ArcelorMittal Orbit

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ArcelorMittal Orbit
ArcelorMittal Orbit at night.jpg
General information
Status Constructed
Type Observation tower
Location Olympic Park, London, United Kingdom
Coordinates 51°32′18″N 0°0′48″W / 51.53833°N 0.01333°W / 51.53833; -0.01333Coordinates: 51°32′18″N 0°0′48″W / 51.53833°N 0.01333°W / 51.53833; -0.01333
Estimated completion May 2012
Opening April 2014
Cost £22.7 million
Owner Olympic Park Legacy Company (on completion), ownership transferred to London Legacy Development Corporation
Management Balfour Beatty Workplace on behalf of London Legacy Development Corporation
Height 114.5 m (376 ft)
Technical details
Floor area 300 m2 (3,229 sq ft)
Design and construction
Architect Designed by Anish Kapoor with Cecil Balmond of engineering Group Arup, architect Ushida Findlay Architects[1][2]
Developer Arcelor Mittal and London Development Agency
Structural engineer Arup

The ArcelorMittal Orbit is a 114.5 metre (376 feet) tall sculpture and observation tower in the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, London. It is Britain's largest piece of public art,[3] and is intended to be a permanent lasting legacy of London's hosting of the 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, assisting in the post-Olympics regeneration of the Stratford area. Sited between the Olympic Stadium and the Aquatics Centre, it allows visitors to view the whole Olympic Park from two observation platforms.

Orbit was designed by Turner-Prize winning artist Sir Anish Kapoor and Cecil Balmond of engineering Group Arup. Announced on 31 March 2010, it was expected to be completed by December 2011. The project came about after Mayor of London Boris Johnson and Olympics Minister Tessa Jowell decided in 2008 that the Olympic Park needed "something extra". Designers were asked for ideas for an "Olympic tower" at least 100 metres (330 ft) high, and Orbit was the unanimous choice from proposals considered by a nine-person advisory panel.

The project was expected to cost £19.1 million, with £16 million coming from Britain's richest man, the steel tycoon Lakshmi Mittal, Chairman of the ArcelorMittal steel company, and the balance of £3.1 million coming from the London Development Agency. The name "ArcelorMittal Orbit" combines the name of Mittal's company, as chief sponsor, with "Orbit", the original working title for Kapoor and Balmond's design.

Kapoor and Balmond believe that Orbit represents a radical advance in the architectural field of combining sculpture and structural engineering, and that it combines both stability and instability in a work that visitors can engage with and experience via an incorporated spiral walkway. It has been both praised and criticised for its bold design. It has also been criticised as a vanity project, of questionable lasting use or merit as a public art project.

The ArcelorMittal Orbit closed after the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, while the South Plaza area of the Park (in which Orbit is positioned) underwent reconstruction. It re-opened to the public on the 5th of April, 2014.

History[edit]

According to London mayor Boris Johnson, in around October 2008 he and Tessa Jowell decided that the site in Stratford, London that was to become the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics needed "something extra" to "distinguish the East London skyline", and "arouse the curiosity and wonder of Londoners and visitors".[4]

A design competition held in 2009 called for designs for an "Olympic tower". It received about 50 submissions.[5] Johnson has said that his early concept for the project was something more modest than Orbit, along the lines of "a kind of 21st-century Trajan's Column", but this was dropped when more daring ideas were received.[4]

The media reported unconfirmed details of the project in October 2009, describing the interest of the steel magnate Lakshmi Mittal, Britain's richest man, in funding a project that would cost around £15 million. Boris Johnson was believed to want something like the Eiffel Tower or the Statue of Liberty.[6][7] At that time there were understood to be five short-listed artists, including Antony Gormley, being considered.[6] Early designs reportedly included 'Transmission' by Paul Fryer, a 400 feet (120 m) high structure "resembling a cross between a pylon and a native American totem pole", according to The Times.[6] A spokesman for Johnson would only confirm that he was "keen to see stunning, ambitious, world-class art in the Olympic Park", and that work on commissioning the project was at an early stage.[6][7]

