Anish Kapoor

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Sir Anish Kapoor
Anish Kapoor at the Deutsche Guggenheim - Berlin.jpg
Anish Kapoor at the Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin
Born (1954-03-12) 12 March 1954 (age 60)
Bombay State, India
Field Sculpture
Training The Doon School
Hornsey College of Art
Chelsea School of Art and Design
Awards Turner Prize 1991
Preamium Imperiale, 2011

Sir Anish Kapoor, CBE RA (born 12 March 1954) is an Indian sculptor. Born in Bombay,[1][2] Kapoor has lived and worked in London since the early 1970s when he moved to study art, first at the Hornsey College of Art and later at the Chelsea School of Art and Design.

He represented Britain in the XLIV Venice Biennale in 1990, when he was awarded the Premio Duemila Prize. In 1991 he received the Turner Prize and in 2002 received the Unilever Commission for the Turbine Hall at Tate Modern. Notable public sculptures include Cloud Gate in Chicago's Millennium Park; Sky Mirror, exhibited at the Rockefeller Center in New York City in 2006 and Kensington Gardens in London in 2010; Temenos, at Middlehaven, Middlesbrough; Leviathan,[3] at the Grand Palais in Paris in 2011; and ArcelorMittal Orbit, commissioned as a permanent artwork for London's Olympic Park and completed in 2012.[4]

Kapoor received a Knighthood in the 2013 Birthday Honours for services to visual arts.

Early life[edit]

Anish Kapoor was born in Mumbai, India, to a Hindu father and a Jewish mother whose family immigrated from Baghdad when he was a few months old. "He had an Indian-Jewish upbringing. His maternal grandfather was the cantor in the synagogue in Pune. At the time, the Jewish community in Mumbai was quite large, partially consisting of Baghdadi Jews".[5] His father, from a Hindu Punjabi family, was a hydrographer in the Indian Navy.[6] Kapoor is the brother of Canada-based academic Ilan Kapoor.[7]

Education[edit]

Kapoor attended the prestigious all-boys boarding school The Doon School in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. He is said to have "hated" his time at Doon.[8] In 1971-1973, he traveled to Israel with one of his two brothers, initially living on a kibbutz. He began to study electrical engineering,[5][9] but had trouble with mathematics and quit after six months.[10] In Israel, he decided to become an artist.[11] In 1973, he left for Britain to attend Hornsey College of Art and Chelsea School of Art and Design.[6] There he found a role model in Paul Neagu, an artist who provided a meaning to what he was doing.[12] Kapoor went on to teach at Wolverhampton Polytechnic in 1979 and in 1982 was Artist in Residence at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. He has lived and worked in London since the early 1970s.[13]

Career[edit]

Anish Kapoor became known in the 1980s for his geometric or biomorphic sculptures made using simple materials such as granite, limestone, marble, pigment, and plaster.[14] These early sculptures are frequently simple, curved forms, usually monochromatic and brightly coloured, using powder pigment to define and permeate the form. "While making the pigment pieces, it occurred to me that they all form themselves out of each other. So I decided to give them a generic title, A Thousand Names, implying infinity, a thousand being a symbolic number. The powder works sat on the floor or projected from the wall. The powder on the floor defines the surface of the floor and the objects appear to be partially submerged, like icebergs. That seems to fit inside the idea of something being partially there."[15] Such use of pigment characterised his first high-profile exhibit as part of the New Sculpture exhibition at the Hayward Gallery London in 1978.

In the late 1980s and 1990s, he was acclaimed for his explorations of matter and non-matter, specifically evoking the void in both free-standing sculptural works and ambitious installations. Many of his sculptures seem to recede into the distance, disappear into the ground or distort the space around them. In 1987, he began working in stone.[16] His later stone works are made of solid, quarried stone, many of which have carved apertures and cavities, often alluding to, and playing with dualities (earth-sky, matter-spirit, lightness-darkness, visible-invisible, conscious-unconscious, male-female, and body-mind). "In the end, I’m talking about myself. And thinking about making nothing, which I see as a void. But then that’s something, even though it really is nothing."[15]

Since 1995, he has worked with the highly reflective surface of polished stainless steel. These works are mirror-like, reflecting or distorting the viewer and surroundings. Over the course of the following decade Kapoor's sculptures ventured into more ambitious manipulations of form and space. He produced a number of large works, including Taratantara (1999),[17] a 35-metre-high piece installed in the Baltic Flour Mills in Gateshead, England, before renovation began there; and Marsyas (2002), a large work consisting of three steel rings joined by a single span of PVC membrane that reached end to end of the 3,400-square-foot (320 m2) Turbine Hall of Tate Modern. Kapoor's Eye in Stone (Norwegian: Øye i stein) is permanently placed at the shore of the fjord in Lødingen in northern Norway as part of Artscape Nordland. In 2000, one of Kapoor's works, Parabolic Waters, consisting of rapidly rotating coloured water, was shown outside the Millennium Dome in London.

