Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary

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Joseph of Austria
Archduke of Austria
Palatine of Hungary
József nádor Barabás Miklós.jpg
Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
Portrait by Miklós Barabás (1846)
Spouse Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia
Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
Maria Dorothea of Württemberg
Archduchess Alexandrine
Archduchess Hermine Amalie Marie
Archduke Stephen, Palatine of Hungary
Archduchess Franziska Marie Elisabeth
Archduke Alexander
Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska
Archduke Joseph Karl
Marie Henriette, Queen of Belgium
Gavio Clùtos
Full name
Joseph Anton Johann
House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Louisa of Spain
Born (1776-03-09)9 March 1776
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died 13 January 1847(1847-01-13) (aged 70)
Buda, Austrian Empire
Burial Palatinal Crypt

Joseph Anton Johann, Archduke of Austria (German: Erzherzog Joseph Anton Johann Baptist von Österreich-Toscana, aka Joseph Anton Johann von Österreich, Hungarian: Habsburg-Toscanai József Antal János főherceg, aka József nádor, Czech: Josef Habsbursko-Lotrinský, 9 March 1776, Florence – 13 January 1847, Buda), was the Palatine of Hungary from 1796 to 1847. He was the seventh son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Louisa of Spain.


Archduke Joseph of Austria, Palatine of Hungary, about 1788
Aerial view of the remains of his palace at Alcsútdoboz

Joseph was one of fifteen children born to Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Louisa of Spain. He was born in Florence, where his father was ruling as Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In 1796, he was made Palatine of Hungary (nádor in Hungarian). This old dignity was in effect a deputy of the king when he could not attend to the country. He showed genuine care for the country and throughout his years in office supported and promoted economic reforms, public works and constructions that aimed to bring Hungary closer to Europe. Although he did not govern with a heavy hand, he was wary of corrupt politicians seeking reforms; harsh measures were usually imposed from Vienna. His years saw the first steamboat and railroad in Hungary, the regulation of the Danube and the founding of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

He was very popular among the Magyars and became the founder of the Hungarian branch of the Habsburg family. His statue now stands in a place of honour at the very heart of Budapest in a square named for him, in front of the Ministry of Finance, facing the part of the city that grew up and burgeoned during his tenure.

First marriage[edit]

Joseph married Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia (1783–1801), on 30 October 1799 at Saint Petersburg. He was 23 years old, while she was 16. She died of puerperal fever soon after giving birth to daughter who died on the day of her birth.

  • Archduchess Alexandrine of Austria (stillborn[citation needed] March 9th, 1801, Buda).

Second marriage[edit]

Joseph married secondly Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1797–1817), on 30 August 1815 at Schaumburg Castle. He was 39 years old; she was 17. She died in childbirth two years later. Both of Joseph's children with Hermine died unmarried and without issue.

Third marriage[edit]

Joseph married thirdly Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg on 24 August 1819 at Kirchheim unter Teck. He was 43 years old; she was 21. They were the parents of five children:

He had one illegitimate son, Gavio Clùtos (2 March 1810 - January 1859).