rises to 50; Drought May Force Export Ban". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  2. ^ Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters
  3. ^ Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R. (2012). "PNAS Plus: Perception of climate change". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (37): E2415. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205276109.  edit
  4. ^ "Russia Wildfires Rage Amid Record Heat | News | English". .voanews.com. 3 August 2010. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Moscow once again enveloped with smoke from fires"
  6. ^ Kramer, Andrew (8 August 2010). "A smoky curtain falls on Moscow". theage.com.au (Melbourne). Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  7. ^ Writers, Staff. "Natural disasters killed 295,000 in 2010: reinsurer". Agence Presse-France. Disaster Management – Terra Daily. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  8. ^ http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=2151
  9. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Russia records its hottest temperature in history; 97L develops near Puerto Rico". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Masters, Jeff. "Bermuda eyes a weak Colin; new extreme heat record for Belarus". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  11. ^ "Russian wildfires – The Big Picture". Boston Globe. 2 August 2010. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  12. ^ area of forest fires in Russia decreased
  13. ^ Youtube video of car driving through fire
  14. ^ a b Area fires in Russia increased to 500 thousand hectares
  15. ^ Media Group, Rambler (4 August 2010). ""Росатом" призвал не бояться ядерного взрыва в Сарове". Lenta.ru (in Russian). ООО "Лента.Ру" (1999–2012). Retrieved 5 August 2010. 
  16. ^ "Medvedev cuts holiday as Russian wildfires kill 48". BBC News. 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  17. ^ Shuster, Simon (2 August 2010). "Will Russia's Heat Wave End Its Global-Warming Doubts?". TIME. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010. 
  18. ^ "Perception of Climate Change: Examining Extreme Temperatures".  JournalistsResource.org, retrieved August 21, 2012.
  19. ^ Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto (2012). "Perception of climate change". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205276109. 
  20. ^ "Russia's Medvedev sacks navy officers for base fire". Reuters. 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010. 
  21. ^ "Russian leader sacks top officers over fire". Daily Nation. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "Medvedev sacks officials over fires". Aljazeera. 5 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010. 
  23. ^ Gorst, Isabel and Weaver, Courtney (4 August 2010). "Medvedev orders investigation into Russian wildfires". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 August 2010. 
  24. ^ Bryanski, Gleb (3 August 2010). "Opposition says Putin law cripples Russia fire-fighting". Reuters Africa. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  25. ^ a b c "В России возросло число крупных пожаров". Lenta.ru. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  26. ^ UKPA, Google (5 August 2010). "Wildfires threaten animal sanctuary". The Press Association. Retrieved 5 August 2010. 
  27. ^ Ferris-Rotman, Amie (5 August 2010). "Russia fires pose nuclear threat, death toll hits 50". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010. 
  28. ^ Europe, VoANews (6 August 2010). "Smog From Spreading Russia Fires Chokes Moscow". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010. 
  29. ^ Dispatches, Moscow (8 August 2010). "Russia's wildfires threaten nuclear sites". Tehran Times. Retrieved 8 August 2010. 
  30. ^ "Крупных пожаров стало больше, погибли уже 52 человека" (in Russian). Infox. 6 August 2010. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  31. ^ "Товарищеский матч национальных сборных России и Болгарии перенесен в Санкт-Петербург" (in Russian). RFU. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  32. ^ "Russian Premier League postpones two matches over smog in Moscow". ITAR-TASS. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
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  36. ^ "Концентрация угарного газа в Москве превышает ПДК более чем в 6,5 раза" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  37. ^ "Семь авиарейсов не смогли сесть во Внуково и Домодедово" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  38. ^ "Still hard to breathe in Moscow because of smog, tmp to rise to 40". ITAR-TASS. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  39. ^ "Смог охватил Санкт-Петербург". Internovosti.ru. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  40. ^ Doyle, Alister (10 August 2010). "Russia fires cause "brown cloud", may hit Arctic". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  41. ^ Vladimir Isachenkov (12 August 2010). "Smoke-shrouded Moscow gets welcome break from smog". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  42. ^ Associated Press (12 August 2010). "Moscow skies clear of smog". CBC News. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  43. ^ Rose Griffin (11 August 2010). "700 dying each day due to Moscow heatwave". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  44. ^ Vladimir Isachenkov (13 August 2010). "Rain refreshes Moscow, but wildfires still burning". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  45. ^ Agence-France-Presse (13 August 2010). "Fires stoke nuclear fears". The Standard. Hong Kong. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  46. ^ a b Isachenkov, Vladimir (9 August 2010). "Moscow deaths double amid smog to 700 people a day". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  47. ^ "Moscow deaths double amid smog to 700 people a day – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  48. ^ "2010 Disasters in Numbers". CRED. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  49. ^ a b Deutsche Welle (11 August 2010). "Russian fires hit Chernobyl-affected areas, threatening recontamination". Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  50. ^ "Questions raised by the forest fires in Russia". Irsn.fr. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  51. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/world/2010-08/11/content_20685684.htm