The use of red wax is also part of his repertoire, evocative of flesh, blood, and transfiguration. In 2007, he showed Svayambh (which translated from Sanskrit means "self-generated"), a 1.5-metre block of red wax that moved on rails through the Nantes Musée des Beaux-Arts as part of the Biennale estuaire; this piece was shown again in a major show at the Haus Der Kunst in Munich and in 2009 at the Royal Academy in London.[18] Some his work blurs the boundaries between architecture and art. In 2008, Kapoor created Memory in Berlin and New York for the Guggenheim Foundation, his first piece in Cor-Ten, which is formulated to produce a protective coating of rust.[19] Weighing 24 tons and made up of 156 parts, it calls to mind Richard Serra’s huge, rusty steel works, which also invite viewers into perceptually confounding interiors.[20]

In 2009, Kapoor became the first Guest Artistic Director of Brighton Festival. Kapoor installed four sculptures during the festival: Sky Mirror at Brighton Pavilion gardens; C-Curve[21] at The Chattri, Blood Relations (a collaboration with author Salman Rushdie); and 1000 Names, both at Fabrica. He also created a large site-specific work titled The Dismemberment of Jeanne d’Arc and a performance-based installation: Imagined Monochrome.[22] The public response was so overwhelming that police had to re-divert traffic around C Curve at the Chattri and exercise crowd control.

In September 2009, Kapoor was the first living artist to have a solo exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts. As well as surveying his career to date, the show also included new works. On display were Non-Object mirror works, cement sculptures previously unseen, and Shooting into the Corner,[23] a cannon that fires pellets of wax into the corner of the gallery. Previously shown at MAK, Vienna, in January 2009, it is a work with dramatic presence and associations and also continues Kapoor's interest in the self-made object, as the wax builds up on the walls and floor of the gallery the work slowly oozes out its form.

In spring 2011, Kapoor's work, Leviathan,[3] was the annual Monumenta installation for the Grand Palais in Paris.[24][25] Kapoor described the work as: "A single object, a single form, a single colour...My ambition is to create a space with in a space that responds to the height and luminosity of the Nave at the Grand Palais. Visitors will be invited to walk inside the work, to immerse themselves in colour, and it will, I hope, be a contemplative and poetic experience."

In 2011, Kapoor exhibited Dirty Corner at the Fabbrica del Vapore in Milan.[26] Fully occupying the site's "cathedral" space, the work consists of a huge steel volume, 60 metres long and 8 metres high, that visitors enter. Inside, they gradually lose their perception of space, as it gets progressively darker and darker until there is no light, forcing people to use their other senses to guide them through the space. The entrance of the tunnel is goblet-shaped, featuring an interior and exterior surface that is circular, making minimal contact with the ground. Over the course of the exhibition, the work was progressively covered by some 160 cubic metres of earth by a large mechanical device, forming a sharp mountain of dirt which the tunnel appears to be running through.

Public commissions[edit]

Turning the World Upside Down, Israel Museum, 2010

Kapoor's earliest public commissions include the Cast Iron Mountain at the Tachikawa Art Project in Japan, as well as an untitled 1995 piece installed at Toronto's Simcoe Place resembling mountain peaks. In 2001, Sky Mirror, a large mirror piece that reflects the sky and surroundings, was commissioned for a site outside the Nottingham Playhouse. Since 2006, Cloud Gate, a 110-ton stainless steel sculpture with a mirror finish, has been permanently installed in Millennium Park in Chicago. Viewers are able to walk beneath the sculpture and look up into an "omphalos" or navel above them.

In the autumn of 2006, a second 10 metre Sky Mirror, was installed at Rockefeller Center, New York City. This work was later exhibited in Kensington Gardens in 2010 as part of the show Turning the World Upside Down, along with three other major mirror works.

