ASEAN Summit

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ASEAN Summit
Motto: 
"One Vision, One Identity, One Community"
ASEAN members shown in green.
ASEAN members shown in green.
Headquarters  Indonesia
Member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary General Vietnam Le Luong Minh
Establishment 8 August 1967
Website
http://www.asean.org/

The ASEAN Summit is an annual meeting held by the member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in relation to economic, and cultural development of Southeast Asian countries.[2]

The league of ASEAN is currently connected with other countries who aimed to participate on the missions and visions of the league. Apparently, the league is conducting an annual meetings with other countries in an organisation collectively known as the ASEAN dialogue partners. ASEAN +3 adds China, Japan and South Korea. The formal summit are held in three days. The usual itinerary are as follows:

  • ASEAN leaders hold an internal organisation meeting.
  • ASEAN leaders hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
  • Leaders of 3 ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN+3) namely China, Japan and South Korea hold a meeting with the ASEAN leaders.
  • And a separate meeting is set for leaders of 2 ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN+CER) namely Australia and New Zealand.

History[edit]

The First ASEAN summit was held in February 1976 in Bali.[3] At this summit, ASEAN expressed its readiness to "develop fruitful relations" and mutually beneficial co-operation with other countries of the region.[4] The ASEAN leaders signed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia.

On 2nd ASEAN summit held on Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1977 was the occasion for the first summit meeting between Japan and ASEAN. Japan expressed its intention to promote co-operation with ASEAN.[5]

On 9th ASEAN Summit; A meeting on 7 October 2003 on Bali, Indonesia. The leaders of the members nations signed a declaration known as the Bali Concord II in which they agreed to pursue closer economic integration by 2020.

According to the declaration, "an ASEAN Community" would be set upon three pillars, "namely political and security cooperation, economic cooperation, and socio-cultural cooperation; For the purpose of ensuring durable peace, stability and shared prosperity in the region." The plan envisaged a region with a population of 500 million and annual trade of US$720 billion. Also, a free trade area would be established in the region by 2020. ASEAN's leaders also discussed setting up a security community alongside the economic one, though without any formal military alliance.

During the same meeting, the People's Republic of China and ASEAN have also agreed to work faster toward a mutual trade agreement, which will create the world's most populous market, with 1.7 billion consumers. Japan also signed an agreement pledging to reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers with ASEAN members.

On the 11th ASEAN summit last 12–14 December 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seven main issues were discussed during the Summit. The issues are:

  • the spread of bird flu
  • southern Thailand conflict
  • democracy in Myanmar
  • crude oil prices fluctuation and poverty
  • investment and trade
  • ASEAN Charter

Immediately after the summit ended, the inaugural East Asia Summit was held.

The 12th ASEAN Summit was originally set to be hosted on Cebu island in the Philippines from December 10 to 14. However on December 8, organisers decided to move the summit schedule to 12–15 January 2007 due to Typhoon Seniang. Cebu Metropolitan Area (composed of Cebu City, Mandaue City, Talisay City, and Lapu-Lapu City) jointly hosted varied events of the summit. The actual conference was held at the Cebu International Convention Centre in Mandaue City while the Shangri-La Mactan Island Resort & Spa in Lapu-Lapu City provided accommodations for delegates and venues for smaller meetings.

At the 12th ASEAN Summit, the member countries of ASEAN signed five agreements pertaining to continuing integration of ASEAN and enhancing political, economic and social cooperation in the region:[6]

  • Cebu Declaration Towards a Caring and Sharing Community.
  • Cebu Declaration on the Blueprint for the ASEAN Charter.
  • Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015.
  • ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers.
  • ASEAN Convention on Counter Terrorism.

The 13th ASEAN Summit was held from 18–22 November 2007, in Singapore. The theme was "One ASEAN at the Heart of Dynamic Asia".

The key theme of the discussions was set to be on "Energy, Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development". In line with the theme, the ASEAN Leaders' Declaration on Environmental Sustainability was signed at the 13th ASEAN Summit and a proposal to work on a Singapore Declaration on the Environment was issued at the 3rd East Asia Summit.

The leaders had endorsed the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint which will help chart concrete targets for establishing a single market and production base in the ASEAN region by 2015.

The summit marking the 30th anniversary of ASEAN-EU ties was held on November 22.

Other documents that had be negotiated and signed:

  • ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreement on Architectural Services.
  • ASEAN Framework Arrangement for the Mutual Recognition of Surveying Qualifications.
  • Protocol to Implement the Sixth Package of Commitments under the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services.
  • Agreements on trade and areas of cooperation with ASEAN Dialogue Partners.

The 15th Asean Summit was held from 23–25 October 2009 in Hua Hin, Cha Am, Thailand.[7] It involved the Leaders from Asean league of Nations together with their dialogue partners from People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand.

A flurry of meetings among Asian leaders on the last day raised the possibility of forging a regional free trade pact, which is likely to be raised at the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in November 2009.