Mittal's involvement came about after a chance meeting with Johnson in a cloakroom in Davos in January 2009,[8] as they were on their way to separate dinner engagements. In a conversation that reportedly lasted 45 seconds Johnson pitched the idea to Mittal, who immediately agreed to supply the steel.[4] Mittal later said of his involvement, "I never expected that this was going to be such a huge project. I thought it was just the supply of some steel, a thousand tonnes or so, and that would be it. But then we started working with artists and I realised that the object was not just to supply steel but to complete the whole project. It took us almost 15 months of negotiation and discussion."[9] Johnson has said that, "In reality, ArcelorMittal has given much more than the steel."[4]

Kapoor's and Balmond's Orbit was announced as the winner on 31 March 2010.[10] According to The Guardian, Orbit was chosen from a short list of three, beating a design by Antony Gormley and one by the architectural firm Caruso St John.[11] According to The Times, Gormley's design was a 390 feet (120 m) steel colossus titled Olympian Man, a trademark piece of a statue of himself, rejected mainly on the grounds of its projected cost, estimated at £40 million.[12]

Johnson and Jowell agreed to issue a commission for Orbit in partnership with Mittal after it was chosen by a 9 person advisory panel brought together by them to advise on a long list of proposals.[4][10] According to Mittal, the panel made a unanimous decision to pick Orbit, as it both represented the Olympic Games and was achievable within the ambitious time frame.[5] Kapoor described it as "the commission of a lifetime".[10]

Johnson pre-empted possible criticism during the official launch by stating: "Of course some people will say we are nuts – in the depths of a recession – to be building Britain’s biggest ever piece of public art. But both Tessa Jowell and I are certain that this is the right thing for the Stratford site, in Games time and beyond."[4]

The completed structure was officially unveiled to the press and public on 11 May 2012.[13]

Design[edit]

Interpretation[edit]

According to Kapoor, the design brief from the Mayor's office was for a "tower of at least 100 metres (330 ft)", while Balmond said that he was told the Mayor was "looking for an icon to match the Eiffel Tower".[14]

Kapoor said that one of the influences on his design was the Tower of Babel, the sense of "building the impossible" that "has something mythic about it.", and that the form "straddles Eiffel and Tatlin".[14] Balmond, working on the metaphor of an orbit, envisaged an electron cloud moving, to create a structure that appears unstable, propping itself up, "never centred, never quite vertical".[14] Both believe that Orbit represents a new way of thinking, "a radical new piece of structure and architecture and art" that uses non-linearity – the use of "instabilities as stabilities."[14] The spaces inside the structure, in between the twisting steel, are "cathedral like", according to Balmond, while according to Kapoor, the intention is that visitors will engage with the piece as they wind "up and up and in on oneself" on the spiral walkway.[14]

The Independent described Orbit as "a continuously looping lattice ... made up of eight strands winding into each other and combined by rings like a jagged knot". The Guardian describes it as a "giant lattice tripod sporting a counterweight collar around its neck designed to offset the weight of its head, a two-storey dining and viewing gallery". According to the BBC, the design incorporates the five Olympic rings.[15][16][17]

Upon its launch Johnson said "It would have boggled the minds of the Romans. It would have boggled Gustave Eiffel."[15] Nicholas Serota, a member of the design panel, said that Orbit was a tower with an interesting twist, with "the energy you might traditionally associate with this type of structure but in a surprisingly female form".[18]

Name[edit]

According to Mittal, Orbit was already the working title, as it symbolised a continuous journey, a creative representation of the "extraordinary physical and emotional effort" that Olympians undertake in their continuous drive to do better. It was decided to keep this as the final name and prepend ArcelorMittal (as the project supporter).[5]

On the public announcement of the design Johnson conceded that it might become known by something other than its official name, suggesting "Colossus of Stratford" or the "Hubble Bubble", in reference to his belief that it resembles a giant shisha pipe, or a variant on people's perceptions that it resembled a "giant treble clef", a "helter-skelter", or a "supersized mutant trombone".[11]

Designers[edit]

Orbit is described as "designed by Anish Kapoor and Cecil Balmond".[19] Kapoor is a Turner Prize winning sculptor, while Balmond is one of the world's leading designers. According to Kapoor, both men are "interested in a place where architecture meets sculpture" and "the way that form and geometry give rise to structure".[20] Kapoor and Balmond stated that their interests have blurred and crossed over into each other's fields, since they had first begun working together in 2002 on Kapoor's Marsyas installation in the Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern.[20] As well as Orbit, in 2010 Kapoor and Balmond were also working on the Tees Valley Giants, a public art project in northern England.[20]