In 2009, Kapoor created the permanent, site-specific work Earth Cinema[27] for Pollino National Park, the largest national park in Italy, as part of the project ArtePollino – Another South.[28][29] Kapoor's work, Cinema di Terra (Earth Cinema), is a 45m long, 3m wide and 7m deep cut into the landscape made from concrete and earth.[28] People can enter from both sides and walk along it, viewing the earth void within.[29][30] Cinema di Terra officially opened to public in September 2009.[28]

Kapoor was also commissioned by Tees Valley Regeneration (TVR) to produce five pieces of public art, collectively known as the Tees Valley Giants.[31] The first of these sculptures, Tememos, was unveiled to the public in June 2010. Temenos stands 50 metres high and is 110 metres in length. A steel wire mesh pulled taught between two enormous steel hoops, it remains an ethereal and an uncertain form despite its colossal scale.

In 2010, Turning the World Upside Down, Jerusalem was commissioned and installed at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The sculpture is described as a "16-foot tall polished-steel hourglass" and it "reflects and reverses the Jerusalem sky and the museum's landscape, a likely reference to the city's duality of celestial and earthly, holy and profane".[32]

Also in June, Kapoor's Orbit[4] was announced as the winning proposal for an artwork for the 2012 Olympic Games. The Greater London Authority selected Kapoor's sculpture from a shortlist of five artists as the permanent artwork for the Olympic Park. At 115 metres tall, Orbit is the tallest sculpture in the UK.

Soon to be completed[when?] is a granite monument to commemorate the British victims of 9/11 in New York’s Hanover Square.[33]

When asked if engagement with people and places is the key to successful public art, Kapoor said,

I’m thinking about the mythical wonders of the world, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the Tower of Babel. It’s as if the collective will comes up with something that has resonance on an individual level and so becomes mythic. I can claim to take that as a model for a way of thinking. Art can do it, and I’m going to have a damn good go. I want to occupy the territory, but the territory is an idea and a way of thinking as much as a context that generates objects.

Architectural projects[edit]

Throughout his career, Kapoor has worked extensively with architects and engineers. Kapoor says this body of work is neither pure sculpture nor pure architecture. Notable architectural projects include:

  • Ark Nova,[34] an inflatable concert Hall that will travel around the earthquake struck regions of Japan. In collaboration with architect Arata Isozaki
  • Orbit,[4] the permanent artwork for the Olympic Park, in collaboration with engineer Cecil Balmond.
  • "Temenos" the first work of the recently announced Tees Valley Giants, the world's five largest sculptures, in collaboration with Cecil Balmond. Temenos[35] is situated in Middlehaven Dock, Middlesbrough.
  • "Dismemberment Site 1",[36] installed in New Zealand at the sculpture park known as "The Farm", owned by New Zealand businessman and art patron Alan Gibbs.
  • 56 Leonard Street,[37] New York, Collaboration with architects Herzog and de Meuron.
  • Two subway stations in Naples at Monte San Angelo[38] and Triano[39] in collaboration with Future Systems.
  • A proposal for the Princess Diana Memorial Fountain.
  • "Taratantara"[17] (1999–2000) was installed at the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead and later at Piazza Plebiscito, Naples.
  • An unrealised project[40] for the Millennium Dome, London, (1995) in collaboration with Philip Gumuchdjian.
  • "Building for a Void",[41] created for Expo '92, Seville, in collaboration with David Connor.

Of his vision for the Cumana station in Monte Sant'Angelo, Naples, Italy under construction (as of June 2008), Kapoor has said:

It’s very vulva-like. The tradition of the Paris or Moscow metro is of palaces of light, underground. I wanted to do exactly the opposite – to acknowledge that we are going underground. So it’s dark, and what I’ve done is bring the tunnel up and roll it over as a form like a sock.[42]

Working with text[edit]

A collaboration with author Salman Rushdie, Kapoor for the first time conceived a mesmeric sculpture consisting of two bronze boxes conjoined with red wax and inscribed around the outside with the first two paragraphs of Rushdie's text; "Blood Relations"[43] or an "Interrogation of the Arabian Nights" in 2006.[44]

Other projects[edit]

Kapoor has designed stage sets that include: the opera Idomeneo at Glyndebourne in 2003; Pelléas et Mélisande for La Monnaie in Brussels, and a dance-theatre piece called in-i for Akram Khan and Juliette Binoche at the National Theatre in London.[45]