  52. ^ Србија понудила помоћ Русији у гашењу пожара
  53. ^ Марић: Србија понудила Русији помоћ у гашењу пожара
  54. ^ К тушению природных пожаров приступили два итальянских экипажа Р-180, а также вертолет Ми-171т. республики Казахстан. (By fighting wildland fires started by two Italian F-180 crew, as well as Mi-171t. Republic of Kazakhstan., 7 August 2010)
  55. ^ Ukrainian rescuers helping extinguish forest fires in Russia, Kyiv Post (6 August 2010)
  56. ^ "ВЗГЛЯД / Флаги в помощь". Vz.ru. 8 May 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  57. ^ "Литва предлагает России помощь в ликвидации последствий пожаров: Голос России". Rus.ruvr.ru. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  58. ^ http://fwnews.ru/interesnoe/2iran-pomozhet-tushit-prirodnye-pozhary87
  59. ^ "Известия.Ру: Эстония готова помочь России в борьбе с лесными пожарами". Izvestia.ru. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  60. ^ "Узбекистан предложил РФ помощь в тушении пожаров". ER.ru. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  61. ^ "ВЗГЛЯД / Венесуэла предложила России помощь в борьбе с пожарами". Vz.ru. 8 May 2010. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  62. ^ "Франция предлагает России помощь в борьбе с пожарами". Tatar-inform.ru. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  63. ^ "Германия готова помочь России в борьбе с пожарами | Германия | Deutsche Welle | 31.07.2010". Dw-world.de. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  64. ^ "Krievija lūdz Latvijas palīdzību cīņai ar uguni". Delfi.lv. 9 August 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  (Latvian)
  65. ^ Foreign Ministry of Finland (11 August 2010). "Finland offers Russia assistance to fight forest fires – Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Current affairs". formin.fi. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  66. ^ Ritzau (11 August 2010). "Moscow: Smoke closes Norwegian embassy" (in Danish). Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  67. ^ Главное — решение об организации в Колионово перевалочного пункта гуманной помощи для погорельцев оказалось правильным. (The decision to organize in Kolionovo staging point for humanitarian aid to victims of the fire proved correct ... in the Beloomut club all rooms littered with mountains of old clothes and shoes. It is not demand. People are grateful, but ask not to bring.)
  68. ^ Про будни и про рядовой караул пожарной части(About firehouse's weekdays and common guard ... They asked about the gloves and mittens ...These people now day after day are at the front of the fire fighting. Several people were killed. Payments of insurance in this case — 36 thousand rubles.)
  69. ^ Пожар_ру. Благотворительная помощь пострадавшим от пожаров в России (Pozhar_ru. Charitable aid to victims of fires in Russia)
  70. ^ Карта Помощи пострадавшим от лесных пожаров 2010 в России (Help Map for victims of the 2010 forest fires in Russia)
  71. ^ Карта Помощи. Help Map
  72. ^ "Volunteers Take Fires Into Own Hands" by Maria Antonova, The Moscow Times, 17 August 2010
  73. ^ В Луховицах найдено тело тракториста, пропавшего во время тушения лесного пожара. (In Lukhovitsy found the body of the tractor driver, who disappeared while fighting a forest fire. )
  74. ^ Вести.Ru: В Мордовии при тушении лесного пожара погиб доброволец one volunteer died in Mordovia, while extinguishing a forest fire
  75. ^ [1]
  76. ^ Погибла Самоварщикова Ольга (in Russian)
  77. ^ "В администрации президента никто персонально не отвечает" (in Russian)
  78. ^ "Putin's Vertical Power Disaster" by Georgy Bovt, The Moscow Times, 13 August 2010
  79. ^ О сгоревшей деревне Александровке узнали только спустя 2 недели (in Russian)
  80. ^ В Москве врачам запретили ставить диагноз "тепловой удар" (in Russian)
  81. ^ Какому источнику информации о пожарах в Центральной России Вы больше доверяете? "Which source of information about fires in central Russia you most trust?", 4 August 2010
  82. ^ 14 August 2010 11:55 "радио "Маяк" Помощь добровольцев для тушения пожаров больше не требуется
  83. ^ Пока сделали два рейса. "Я такого никогда не видел ..." (с) Вдоль дорог — сгоревший лес. Кое-где еще тлеет, дымится. Периодически дорогу перекрывает дым. То, что вы видели в Москве — это вы ничего не видели.
  84. ^ Radio РСН Игорь Черский и позвонившие в эфир волонтеры — о ситуации на местах — РСН, 14 августа Igor Cherskii and callers on the air volunteer information about the situation on the ground (in Russian)
  85. ^ Новости из Орехово-Зуево, News from Orekhovo-Zuyevo 15 August 2010
  86. ^ a b Serghey Stelmakovich. "Russia institutes peat fire prevention program". Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  87. ^ Tom Parfitt in Moscow (6 August 2010). "Smoke from Russian fires blankets Moscow | World news". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  88. ^ Goble, Paul. "Putin's Destruction Of Forest Service In 2007 Behind Russia's Current Fire Disaster". Eurasiareview.com. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  89. ^ Bryanski, Gleb (4 August 2010). "Opposition says Putin law cripples Russia fire-fighting | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 

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