Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Hungarian Wikipedia. (November 2012)|
|Joseph of Austria|
|Archduke of Austria
Palatine of Hungary
|Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
Portrait by Miklós Barabás (1846)
|Spouse||Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia
Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
Maria Dorothea of Württemberg
Archduchess Hermine Amalie Marie
Archduke Stephen, Palatine of Hungary
Archduchess Franziska Marie Elisabeth
Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska
Archduke Joseph Karl
Marie Henriette, Queen of Belgium
|Joseph Anton Johann|
|House||House of Habsburg-Lorraine|
|Father||Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Maria Louisa of Spain|
9 March 1776|
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
|Died||13 January 1847
Buda, Austrian Empire
Joseph Anton Johann, Archduke of Austria (German: Erzherzog Joseph Anton Johann Baptist von Österreich-Toscana, aka Joseph Anton Johann von Österreich, Hungarian: Habsburg-Toscanai József Antal János főherceg, aka József nádor, Czech: Josef Habsbursko-Lotrinský, 9 March 1776, Florence – 13 January 1847, Buda), was the Palatine of Hungary from 1796 to 1847. He was the seventh son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Louisa of Spain.
In 1796, he was made Palatine of Hungary (nádor in Hungarian). This old dignity was in effect a deputy of the king when he could not attend to the country. He showed genuine care for the country and throughout his years in office supported and promoted economic reforms, public works and constructions that aimed to bring Hungary closer to Europe. Although he did not govern with a heavy hand, he was wary of corrupt politicians seeking reforms; harsh measures were usually imposed from Vienna. His years saw the first steamboat and railroad in Hungary, the regulation of the Danube and the founding of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
He was very popular among the Magyars and became the founder of the Hungarian branch of the Habsburg family. His statue now stands in a place of honour at the very heart of Budapest in a square named for him, in front of the Ministry of Finance, facing the part of the city that grew up and burgeoned during his tenure.
Joseph married Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia (1783–1801), on 30 October 1799 at Saint Petersburg. He was 23 years old, while she was 16. She died of puerperal fever soon after giving birth to daughter who died on the day of her birth.
- Archduchess Alexandrine of Austria (stillborn March 9th, 1801, Buda).
Joseph married secondly Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1797–1817), on 30 August 1815 at Schaumburg Castle. He was 39 years old; she was 17. She died in childbirth two years later. Both of Joseph's children with Hermine died unmarried and without issue.
- Archduchess Hermine Amalie Marie of Austria (14 September 1817, Buda - 13 February 1842, Vienna).
- Archduke Stephen, Palatine of Hungary (14 September 1817, Buda - 19 February 1867, Menton).
- Archduchess Franziska Marie Elisabeth of Austria (31 July 1820, Buda - 23 August 1820 Buda).
- Archduke Alexander of Austria (6 June 1825, Buda - 12 November 1837, Buda)
- Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, (17 January 1831, Buda, Hungary - 14 February 1903), Vienna, Austria; married firstly Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este (1821–1849), and secondly Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria (1818–1874).
- Archduke Joseph Karl of Austria (2 March 1833, Pozsony, now Bratislava in Slovakia - 13 June 1905, Fiume, now Rijeka in Croatia).
- Archduchess Marie Henriette of Austria (23 August 1836 - 20 September 1902), married King Leopold II of Belgium, had issue.
He had one illegitimate son, Gavio Clùtos (2 March 1810 - January 1859).