Clementia of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Clementia of Hungary
Clemence.jpg
Queen consort of France and Navarre
Tenure 1315–1316
Coronation 24 August 1315
Spouse Louis X of France
Issue John I of France
House Capetian House of Anjou
Father Charles Martel of Anjou
Mother Clemence of Austria
Born 1293
Died 12 October 1328 (aged 34–35)
Religion Roman Catholicism

Clementia of Hungary (French: Clémence; 1293–12 October 1328) was queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louix X.[1][2]

Family[edit]

Clementia was the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou,[3] the titular King of Hungary, and Clemence of Austria.[4] Both parents died during her early childhood, and Mary of Hungary, Clementia's grandmother, raised her. The family claimed Hungary through Mary, and so although Clementia was born and grew up in Naples, she was considered a Hungarian princess.

Marriage[edit]

When Philip IV of France died, his eldest son, Louis I of Navarre, became King of France. Louis’ wife Margaret had been locked up in Château Gaillard since 1314 after being found guilty of adultery by King Philip, on the testimony of, amongst others, Louis's sister Isabella. Since there had been no formal annulment, Margaret technically became queen consort when Louis acceded to the throne upon Philip's death, though she was kept locked up. In 1315, the queen died, allegedly strangled or otherwise murdered to clear the way for her husband to remarry. Louis chose Clementia and they married on 19 August 1315; she was crowned queen at Reims on 24 August.

Louis died in June 1316, leaving Clementia several months pregnant.[5] Louis’ brother Philip became regent, denying the rights of Clémence’s stepdaughter Joan, who was too young and whose paternity was doubtful; and of Clementia herself, who was considered unsuitable to be regent. She gave birth to a son named John in November 1316. King from the moment of his birth, he lived only four days, whereupon the throne was seized by his uncle, who now became Philip V. Clementia and Philip quarrelled over this and he refused to pay her the income Louis had promised her. She wrote repeatedly to Pope John XXII and to her family for help.

She then left the French court for Aix-en-Provence, where she stayed until 1321, when she returned to Paris. She actively participated in royal life in Paris, and owned thirteen estates around Paris and in Normandy. In 1326, she commissioned a tomb effigy for her great-grandfather, Charles I, the brother of Louis IX. She owned the Peterborough Psalter and she probably sent the Reliquary Shrine of Elizabeth of Hungary, now at The Cloisters, to her sister-in-law in Buda. Through her patronage and gift-giving she sought to enhance the reputation in Paris of her Angevin family and of her husband.

Upon her death 12 October 1328, at age thirty-five, her possessions were sold. She was buried on 15 October in the Jacobin convent.

Inventory[edit]

Queen Clementia is best known for the remarkable inventory that was made of her belongings. The ninety-nine-page document in French describes her works of art and material culture in great detail. Her many crown jewels, reliquaries, the textiles that decorated her domestic space and her chapel, the silver sculptures she owned, and even her clothing are all described. She had more than forty manuscripts. The inventory is also valuable because we learn where she acquired many of her objects and who received them after her death.[6][7]

Family tree[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jiri Louda and Michael MacLagan, Les Dynasties d’Europe
  2. ^ Dümmerth, D. (1982). Az Anjou-ház Nyomában. Budapest, Hungary: Panoráma kiadó
  3. ^ The Family Forest Descendants of Milesius of Spain for 84 Generations by Bruce H. Harrison
  4. ^ Family of Clementia
  5. ^ Capetians, page 280
  6. ^ L. Douët-d’Arcq, ed. “Inventaire et vente après décès des biens de la reine Clémence de Hongrie, veuve de Louis le Hutin, 1328” in Nouveau recueil de comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France (Paris, Librairie Renouard, 1874): 37-112.
  7. ^ Mariah Proctor-Tiffany. Portrait of a Medieval Patron: The Inventory and Gift Giving of Clémence of Hungary. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 2007.
French royalty
Preceded by
Margaret of Burgundy
Queen consort of France and Navarre
1315–1316
Succeeded by
Joan II of Burgundy