Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
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The Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Hiến pháp Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is the current constitution of Vietnam, adopted on April 15, 1992 by the Eighth National Assembly, and amended by the National Assembly in December 2001.
Current constitution 
The 1992 Constitution (as amended) includes a Preamble and chapters on the political system; economic system; culture, education, science, and technology; national defense; basic rights and obligations of citizens; the National Assembly; the state President; the government; People's Councils and People's Committees; the judiciary and the procuracy (state prosecutors' offices); the national flag, emblem, anthem, capital and national day; and amendment of the Constitution.
Previous constitutions 
There have been three previous constitutions of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam:
- 1946 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, adopted on November 9, 1946
- 1959 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, adopted on January 1, 1960
- 1980 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, adopted on December 19, 1980
In addition to the 1946, 1959, 1980, and 1992 (and amended) Constitutions of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Socialist Vietnam, the former South Vietnam also adopted two constitutions, in 1956 and 1967. Neither of these constitutional documents is in force; the 1967 Constitution was abrogated after Vietnam was unified in 1975.
1946 Constitution 
The purpose of the 1946 constitution was essentially to provide the communist regime with a democratic appearance. The newly established government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) was sensitive about its communist sponsorship, and it perceived democratic trappings as more appealing to noncommunist nationalists and less provocative to French negotiators. Even though such guarantees were never intended to be carried out, the constitution provided for freedom of speech, the press, and assembly. The document remained in effect in Viet Minh-controlled areas throughout the First Indochina War and in North Vietnam following partition in 1954, until it was replaced with a new constitution in 1959.
1959 Constitution 
The second constitution was explicitly communist in character. Its preamble described the DRV as a "people's democratic state led by the working class," and the document provided for a nominal separation of powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. On paper, the legislative function was carried out by the National Assembly. The assembly was empowered to make laws and to elect the chief officials of the state, such as the president (who was largely a symbolic head of state), the vice president, and cabinet ministers. Together those elected (including the president and vice president) formed a Council of Ministers, which constitutionally (but not in practice) was subject to supervision by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly. Headed by a prime minister, the council was the highest executive organ of state authority. Besides overseeing the Council of Ministers, the assembly's Standing Committee also supervised on paper the Supreme People's Court, the chief organ of the judiciary. The assembly's executive side nominally decided on national economic plans, approved state budgets, and acted on questions of war or peace. In reality, however, final authority on all matters rested with the Political Bureau. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution_of_the_Socialist_Republic_of_Vietnam&action=edit§ion=4
1980 Constitution 
The reunification of North and South Vietnam (the former Republic of Vietnam) in 1976 provided the primary motivation for revising the 1959 constitution. Revisions were made along the ideological lines set forth at the Fourth National Congress of the VCP in 1976, emphasizing popular sovereignty and promising success in undertaking "revolutions" in production, science and technology, culture, and ideology. In keeping with the underlying theme of a new beginning associated with reunification, the constitution also stressed the need to develop a new political system, a new economy, a new culture, and a new socialist person.
The 1959 document had been adopted during the tenure of Ho Chi Minh and demonstrated a certain independence from the Soviet model of state organization. The 1980 Constitution was drafted when Vietnam faced a serious threat from China, and political and economic dependence on the Soviet Union had increased. Perhaps, as a result, the completed document resembles the 1977 Soviet Constitution.
The 1980 Vietnamese Constitution concentrates power in a newly established Council of State much like the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, endowing it nominally with both legislative and executive powers. Many functions of the legislature remain the same as under the 1959 document, but others have been transferred to the executive branch or assigned to both branches concurrently. The executive branch appears strengthened overall, having gained a second major executive body, the Council of State, and the importance of the National Assembly appears to have been reduced accordingly. The role of the Council of Ministers, while appearing on paper to have been subordinated to the new Council of State, in practice retained its former primacy.
Among the innovative features of the 1980 document is the concept of "collective mastery" of society, a frequently used expression attributed to the late party secretary, Le Duan (1908- 1986). The concept is a Vietnamese version of popular sovereignty that advocates an active role for the people so that they may become their own masters as well as masters of society, nature, and the nation. It states that the people's collective mastery in all fields is assured by the state and is implemented by permitting the participation in state affairs of mass organizations. On paper, these organizations, to which almost all citizens belong, play an active role in government and have the right to introduce bills before the National Assembly.
Another feature is the concept of socialist legality, which dictates that "the state manage society according to law and constantly strengthen the socialist legal system." The concept, originally introduced at the Third National Party Congress in 1960, calls for achieving socialist legality through the state, its organizations, and its people. Law, in effect, is made subject to the decisions and directives of the party.
The 1980 Constitution comprises 147 articles in 12 chapters dealing with numerous subjects, including the basic rights and duties of citizens. Article 67 guarantees the citizens' rights to freedom of speech, the press, assembly, and association, and the freedom to demonstrate. Such rights are, nevertheless, subject to a caveat stating "no one may misuse democratic freedoms to violate the interests of the state and the people."
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English Language 
- 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam as amended 25 December 2001
- 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam as adopted in 1992 (without 2001 amendments)
- 1959 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnamese Language 
- (Vietnamese) Resolution on amending and supplementing a number of articles of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1992 (2001 constitutional amendments)
- (Vietnamese) Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1946, 1959, 1980 and 1992 constitutions)
Further reading 
General reading and the 1992 Constitution and 2001 amendments 
- Mark Sidel, The Constitution of Vietnam: A Contextual Analysis, Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2009.
- Mark Sidel, Law and Society in Vietnam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
- To Van-Hoa, Judicial Independence, Lund: Jurisförlaget i Lund, 2006.
- Mark Sidel, Analytical Models for Understanding Constitutions and Constitutional Dialogue in Socialist Transitional States: Re-Interpreting Constitutional Dialogue in Vietnam, 6 Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law 42-89 (2002).
- Pip Nicholson, Vietnamese Legal Institutions in Comparative Perspective: Constitutions and Courts Considered, in K Jayasuriya (ed.), Law, Capitalism and Power in Asia: The Rule of Law and Legal Institutions, London: Routledge, 1999.
- Russell H K Heng, The 1992 Revised Constitution of Vietnam: Background and Scope of Changes, 4:3 Contemporary Southeast Asia 221 (1992).
The 1980 Constitution 
- Nguyen Phuong-Khanh, Introduction to the 1980 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 7(3) Review of Socialist Law 347 (1981)(including the text of the 1980 Constitution).
The 1959 Constitution 
- Bernard Fall, North Viet-Nam’s New Draft Constitution, 32:2 Pacific Affairs 178 (1959).
- Bernard Fall, North Viet-Nam’s Constitution and Government, 33:3 Pacific Affairs 282 (1960).
- Bernard Fall, Constitution-Writing in a Communist State – The New Constitution of North Vietnam, 6 Howard Law Journal 157 (1960).