The sculpture was engineered by the Global engineer Arup who developed the overall geometry, structural design and the building services including the lighting displayed extensively during the Olympic games.[21] Architectural input was by Ushida Findlay Architects as a sub-consultant to Arup. Findlay's work made the sculpture into a functional building, for example designing the staircase.[2][22]

Structural[edit]

The ArcelorMittal Orbit during the 2012 Summer Olympics

The organic design of Orbit means that an extraordinary amount of work was necessary on structural engineering. This was done by Arup, which reported that it took up two-thirds of the budget for the project (twice the percentage normally allotted to structural engineering in a building project).[23]

From a structural point of view, Orbit consists of two parts:[23]

  • the trunk - the more-or-less vertical tower which houses the elevators and stairs and supports the observation deck.
  • the red tube - an open lattice of red steel that surrounds the trunk.

The trunk has a base diameter of 37 metres (121 ft), narrowing to 5 metres (16 ft) on the way up, then widening again to 9.6 metres (31 ft) just under the observation deck.[23] The trunk is supported and stabilized by the tube, which gives a structural character of a tripod to the entire construction.[23] Further structural integrity is given to the construction by octagonal steel rings that surround the tube and trunk, spaced at 4 metres (13 ft) and cross-joined pairwise by sixteen diagonally mounted steel connectors.[23]

A special part of the construction is the canopy, the conic shape that hangs off the bottom of the trunk. Originally planned as a fibreglass composite construction, costs forced the use of steel for this section as well. Centraalstaal was approached as a special consultant for the design of the steel cone and came up with a design for a cone built out of 117 individually shaped steel panels with a total surface area of 586 square metres. The entire cone weighs 84 tonnes.[23]

Height[edit]

Early contradictory reports suggested the tower would be 120 metres (390 ft) tall.[11][24][25][26] However, it finally measured in at 114.5 metres (376 ft) making it the UK's tallest sculpture[27] surpassing "Aspire" (at 60m).

The Greater London Authority on announcing the project described Orbit's height in comparison with the Statue of Liberty, stating that it would be 22 metres (72 ft) taller [10] – the Statue of Liberty is 93 metres (305 ft) high, including the 46 metres (151 ft) statue and its pedestal. While the media picked up the apparent intention to cast the Orbit as London's answer to the Eiffel Tower, The Guardian related how it was "considerably shorter" than that Parisian icon;[11][15][28] the Eiffel Tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall. The Guardian also noted that, with respect to comparisons to the Eiffel Tower, it is even "20 metres (66 ft) shorter than the diminutive Blackpool Tower".[28]

Its height was also compared in the media with other London landmarks. It was described as being "slightly taller" or "nearly 20 metres (66 ft) taller" than the Big Ben clock tower, the centrepiece of the Palace of Westminster.[11][15] It was also described as being "twice as tall" or "more than double the height" of Nelson's Column, the monument honouring Admiral Nelson in Trafalgar Square.[15][29] Others reports described how it was "just short of" or "almost as tall as" the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, the ancient tomb of the Pharaoh Khufu.[11][30] Big Ben is 96.3 metres (316 ft) tall, Nelson's Column is 51.5 metres (169 ft) tall, including statue and column. The Giza Pyramid was thought to have been constructed as 280 Egyptian cubits or 146.478 metres (480.57 ft) tall, although with erosion it has reduced in height by nearly 10 metres.

Construction[edit]

Construction in September 2011

Orbit is located in the southern area of the Olympic Park, between Olympic Stadium and the Aquatics Centre.[10] After the March 2010 confirmation of Orbit as the winning design,[5][15] construction began in November 2010 and it reached its full height in November 2011.[31]

Steel is the primary material used in the sculpture. According to Balmond, there was no other feasible alternative, as steel was the only material that could give the minimum thickness and maximum strength represented in the coiling structure.[14] It was built from approximately 2000 tons of steel, produced as much as possible from ArcelorMittal plants, with the exact sourcing being determined by the grades of steel required and the technical requirements of the project.[5] 60% of the steel used for the sculpture was made of recycled steel in the Esch Belval steel plant in Luxembourg.[32]

On 14 March 2011, with construction already underway on the main pylon, The One Show broadcast footage of the on-site status of project, and profiled the four-man team putting it together, comprising two steel erectors, a crane operator and a site foreman.

