Besa (Albanian culture)
Besa is an Albanian cultural precept, usually translated as "faith", that means "to keep the promise" and "word of honor". The word's origin can be traced to the Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini, which is a sort of "Constitution", a code of laws which regulated the Albanian social, economic and religious lives, together with traditional customs and cultural practices of the Albanian society between 1400 to today. Besa is an important part of personal and familial standing and is often used as an example of "Albanianism". The roots of this code sprouted from the Code of Leke Dukagjini, an Albanian cultural code.
Besa related sayings include:
- Besa e shqiptarit nuk shitet pazarit (the honor of an Albanian can not be sold or bought in a bazaar)
- Shqiptaret vdesin dhe besen nuk e shkelin (Albanians would die rather than break honor)
- Besa e shqiptarit si purteka e arit (the Albanians' honor is worth more than gold)
Besa during the World War II
Besa also means taking care of those in need and being hospitable. During World War II, Albanians, 70% of whom are Muslim, saved over 2000 Jews from Nazi persecution. Rather than hiding the Jews in attics or the woods, Albanians gave them clothes, gave them Albanian names, and treated them as part of the family. The concept of besa is incorporated into their culture. Before World War II only about 200 Albanians were Jewish. At the end of the war about 2000 Jews were living in Albania. A feature film documentary is currently in post production titled BESA: The Promise about American photographer Norman H. Gershman's quest to tell the story of Besa and the Albanians who saved Jews during World War II. This story was featured on CBS News Sunday Morning on November 8, 2009 for the 71st anniversary of Kristallnacht, which occurred on November 9, 1938.
- Kushova, Alma (July 21, 2004). "Besa". Open Democracy. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- Tabachnick, Toby. "Besa Albanian Muslims took vow to save Jews, photographer says". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- Axelrod, Jim (November 8, 2009). "The Righteous". CBS News Sunday Morning. Retrieved 2009-11-08.