The 16th ASEAN Summit held in Ha Noi, Vietnam 9 April 2010 “Towards the Asean Community: from Vision to Action".

The 17th ASEAN Summit in October 2010 in Vietnam Ha Noi.Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono did not attend the opening ceremony of the Summit this afternoon. He had to cut short his trip and returned home to oversee the rescue operation in the disaster-stricken area, after arriving here on Tuesday for a state visit prior to attending the Summit.
The 18th ASEAN Summit in Jakarta capital of Indonesia.
The 19th ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia at November 2011.

Locations[edit]

The ASEAN Summit is held by its 10 Southeast Asian Countries annually.

Annual meetings of the ASEAN members.
# Dates Country City
1st 23–24 February 1976  Indonesia Bali
2nd 4–5 August 1977  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
3rd 14–15 December 1987  Philippines Manila
4th 27‒29 January 1992  Singapore Singapore
5th 14‒15 December 1995  Thailand Bangkok
6th 15‒16 December 1998  Vietnam Hanoi
7th 5‒6 November 2001  Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan
8th 4‒5 November 2002  Cambodia Phnom Penh
9th 7‒8 October 2003  Indonesia Bali
10th 29‒30 November 2004  Laos Vientiane
11th 12‒14 December 2005  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
12th 11‒14 January 2007  Philippines Cebu City
13th 18‒22 November 2007  Singapore Singapore
14th 27 February - 1 March 2009
10–11 April 2009
 Thailand Cha Am, Hua Hin
Pattaya
15th 23 October 2009
16th 8–9 April 2010  Vietnam Hanoi
17th 28–31 October 2010
18th 7–8 May 2011  Indonesia Jakarta
19th 17–19 November 2011 Bali
20th 3–4 April 2012  Cambodia Phnom Penh
21st 18–20 November 2012
22nd 24–25 April 2013  Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan [8]
23rd 9–10 October 2013
24th 10-11 May 2014  Myanmar Naypyidaw
25th 9-11 or 10-12 November 2014

Issues[edit]

Thailand[edit]

Further information: South Thailand insurgency

Prior to the ASEAN summit, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra publicly threatened to walk out of the meeting if any member states raised the issue of the Thai government's handling of the insurgency in south Thailand. He stated "If the topic is raised, I will fly back home".[9] This is notable since leaders have often shown solidarity with each other over high profile issues such as East Timor and Myanmar's handling of Aung San Suu Kyi. Furthermore, one of the principles on which ASEAN was founded is a stated principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other member states. Any tension has been kept from the public view and leaders have avoided confrontational statements in public.

Indonesia (the world's most populous Muslim country) and Malaysia however were particularly vehement in their condemnation over the Thai government's handling of the events in south Thailand with a former Malaysian Prime minister going to the extent of suggesting that the Southern Thai states should be given autonomy power. The Malaysian foreign minister further was quoted as saying that there is no such thing as absolute non-interference. It is thought that Thaksin's statement was made following the Malaysian government's passing of an opposition resolution condemning the Thai government for the death of at least 85 Muslim protestors in south Thailand.

Laotian spokesman Yong Chanthalangsy stated "I think we have a golden rule, that is non-interference in the internal affairs of each other." He added "It is a courtesy among the leaders, among the ministers, that if one of the leaders does not wish to discuss a question, all the leaders will respect it."

Myanmar (Burma)[edit]

Also prior to the 2004 summit, Myanmar had taken steps to rehabilitate itself by releasing up to 9,000 prisoners who were imprisoned under the old junta. Myanmar's new leader General Soe Win attended the conference and foreign minister Nyan Win had already made pre-summit press releases on Myanmar's continuing commitment for the roadmap to democracy.

Myanmar was due to hold the chair of ASEAN in 2006. This however had created criticism from various factions. The United States and the European Union publicly announced that they might boycott any ASEAN-related event if Myanmar was the chair. In July 2005, during an ASEAN foreign minister meeting in Vientiane, Myanmar decided to postpone its turn. The Philippines, the country next in line, instead held the ASEAN chair in 2006.

Apart from the US, various ASEAN lawmakers have called Myanmar's membership to be stripped due to its poor human rights record.[10]

East Timor[edit]

The new nation of East Timor, previously ruled by Indonesia, has had a long struggle with ASEAN. East Timor, during its long process towards independence, has sought to have observer status in ASEAN, much like Papua New Guinea, and eventually official member status. Historically, ASEAN countries supported Indonesia over East Timor, with the Philippines and Malaysia barring overseas NGOs from participating in East Timor conferences in the late 1990s. More recently, Myanmar opposed granting observer status to East Timor because of the latter's support for opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.

In 2002, East Timor was recognised as an observer of ASEAN and joined the ASEAN Regional Forum in 2005.[11][12] In December 2005, the government of East Timor stated the nation would be a member of ASEAN by 2011.[13]

The nation's President were already applied for a membership at the 39th Annual Ministerial Meeting of ASEAN Foreign Ministers last 2006 held on Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[14] Yet the request were still pending including the independent state of Papua New Guinea.