Use[edit]

As an observation tower, Orbit has two indoor viewing platforms on two levels, with each level having the capacity for 150 people.[15][27] In comparison to Orbit's 114.5 metre height, the nearby Olympic Stadium is 59 metres (194 ft) high.[29] According to the Greater London Authority, the observation platform offers "unparalleled views of the entire 250 acres (1.0 km2; 0.39 sq mi) of the Olympic Park and London's skyline".[10] According to The Independent, visitors should take the lift to the top and descend the 455-step staircase; this should allow them to appreciate the views around which Anish Kapoor arranged the sculpture.[27]

It is expected to cope with 700 visitors per hour.[15] During the Olympic Games the entrance fee is £15 for adults and £7 for children.[27] The tower does not include a dining area, however there will be a cafe, shop and other facilities at the South Park Hub building (currently under construction), which is due to open when the Orbit re-opens in April 2014.

The ambition is that the sculpture, as well as being a focal point for the Olympic Park during the Games, will form part of the wider Stratford regeneration plans, which aim to turn the Olympic site into a permanent tourist destination after the Games.[4] Tessa Jowell said Orbit will be "like to honey to bees for the millions of tourists that visit London each year".[10] Boris Johnson predicted it would become "the perfect iconic cultural legacy".[10] According to Lord Coe, chairman of the London 2012 Olympic organisers, it would play a central part in the Game's role of leaving a lasting legacy and transformed landscape in east London.[10]

During the opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Paralympics, Joe Townsend (a Royal Marine and double amputee) delivered the Paralympic flame into Olympic Stadium via a zipline that was attached to the top of Orbit.[33]

Funding[edit]

At the time of its public launch, the total cost of Orbit was announced as £19.1m.[10] ArcelorMittal was to fund up to £16m, with the remaining £3.1m being provided by the London Development Agency.[10] This consists of a £10m cash donation, and £6 million in underwriting of capital costs, which could be potentially recovered from profits generated after the Games.[10] According to Johnson, the cost of the project would be recouped after the games through the private hire of a dining area at the top, predicting it would become a "corporate money-making venture".[15]

Mittal said he was immediately interested in Orbit after he remembered the excitement that surrounded the announcement that London had won the Olympic bid. He saw it as an opportunity to leave a lasting legacy for London, showcase the "unique qualities of steel" and play a role in the regeneration of Stratford.[5] Mittal said of his involvement in the project, "I live in London – I’ve lived here since 1997 – and I think it’s a wonderful city. This project is an incredible opportunity to build something really spectacular for London, for the Olympic Games and something that will play a lasting role in the legacy of the Games."[5]

Advisory panel member and director of the Tate gallery, Nicholas Serota, said Orbit was "the perfect answer to the question of how sport and art come together", and praised Mr Mittal's "really impressive piece of patronage" for supporting a "great commission".[18]

Reception[edit]

Positive[edit]

Jay Merrick of The Independent said that "its sculptural power lies in its ability to suggest an unfinished form in the process of becoming something else", describing how its artistic riskiness elevated it above the banal artworks of the public art movement that have been built elsewhere in Britain's towns and cities. Merrick was of the opinion that it would be either loved or hated, being a design which is "beautifully fractious, and not quite knowable".[25]

Jonathan Glancey of The Guardian described Orbit as "Olympian in ambition" and a "fusion between striking art and daring engineering", and said that, the Aquatics Centre apart, it represented the architecturally striking Joker in the pack, given that the rest of the landscaping and architecture for the Games "promises little to get excited about". He believed it would become a "genuine eyecatcher" for the Olympics television coverage, with its extraordinary form being a "strange and enticing marriage of sorts" between the Eiffel Tower and the un-built early Soviet era Tatlin's Tower, with the biblical Tower of Babel as "best man".[16]

Negative[edit]

When plans were first reported for an Olympic tower, the media pointed to a manifesto pledge of Johnson's to crack down on tall buildings, in order to preserve London's "precious" skyline.[6][7] The Times criticised the idea as a vanity project of Johnson's, with a design "matching his bravado", built to "seal his legacy", surmising it would be compared to other similar vanity projects such as Benito Mussolini's "wedding cake", the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II built in Rome, or the Neutrality Arch, a rotating golden statue erected by Turkmenistan's President Saparmurat Niyazov, while comparing Johnson to Ozymandias.[6] Art critic Brian Sewell said "Our country is littered with public art of absolutely no merit. We are entering a new period of fascist gigantism. These are monuments to egos and you couldn't find a more monumental ego than Boris."[6][7]

