Climate of Romania

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Geography of Romania
Topography

Carpathians (peaks)
Plains & Delta
Islands

Hydrography

Rivers (Danube)
Lakes
Black Sea

Climate

Because of its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate which ranges from temperate to continental. Climatic conditions are somewhat modified by the country's varied topography. The Carpathians serve as a barrier to Atlantic air masses, limiting their oceanic influences to the west and center of the country (Transilvania, Banat and Maramureș), which have milder winters and heavier rainfalls as a result. The mountains also block the continental influences of the vast plain to the north in the Ukraine, which results in frosty winters and less rain to the south and southeast. In the extreme southeast, Black Sea influences offer a milder, maritime climate. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (51.8 °F) in the south and middle-south and 8 °C (46.4 °F) in northeast. In Bucharest, the temperature ranges from average low −5 °C (23 °F) in January to average high 29 °C (84.2 °F) in July and August, with average temperatures of −3 °C (26.6 °F) in January and 23 °C (73.4 °F) in July and August. Rainfall, although adequate throughout the country, decreases from west to east and from mountains to plains. Some mountainous areas receive more than 1,010 mm (39.8 in) of precipitation each year. Annual precipitation averages about 635 mm (25 in) in central Transylvania, 521 mm (20.5 in) at Iaşi in Moldavia, and only 381 mm (15 in) at Constanţa on the Black Sea.

Average temperature and precipitations in Bucharest

Owing to its distance from the open sea, Romania has a continental climate. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with average maxima in Bucharest being around 29 °C (84.2 °F), with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) not unknown in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 18 °C (64.4 °F), but at higher altitudes both maxima and minima decline considerably.

Satellite image of Romania in December, showing most of its territory under snow

Winters are quite cold, with average highs even in lower-lying areas being no more than 3 °C (37.4 °F) and below −15 °C (5 °F) in the highest mountains, where some areas of permafrost occur on the highest peaks.

Precipitation is generally modest, averaging over 750 mm (29.5 in) only on the highest western mountains - much of it falling as snow which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the delta of the Danube, rainfall is very low, averaging only around 370 mm (14.6 in) per year, whilst in the more westerly lowland like Bucharest it is around 530 mm (20.9 in).

Records[edit]

The absolute minimum temperature was −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F), registered near Brașov in 1942. The absolute maximum temperature was 44.5 °C (112.1 °F), recorded at Ion Sion, Brăila County in 1951.

Climate data for Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
26
(79)
32.8
(91)
35.5
(95.9)
40.8
(105.4)
42
(108)
44.3
(111.7)
44.5
(112.1)
43.5
(110.3)
39
(102)
30
(86)
23.4
(74.1)
44.5
(112.1)
Record low °C (°F) −38.5
(−37.3)
−38
(−36)
−31.4
(−24.5)
−26
(−15)
−16
(3)
−12
(10)
−8
(18)
−7
(19)
−15
(5)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−34.5
(−30.1)
−38.5
(−37.3)
Source: http://www.meteoromania.ro/index.php?id=489

White Christmas in Romania[edit]

Location Percentage
Bucharest 75%
Iași 80%
Timişoara 70%
Cluj-Napoca 85%
Constanța 65%
Miercurea Ciuc 90%
Craiova 75%
Brașov 85%
Satu Mare 75%

Averages and records by city[edit]