Exhibitions[edit]

Kapoor initially began exhibiting as part of New British Sculpture art scene, along with fellow British sculptors Tony Cragg and Richard Deacon.[14] His first solo exhibition took place at Patrice Alexandra, Paris, in 1980.[46] In 1992 Kapoor contributed to documenta IX with the Building Decent into Limbo.[47] He achieved widespread recognition when he represented Britain at the 1990 Venice Biennale.[48] In 2004 he participated in The 5th Gwangju Biennale in Gwangju, Korea. Solo exhibitions of his work have since been held in the Tate and Hayward Gallery in London, Kunsthalle Basel in Switzerland, Reina Sofia in Madrid, the National Gallery in Ottawa, Musee des arts contemporains (Grand-Hornu) in Belgium, the CAPC Museum of Contemporary Art in Bordeaux, the Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil in Brazil, and the Guggenheim in Bilbao, New York City and Berlin.

In 2008, the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston exhibited Kapoor's first US mid-career survey.[49] That same year, Kapoor’s Islamic Mirror (2008), a circular concave mirror, was installed in a 13th-century Arab palace now being used as by the Convent of Santa Clara in Murcia.[50]

Kapoor was the first living British artist to take over the Royal Academy, London, in 2009;[51] the show attracted 275,000 visitors, making it the most successful exhibition ever by a living artist in London.[52] In 2010, Kapoor retrospective exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) in New Delhi and Mumbai’s Mehboob Studio, the first showcase of his work in the country of his birth.[53][54] In 2011 Kapoor has had a solo touring exhibition with the Arts Council, part of their "Flashback " series of shows. In May he exhibited Leviathan at the Grand Palais, and two concurrent shows in Milan at the Rotonda della Besana and Fabbrica del Vapore. He had a major exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney (MCA) from December 2012 to April 2013 as part of the Sydney International Art Series.[55][56]

Collections[edit]

Kapoor's work is collected worldwide, notably by the Museum of Modern Art in New York City; Tate Modern in London; Fondazione Prada in Milan; the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney; the Guggenheim in Bilbao; the De Pont Foundation in the Netherlands; the Moderna Museet, Stockholm; the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art in Kanazawa, Japan; and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.[13]

Awards and honours[edit]

Artistic accolades

Civilian honours

Honorary Fellowships

Art market[edit]