Richard Morrison of The Times described Orbit as "like an enormous wire-mesh fence that has got hopelessly snagged round the bell of a giant french horn", adding that it "seems like an awful lot of trouble just to look at East London", in comparison to a music hall comedian's refrain at the $16 million cost of the Brooklyn Bridge.[30] Morrison not only compared Johnson to Ozymandias, but also to the 20th century dictators Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin and Nicolae Ceauşescu, in their acts of "phallic politics" in building grandiose monuments.[30] Criticising the lack of public involvement, he described how it would be an "undesired intrusion by the few into the consciousness of the many".[30] He feared that it could become one of the many "thousands of naff eyesores" of recent public art in Britain, citing the embracing couple at St Pancras station (The Meeting Place), the Dockland's Traffic Light tree, and the proposed Rotherhithe Tunnel 'match-stick man' tribute to Isambard Kingdom Brunel, as London based examples.[30]

Describing it as looking like a "catastrophic collision between two cranes", the Daily Mail reported how the structure had been immediately nicknamed the 'Eyeful Tower', as well as reflecting specific Internet comments of it being 'a rollercoaster that costs £19 million a go', or that it resembled 'twisted spaghetti', 'horrific squiggles' and 'Meccano on crack'.[29] The Times also reported the description of it being the "Godzilla of public art".[12]

Tom Dyckhoff of The Times, while calling it a "a gift to the tabloids" and a "giant Mr. Messy", questioned whether the Olympic site needed another pointless icon, postulating whether it would stand the test of time like the London Eye and become a true icon to match the Eiffel Tower, or a hopeless white elephant. Suggesting the project had echoes of Tatlin's Monument to the Third International, and especially Constant Nieuwenhuys' utopian city New Babylon, he asked whether Orbit was just as revolutionary or possessed the same ideological purpose, or whether it was merely "a giant advert for one of the world’s biggest multinationals, sweetened with a bit of fun".[24]

Rowan Moore of The Guardian questioned if it was going to be anything more than a folly, or whether it would be as eloquent as the Statue of Liberty.[34] He speculated that the project might mark the time when society stops using large iconic projects as a tool for lifting areas out of deprivation. He questioned its ability to draw people's attention to Stratford after the Games, in a similar manner to the successes of the Angel of the North or the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.[34] He also questioned the piece's ability to strike a chord like the Angel, which he believed had at least "created a feelgood factor and sense of pride" in Gateshead, or whether it would simply become one of the "many more unloved rotting wrecks that no one has the nerve to demolish". He postulated that the addition of stairs and a lift made Orbit less succinct than Kapoor's previous successful works, while ultimately he said "hard to see what the big idea is, beyond the idea of making something big".[34]

John Graham-Cumming of The Guardian rejected comparisons to icons like the Eiffel Tower, which had itself not been intended to be a lasting monument, only persisting into public acceptance as art through being useful; he also pointed out the Colossus of Rhodes collapsed within a few decades, and the Tower of Babel was "constructed to glorify those that constructed it." He suggested that Johnson should reconsider whether it should be pulled down after 20 years. Questioning its corporate role, he believed that meant it looked less and less like a work of art and more like a vanity project.[28]

Responding to concerns from The Times that ArcelorMittal's sponsorship and naming of Orbit would represent an improper incursion of corporate branding into public life, Johnson stated that Olympic rules mean that it cannot carry any corporate branding during the games.[8] Felicity Carus of The Guardian's environment blog questioned whether ArcelorMittal's record on carbon emissions was good enough to mean Orbit represented a fitting monument for the 2012 Olympics, billed as a 'world's first sustainable Olympics'.[35]

A Guardian online poll published on the official launch, posing the question "Anish Kapoor's Olympic tower: a grand design?", recorded 38.6% for "Yes, it's a grand design" and 61.4% for "No, it's garbage".[36]

Mixed[edit]

With regard to its potential as a lasting visitor attraction, Mark Brown of The Guardian reflected on the mixed fortunes of other large symbolic London visitor attractions, the popular but loss-making Thames Tunnel; the Skylon tower, dismantled on the orders of Winston Churchill; and the successful London Eye.[11]

