Crime in China
Crime is present in various forms in China. Common forms of crime include corruption, drug trafficking, money laundering, fraud, human trafficking, and circulation of fake currencies. China also has a large black market, due in part to government regulations which make certain items difficult to legally obtain, and the mass production of fake goods.
The People's Republic of China was established in 1949 and from 1949 to 1956, underwent the process of transferring the means of production to common ownership. During this time, the new government worked to decrease the influence of criminal gangs and reduce the prevalence of narcotics and gambling. Efforts to crack down on criminal activity by the government led to a decrease in crime.
Between 1949 and 1956, larceny, arson, rape, murder and robbery were major nonpolitical offenses. The majority of economic crimes were committed by business people who engaged in tax evasion, theft of public property, and bribery.
Government officials also engaged in illegal economic activity, which included improperly taking public property and accepting bribes. Between 1957 and 1965, rural areas experienced little reported crime. Crime rates increased later. The year 1981 represented a peak in reported crime. This may have been correlated to the economic reform in the late 1970s which allowed some elements of a market economy and gave rise to an increase in economic activity. Below is a comparison of reported cases of crime from 1977 to 1988 (excluding economic crimes):
|Total number of cases||548,415||535,698||636,222||757,104||890,281||748,476||610,478||514,369||542,005||547,115||570,439||827,706|
|Incidents of criminal case per 10,000 people||5.8||5.6||6.6||7.7||8.9||7.4||6.0||5.0||5.2||5.2||5.4||7.5|
Crime by youth increased rapidly in the 1980s. Crime by youths consisted 60.2% of total crime in 1983, 63.3% in 1984, 71.4% in 1985, 72.4% in 1986, and 74.3% in 1987. The number of fleeing criminals increased over the years. Economic crimes have increased in recent years. From 1982 to 1988, the total number of economic crimes were 218,000.
In 1989, a total of 76,758 cases of economic offenses were registered which included bribery, smuggling and tax evasion. The changes in economic policy had influence in the characteristics of criminality. Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, crime has increased and diversified.
Crime by type
In 2011, the reported murder rate in China was 1.0 per 100,000 people, with 13,410 murders. The murder rate in 2010 was 1.1.
The PRC is a single-party state ruled by the Communist Party of China, Corruption is common among government employees. Between 1978 and 2003, an estimated $50 billion was smuggled out of the country by corrupt officials. A legal verdict can be changed from guilt to innocence, death sentence can turn into not-guilty verdict and length of prison terms can be reduced by bribing officials.
The armed forces employs naval vessels and airplanes for various smuggling activities. The police stations often open covert gambling houses, or they can provide protection for them. In 2009, 106,000 public officials in China were convicted of corruption.
Various types of violent crime have become common in PRC. Restaurants and hotels in the country extort high prices from guests, and those who show resistance are beaten or detained. Threatening of opponents in business operations is common.
China is a supply, transit and destination country for women, men, and children trafficked for various purposes. The majority of trafficking in PRC is internal and this domestic trafficking is the most significant human trafficking problem in the country. Approximately 10,000-20,000 victims are trafficked each year.[not in citation given] There is also international trafficking of Chinese citizens.
Women are lured through false promises of legitimate employment into commercial sexual exploitation in Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan. Chinese men are smuggled to countries throughout the world for exploitative labor. Women and children are trafficked into PRC from Mongolia, Burma, North Korea, Russia, and Vietnam for forced labor and sexual slavery.
PRC is a major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle. Growing domestic drug abuse is a significant problem in PRC. Available estimates place the domestic spending on illegal drugs to be $17 billion.
China has a high rate of domestic violence. In 2004, the All-China Women’s Federation compiled survey results to show that thirty percent of the women in China experienced domestic violence within their homes.
The true extent of domestic violence is unclear due to the lack of related law and execution of the law. The Chinese government is in the process of "planning" to pass a "draft of anti-domestic violence law".
Criminal organizations have acquired more weapons and vehicles which are often of better quality than that of the police force. In 1995, more than 100,000 illegal small arms were captured nationwide. From January to July 1996, approximately 300,000 illegal small arms were seized from fourteen provinces of the country.
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