14th ASEAN Summit and Protests[edit]

The 14th ASEAN summit was held from February 26 to 1 March 2009 in Hua Hin, Thailand. It was originally scheduled for December 2008, but was postponed due to the political crisis in Thailand. At the summit, the ASEAN leaders signed the Cha-am Hua Hin Declaration on the Roadmap for an ASEAN Community and adopted various other documents, including the ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint.[15] The ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area was established.[16] It is one of Asia's largest trade arrangements and covers trade in goods, investment and services, financial services, telecommunications, electronic commerce and intellectual property.[17]

The summit was reconvened in Pattaya, Thailand on 10 April 2009. This second part of the summit was to consist of various meetings between the ASEAN members and one or more non-ASEAN countries from 10–12 April. However, it was aborted on 11 April when hundreds of protesters forced their way past security forces into the venue.[18] Many of the visiting leaders had to be evacuated from the venue by helicopter to a nearby military airbase, although none were injured. The protests were part of the 2008–2009 Thai political crisis and were not believed to be directed at ASEAN leaders but rather at Thailand's government.[19]

Free trade[edit]

China signed a trade deal with ASEAN.[20]

Between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India, a free trade agreement has been set. The initial deal was signed on 8 October 2003 in Indonesia and the final agreement was on 13 August 2009. it came into effect on 1 January 2010. The latest ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit was held in New Delhi on December 20–21, 2012. As of 2011-12, two-way trade between India & ASEAN stood at US$ 79 billion. This is considered on of the largest FTAs in the world. Tariffs on over 4,000 product varieties will be eliminated by 2016.

At the same time, Australia and New Zealand started the negotiation for a free trade deal with ASEAN. The aim of the negotiation is to significantly reduce trade barriers by 2016.[21][22]

Treaty of Amity and Cooperation[edit]

ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia is open for non-ASEAN states to accede. It requires the contracting parties to forgo any threat or use of force against each other.

The Foreign Ministers of ASEAN member states determined that invitation to the inaugural East Asian Summit, the first of which is to be held in late 2005 and hosted by Malaysia, was to be restricted to parties to the treaty. The Howard Government in Australia, although seeking invitation, was reluctant to accede to the treaty claiming it was out of date and might conflict with obligations and rights it had under other treaties. However, with entry to the Summit confined to parties to the treaty, and with domestic pressure to sign, Australia decided in early 2005 to sign the treaty on the condition that its rights under the UN Charter are recognised as inalienable. Upon the announcement of accession, Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer was asked whether or not he considered himself an east Asian, he replied: "Do I consider myself an East Asian? ... I consider myself an Australian."

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2010/06/29/Indonesia-as-ASEAN-Chair-A-test-of-democracy.aspx
  2. ^ Denis Hew (2005). Roadmap to an Asean Economic Community. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-347-2. 
  3. ^ "Economic Achievement". ASEAN. Archived from the original on 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2009-04-12. 
  4. ^ "External Relations". ASEAN. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  5. ^ "Relation between Japan and ASEAN". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan. December 1998. Retrieved 2009-04-12. 
  6. ^ "ASEAN Leaders Sign Five Agreements at the 12th ASEAN Summit, Cebu, the Philippines, 13 January 2007" (Press release). ASEAN Secretariat. 13 January 2007. Archived from the original on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007. "12th ASEAN Summit, five." 
  7. ^ Hội nghị thượng đỉnh ASEAN: Thái Lan huy động lực lượng an ninh lớn (Vietnamese)
  8. ^ "Brunei to host ASEAN summit 2013". rano360.com. November 21, 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  9. ^ http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/119238/1/.html
  10. ^ "ASEAN lawmakers want Myanmar membership stripped". Kuala Lumpur: Reuters. 28 November 2004. Archived from the original on 28 November 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  11. ^ East Timor Needs Five Years to Join ASEAN: PM , AFP, 27 July 2006, accessed on 22 December 2008
  12. ^ Excerpts from the Joint Communique of the 35th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Bandar Seri Begawan, 29-30 July 2002
  13. ^ Xinhua - English
  14. ^ "East Timor ASEAN bid". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 July 2006. 
  15. ^ "Outcome Documents". Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  16. ^ "Agreement Establishing the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area". Archived from the original on 20 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 
  17. ^ "Trade deal signed at Asean summit". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  18. ^ Fuller, Thomas (12 April 2009). "Thailand Cancels Summit After Protests". New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  19. ^ Thai protesters force Asia summit cancellation by Bill Tarrant, Reuters (printed in the Ottawa Citizen), 11 April 2009.
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Aust wins invite to next year's ASEAN summit. 01 December 2004. ABC News Online
  22. ^ Southeast Asia Leaders Advance Free Trade with Six Major Countries

External links[edit]

Official and special interest