Climate data for Bucharest
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16
(61)
20
(68)
29
(84)
34
(93)
37
(99)
39
(102)
43
(109)
42
(108)
39
(102)
35
(95)
24
(75)
18
(64)
43
(109)
Average high °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
4.1
(39.4)
10.5
(50.9)
18
(64)
23.3
(73.9)
26.8
(80.2)
28.8
(83.8)
28.5
(83.3)
24.6
(76.3)
18
(64)
10
(50)
3.8
(38.8)
16.49
(61.61)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.3
(32.5)
5.6
(42.1)
10.5
(50.9)
14
(57)
15.6
(60.1)
15
(59)
11.1
(52)
5.7
(42.3)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.6
(27.3)
5.67
(42.19)
Record low °C (°F) −32
(−26)
−26
(−15)
−19
(−2)
−4
(25)
0
(32)
5
(41)
8
(46)
7
(45)
0
(32)
−6
(21)
−14
(7)
−23
(−9)
−32
(−26)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
36
(1.42)
38
(1.5)
46
(1.81)
70
(2.76)
77
(3.03)
64
(2.52)
58
(2.28)
42
(1.65)
32
(1.26)
49
(1.93)
43
(1.69)
595
(23.42)
Avg. precipitation days 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 6 5 5 6 6 72
Avg. snowy days 6 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 19
 % humidity 87 84 73 63 63 62 58 59 63 73 85 89 71.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 85 155 180 248 270 341 310 240 155 60 62 2,167
Source: World Meteorological Organisation [1]
Climate data for Timişoara, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
39.6
(103.3)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F) 2
(36)
5
(41)
11
(52)
18
(64)
23
(73)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
25
(77)
18
(64)
11
(52)
4
(39)
16.6
(61.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1
(30)
1
(34)
5
(41)
11
(52)
16
(61)
19
(66)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
12
(54)
6
(43)
1
(34)
10.8
(51.6)
Average low °C (°F) −5
(23)
−3
(27)
0
(32)
5
(41)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
14
(57)
11
(52)
6
(43)
2
(36)
−1
(30)
5.6
(42.1)
Record low °C (°F) −35.3
(−31.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.0
(−4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.0
(23)
2.2
(36)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.4
(4.3)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.85)
44
(1.73)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
71
(2.8)
91
(3.58)
67
(2.64)
53
(2.09)
51
(2.01)
46
(1.81)
57
(2.24)
59
(2.32)
688
(27.08)
Avg. precipitation days 12 10 8 7 12 15 11 10 10 9 11 11 126
Avg. rainy days 2 3 5 7 10 14 11 10 10 8 6 4 90
Avg. snowy days 10 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 7 33
 % humidity 91 87 81 80 77 79 74 75 76 85 92 89 82.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 85 142 180 210 240 280 279 210 155 60 49 1,952
Source: Weatherbase [2]
Climate data for Cluj-Napoca
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −1
(30)
1
(34)
8
(46)
13
(55)
18
(64)
21
(70)
23
(73)
23
(73)
20
(68)
13
(55)
5
(41)
1
(34)
12.1
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F) −6
(21)
−5
(23)
0
(32)
4
(39)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
12
(54)
9
(48)
4
(39)
0
(32)
−3
(27)
3.9
(39)
Precipitation cm (inches) 2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
4
(1.6)
7
(2.8)
8
(3.1)
8
(3.1)
7
(2.8)
4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
3
(1.2)
2
(0.8)
53
(21)
Source: Weatherbase [2]
Climate data for Iași, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −1
(31)
2
(35)
8
(46)
16
(61)
22
(72)
25
(77)
27
(80)
26
(79)
22
(72)
16
(61)
8
(47)
2
(36)
14.4
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4
(25)
−2
(29)
3
(37)
11
(51)
16
(61)
19
(67)
21
(69)
20
(68)
16
(61)
10
(50)
4
(40)
−1
(31)
9.4
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F) −7
(19)
−5
(23)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
10
(50)
13
(56)
15
(59)
14
(57)
11
(51)
5
(41)
1
(34)
−4
(25)
4.8
(40.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.30)
30.5
(1.20)
30.5
(1.20)
53.3
(2.10)
63.5
(2.50)
101.6
(4.00)
83.8
(3.30)
55.9
(2.20)
48.3
(1.90)
25.4
(1.00)
35.6
(1.40)
30.5
(1.20)
591.9
(23.3)
Source: Weather.com [3]
Climate data for Constanța
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
7
(45)
12
(54)
18
(64)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
21
(70)
16
(61)
10
(50)
5
(41)
14
(57.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1
(30)
−1
(30)
2
(36)
6
(43)
12
(54)
16
(61)
18
(64)
18
(64)
15
(59)
10
(50)
3
(37)
1
(34)
8.3
(46.8)
Source: Weatherbase [2]
Climate data for Ploiești
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1
(34)
4
(39)
10
(50)
18
(64)
23
(73)
27
(81)
28
(82)
28
(82)
24
(75)
18
(64)
10
(50)
3
(37)
16.2
(60.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6
(21)
−3
(27)
0
(32)
6
(43)
10
(50)
14
(57)
16
(61)
15
(59)
11
(52)
6
(43)
1
(34)
−3
(27)
5.6
(42.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40.6
(1.598)
35.6
(1.402)
38.1
(1.5)
45.7
(1.799)
71.1
(2.799)
76.2
(3)
63.5
(2.5)
58.4
(2.299)
43.2
(1.701)
33
(1.3)
48.3
(1.902)
43.2
(1.701)
596.9
(23.501)
Source: Weather Channel
Climate data for Oradea
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
4.7
(40.5)
10.7
(51.3)
16.9
(62.4)
22.1
(71.8)
24.9
(76.8)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
23.0
(73.4)
17.1
(62.8)
9.3
(48.7)
3.4
(38.1)
15.62
(60.11)
Average low °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−2.7
(27.1)
1.0
(33.8)
5.5
(41.9)
10.1
(50.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.2
(57.6)
13.9
(57)
10.8
(51.4)
5.9
(42.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
5.49
(41.88)
Precipitation mm (inches) 39.5
(1.555)
30.3
(1.193)
36.5
(1.437)
44.9
(1.768)
63.4
(2.496)
90.5
(3.563)
69.1
(2.72)
55.2
(2.173)
39.9
(1.571)
37.9
(1.492)
46.6
(1.835)
49.4
(1.945)
603.2
(23.748)
Source: Administrația Natională de Meteorologie[4]
Climate data for Satu Mare
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1
(34)
3
(37)
10
(50)
15
(59)
20
(68)
22
(72)
25
(77)
25
(77)
21
(70)
15
(59)
7
(45)
2
(36)
13.8
(57)
Average low °C (°F) −5
(23)
−3
(27)
1
(34)
5
(41)
9
(48)
12
(54)
13
(55)
13
(55)
10
(50)
5
(41)
0
(32)
−2
(28)
4.8
(40.7)
Precipitation cm (inches) 2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
4
(1.6)
7
(2.8)
8
(3.1)
8
(3.1)
7
(2.8)
4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
3
(1.2)
2
(0.8)
53
(21)
Source: Weatherbase [2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Bucharest". August 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Weatherbase: Weather For Timisoara, Romania". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 23, 2011.
  3. ^ "Monthly Averages for Iaşi, Romania". The Weather Channel. August 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  4. ^ "Medii lunare multianuale 1961–1990" (in Romanian). Administrația Natională de Meteorologie (Romanian National Administration of Meteorology). August 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-15.