The Aquatics Centre (left), ArcelorMittal Orbit (centre), Olympic Stadium (background, right) and Water Polo Arena (foreground, right) in the London Olympic Park viewed from the Westfield Stratford City in May 2012

Advisory panel[edit]

The advisory panel consisted of:[10]

In announcing the winning design, Johnson thanked the Greater London Authority, the Olympic Delivery Authority and the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games, as well as David McAlpine and Philip Dilley of Arup, and Sir Robin Wales and Jules Pipe for their involvement and support in the project.[4]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ ArcelorMittal Orbit Perspectives, retrieved 15 June 2012
  2. ^ a b Chozick, Amy (1 June 2012). "A Lightning Rod Masquerading as a Sculpture". New York Times. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Tim Adams: "Anish Kapoor's Orbit tower: the mother of all helter-skelters" in The Guardian, 5 May 2012
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h ArcelorMittal Orbit brochure, page 3
  5. ^ a b c d e f g ArcelorMittal Orbit brochure, page 5
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Chris Gourlay and Cristina Ruiz (25 October 2009). "Look out, Paris, Boris plans a ‘Piffle Tower’". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d Andrew Hough (25 October 2009). "London 2012: new Olympics structure would 'rival Eiffel Tower'". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Ben Hoyle (1 April 2010). "'Hubble Bubble' tower will be icon of Olympic legacy". The Times (London). Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  9. ^ Andrew Cave (3 April 2010). "China: the final frontier for Mittal". The Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Anish Kapoor to design iconic visitor attraction for Olympic Park". london.gov.uk > Media > Press Releases (Press release). Greater London Authority. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Mark Brown (31 March 2010). "Anish Kapoor's tangled tower at the heart of London 2012". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  12. ^ a b Chris Gourlay and Cristina Ruiz (11 April 2010). "Nude Antony Gormley giant lost Olympic statue race". The Times (London). Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  13. ^ Williams, Helen (11 May 2012). "Anish Kapoor's Olympic Orbit tower unveiled". The Independent (London). Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f ArcelorMittal Orbit brochure, page 11
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i John Hall (31 March 2010). "'Mind boggling' artwork that will tower over London". The Independent. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Jonathan Glancey (1 April 2010). "First among Olympian obelisks". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  17. ^ "Anish Kapoor chosen for landmark 2012 sculpture". BBC News. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 19 April 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  18. ^ a b ArcelorMittal Orbit brochure, page 14
  19. ^ ArcelorMittal Orbit brochure, cover
  20. ^ a b c ArcelorMittal Orbit brochure, page 7
  21. ^ "ArcelorMittal Orbit Anish Kapoor & Cecil Balmond". Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  22. ^ Hurst, Will (31 October 2011). "Orbit becomes UK's highest sculpture". Building Design. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f van Velzen, Thijs (June 2012). "Rood icoon" [Red icon]. In van den Brink, Erwin. De Ingenieur. 124 (in Dutch) (Veen Magazines) (10/11): 25–27. ISSN 0020-1146. 
  24. ^ a b Tom Dyckhoff (31 March 2010). "Just what London needs, a giant squiggle". The Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  25. ^ a b Jay Merrick (1 April 2010). "120m high and very, very red: the best seat at the Olympic Games". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  26. ^ Mark Brown (31 March 2010). "Climb this: Anish Kapoor's massive artwork that will tower over London". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  27. ^ a b c d Williams, Helen (11 March 2012). "Anish Kapoor's Olympic Orbit tower unveiled". The Independent (London). Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  28. ^ a b c John Graham-Cumming (2 April 2010). "Will the Orbit become London's Eiffel?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  29. ^ a b c Paul Harris (1 April 2010). "Britain's biggest piece of public art, but is this £19m tower of twisted metal a fitting monument for the London 2012 Olympics?". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 19 April 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Richard Morrison (2 April 2010). "True public art or just public posturing?". The Times (London). Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  31. ^ ArcelorMittal Orbit official website
  32. ^ ArcelorMittal Orbit official website
  33. ^ Gibson, Owen (30 August 2012). "Paralympics 2012 opening ceremony: Games launched on a storm of ideas". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  34. ^ a b c Rowan Moore (4 April 2010). "Is the Orbit anything more than a folly on an Olympic scale?". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  35. ^ Felicity Carus (9 April 2010). "ArcelorMittal's emissions make a monumental joke of Olympic park tower". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  36. ^ "Olympic heights". The Guardian (London). 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 

References[edit]

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