Kapoor made a $27 million profit in 2008, taking the fortune he has made from his art to an estimated $62.7 million. His record auction price is £1.94 million, set in July 2008. Kapoor operates independently from any gallery although he has a longstanding working relationship with Lisson Gallery in London.[64] He regularly shows with kamel mennour, Paris and the Gladstone Gallery, New York/Brussels.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wadhwani, Sita (2009-09-14). "Anish Kapoor". CNNGo.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  2. ^ "Anish Kapoor". ArtSlant. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  3. ^ a b "ANISH KAPOOR Leviathan". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  4. ^ a b c "Anish Kapoor Orbit". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  5. ^ a b Weiner, Julia (24 September 2009). "Interview: Anish Kapoor is the biggest name in art". Jewish Chronicle (London). Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  6. ^ a b Higgins, Charlotte (8 November 2008). "A life in art: Anish Kapoor". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  7. ^ "Acknowledgements in The Postcolonial Politics of Development". Routledge. Retrieved 2012-11-06. 
  8. ^ Alastair Sooke. "The rise & rise of Anish Kapoor Inc.". Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  9. ^ "Finding Everything in the Space of Emptiness". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  10. ^ "In conversation with Greg Hilty and Andrea Rose". Anishkapoor.com. 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  11. ^ "Interview: Anish Kapoor is the biggest name in art". Thejc.com. 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  12. ^ Louise Jury (14 October 2002), Anish Kapoor: 'The government doesn't understand the importance of culture' The Independent.
  13. ^ a b c d Royal Academy of Arts, "Anish Kapoor RA" Retrieved 2011-10-22
  14. ^ a b Anish Kapoor: Sky Mirror, 19 September – 27 October 2006 Public Art Fund.
  15. ^ a b Kapoor, Anish. "Anish Kapoor." [1] "BOMB Magazine" Spring 1990, Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  16. ^ Anish Kapoor British Council
  17. ^ a b "ANISH KAPOOR Taratantara (Gateshead)". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  18. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes 2007". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  19. ^ "Anish Kapoor Memory". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  20. ^ Ken Johnson (22 October 2009), Inside, Outside, All Around the Thing New York Times.
  21. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Brighton Festival 2009". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  22. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Dismemberment of Jeanne d’Arc". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  23. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Shooting Into the Corners". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  24. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Grand Palais 2011". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  25. ^ Ministère de la culture - CNAP - Grand Palais - RMN. "Monumenta 2011 au Grand Palais - Anish Kapoor". Monumenta.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  26. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Dirty Corner". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  27. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Earth Cinema". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  28. ^ a b c ""ArtePollino- Another South". Three contemporary artists in the region of Basilicata". UniCredit Group. 2009-09-05. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  29. ^ a b Guadagno, Letizia (2009-11-09). "Artepollino un altro sud: Immaginazione al potere". ARTKEY (in Italian). teknemedia.net. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  30. ^ Pisani, Mario. "Artepollino Another South. An Emblematic Project – The Role of Art". landscape-me.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  31. ^ "Tees Valley Regeneration". Tees Valley Regeneration. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  32. ^ Bronner, Ethan (2010-07-20). "Cleaning Up Intersection of Ancient and Modern". New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010. 
  33. ^ British Memorial Garden
  34. ^ "ark-nova.ch". ark-nova.ch. 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  35. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Temenos". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  36. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Dismemberment, Site I". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  37. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR 56 Leonard Street". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  38. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Subway Station, Monte S. Angelo". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  39. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Subway Station, Triano". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  40. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Millennium Dome project". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  41. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Building for a Void". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  42. ^ Gayford, Martin. "All and Nothing: Anish Kapoor on sexuality, spirituality and capturing emptiness", Apollo (magazine), 2008-06-01. Retrieved on 2009-05-28.
  43. ^ "ANISH KAPOOR Blood Relations". Anishkapoor.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  44. ^ Anish Kapoor, 13 October – 11 November 2006 Lisson Gallery, London.
  45. ^ Charlotte Higgins (8 November 2008),A life in art: Anish Kapoor The Guardian.
  46. ^ Anish Kapoor, 16 March – 12 October 2010 Museo Guggenheim, Bilbao.
  47. ^ Anish Kapoor, 5 May – 1 July 2000 Lisson Gallery, London.
  48. ^ Imagine - Winter 2009 - 1. The Year of Anish Kapoor: BBC One, 11:35pm Tuesday 17 November 2009.
  49. ^ Sebastian Smee, Anish Kapoor challenges perceptions in a mind-bending show at the ICA. The Boston Globe, 30 May 2008.
  50. ^ Quinn Latimer (11 December 2008), Rosa Martinez on Anish Kapoor’s "Islamic Mirror" BLOUINARTINFO.
  51. ^ "BBC One - Imagine, Winter 2009, The Year of Anish Kapoor". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-02-18. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  52. ^ Rebecca Tyrrel (27 November 2010), Anish Kapoor: Look out India, here I come The Guardian.
  53. ^ Arboleda, Yazmany (3 December 2010). "The Return of the Wizard". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2010-12-29. 
  54. ^ Tyrrel, Rebecca (27 November 2010). "Anish Kapoor: Look out India, here I come". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  55. ^ Anish Kapoor, (20 December 2012 to 1st April 2013) Sydney Museum of Contemporary Art
  56. ^ Taylor, Andrew (2012-12-19). "Waxing lyrical done by the tonne with Kapoor". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  57. ^ Kambayashi, Takehiko (19 October 2011). "Winners receive Japan's Praemium Imperiale culture prize". Tokyo: The Nation. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  58. ^ "Jatin Das, Anish Kapoor get Padma Bhushan". The Asian Age. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  59. ^ "Full Padma Awards 2012 list | Jatin Das | Anish Kapoor | The New Indian Express". Expressbuzz.com. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  60. ^ "Bhupen Hazarika conferred Padma Vibhushan posthumously : Celebrities News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  61. ^ "President gives away Padma awards - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  62. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 60534. p. 1. 15 June 2013.
  63. ^ "Birthday Honours List 2013" (PDF). HM Government. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  64. ^ Cristina Ruiz (April 9, 2014), [2] The Art Newspaper.

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