Albanian Revolt of 1910

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Albanian Revolt of 1910
Date May–June 1910
Location Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Result Rebellion suppressed
Belligerents
Albanian rebels  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Isa Boletini
Idriz Seferi
Shefqet Turgut Pasha
Mehmet Shefqet Pasha
Strength
several thousands up to 50,000

The Albanian Revolt of 1910 was reaction to the new centralization policies of the Young Turk Ottoman government in Albania.[1] It was the first of a series of major uprisings. Rebels were supported by the Kingdom of Serbia.[2] New taxes levied in the early months of 1910 led to Isa Boletini's activity to convince Albanian leaders who had already been involved in a 1909 uprising to try another revolt against the Ottoman Empire. The Albanian attacks on the Ottomans in Priştine (now Pristina) and Ferizovik (now Ferizaj), the killing of the Ottoman commander in İpek (now Peć), and the insurgents' blocking of the railway to Skopje at the Kaçanik Pass led to the Ottoman government's declaration of martial law in the area.

After two weeks of fierce fighting the Albanian forces withdrew to the Drenica region, whereas the Ottoman army took possession of the cities of Prizren and Yakova (now Gjakova). The Ottomans retook İpek on 1 June 1910 and two months later they entered Shkodër. The reprisals against the Albanian population were heavy: several summary executions took place, and many villages and properties were burned. Moreover, many schools were closed, and publications in the Albanian alphabet, which had been approved two years earlier, in the Congress of Monastir, were declared illegal. Journalists and publishers were fined or sentenced to death. The Albanian culture and patriotism were thus severely repressed.

Events[edit]

Isa Boletini, one of the leaders of the revolt.

During the first months of 1910, Isa Boletini tried to coordinate forces for a new insurrection by visiting the Albanian clans, which had taken refuge in Montenegro after the failure of a previous minor uprising in 1909. In the meantime the new governor, Masar Bey, introduced a new tax on commodities, which immediately became highly unpopular. Albanian leaders held two other meetings in İpek (now Peć) and Ferizoviç (now Ferizaj), where they took the oath of besa to be united against the new Ottoman government policy of centralization. Forces led by Isa Boletini attacked the Ottoman forces in Pristina and Ferizoviç, while the commander of Ottoman forces in Peć was killed by the local population. The Ottoman government declared martial law and sent a military expedition of 16,000 men led by Shefqet Turgut Pasha who went to Skopje on April 1910.[3][4]

Idriz Seferi, one of the leaders of the rebellion.

At the same time some 3,000 Albanians under Idriz Seferi[4][5] blocked the railway to Skopje at the Kaçanik Pass. They captured a train conveying soldiers and military supplies to the Ottoman garrison of Pristina, disarmed the soldiers and held the supplies.[5] The Ottoman forces attacked the Kaçanik Pass but the resistance given there by the Albanians led by Idriz Seferi made it clear that the 16,000 Ottoman forces were insufficient to crush the rebellion so their numbers increased to some 40,000 men.[4][6] After two weeks of fierce fighting, the Ottoman forces captured the Kaçanik Pass.[5] and attacked the Albanian forces led by Isa Boletini and Hasan Budakova, which meanwhile were blocking the Ferizovik-Prizren road to Carraleva Pass.[5][6] Superior in numbers, the Ottoman forces tried at first a frontal attack but the stiff resistance offered made them change their tactics. They made a pincer movement, trying to encircle the Albanian forces in Carralevo pass.

After three days of fighting the Albanian forces withdrew to the Drenica region.[7] Ottoman forces entered Prizren in the middle of May 1910. They proceeded to Yakova and İpek where they entered on June 1, 1910. By government orders[4][8] part of the force proceeded in the direction of Scutari (now Shkodër), while another column marched toward the Debre region (now known as Dibër in Albania, and Debar in the Republic of Macedonia). The first column marching to Scutari managed to capture the Morinë pass, after bitter fighting with the Albanian forces of Gash, Krasniq and Bytyç areas, led by Zeqir Halili, Abdulla Hoxha, and Shaban Binaku. Ottoman forces were stopped for more than 20 days in the Agri Pass, from the Albanian forces of Shalë, Shoshë, Nikaj and Mërtur areas, led by Prel Tuli, Mehmet Shpendi, and Marash Delia. Unable to repress their resistance, this column took another way to Scutari, passing from the Pukë region.[8] On July 24, 1910, Ottoman forces entered the city of Scutari. During this period martial courts were put in action and summary executions took place. A large number of firearms were collected and many villages and properties were burned by the Ottoman army.[9]

Aftermath[edit]

Although the numbers of the Ottoman forces were now up to 50,000,[5] they controlled only the lowlands and the cities, and failed to take control of the mountainous regions.[9][10] At the request of the Ottoman commander Mehmet Shefqet Pasha, the Ottoman government declared the abrogation of the "Lekë Dukagjini Code" which was the mountain law of the Albanian clans.[4] Some Albanian clans went to seek refuge in Montenegro, requesting an amnesty from the Ottoman government and the return of the conditions obtaining before the rebellion. This was not accepted by the Ottoman government, which went even further, and declared the prohibition of the Albanian alphabet and books published in it. Albanian-language schools were declared illegal, and even possessing a book in Albanian letters became a penal act.[11][12] Strong through numbers and position, the Ottoman expedition continued its march towards central and southern Albania imposing the new prohibitions. Albanian schools were closed and publications in the Latin alphabet were declared illegal. A number of journalists and publishers were fined or sentenced to death while the entry of Albanian books published outside the Ottoman Empire was prohibited. After these events, Albania became a wasteland for Albanian patriots, and Albanian culture was fully oppressed.[12][13] One year later, Sultan Mehmed V visited Pristina and declared an amnesty for all who had participated in the revolt, except for those who had committed murder.[14][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Akçam 2004, p. 129
  2. ^ John R. Lampe (28 March 2000). Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-521-77401-7. Retrieved 22 July 2013. By 1910, an armed Albanian revolt was spreading from Pristina, ironically supported by aid of Serbia. 
  3. ^ Frashëri 1984, p. 439
  4. ^ a b c d e Gawrych 2006, p. 177
  5. ^ a b c d e Pearson 2004, p. 11
  6. ^ a b Frashëri 1984, p. 440
  7. ^ Frashëri 1984, pp. 440–441
  8. ^ a b Frashëri 1984, p. 441
  9. ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 178
  10. ^ Jelavich 1983, p. 188
  11. ^ Frashëri 1984, pp. 444–445
  12. ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 183
  13. ^ Frashëri 1984, p. 445
  14. ^ Elsie 2004, pp. xxix-xxx
  15. ^ Finkel 2006, p. 521

Sources[edit]