List of rulers of China

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Emperor Shun – a mural painting from the Han dynasty

The list of rulers of China includes rulers of China with various titles. From the Shang dynasty to the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "King" (Chinese: 王 Wáng). With the division of China into separate Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shi Huang created a new title for himself, that of "Emperor" (皇帝 Huángdì). This title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's Imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive.

Chinese monarchs were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Chinese emperors family tree (ancient)Chinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors[edit]

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (皇, generally translated "Sovereign" or "August one", denoting demi-god status) and five (帝, generally translated "Emperor", but denoting much more reverential status than the modern term "Emperor"), their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals such as the Yellow Emperor being regarded as either Sovereign or Emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (皇帝, Emperoror), thus claiming legendary status for himself. These figures are all legendary, not historical.

Sovereigns/Emperors Title Other names Years of reign
Sovereign1,4,5 (Empress3) Nüwa 女媧 (180,000 years)
Sovereign (Emperor3) Youchao 有巢 (110,000 years)
(Sovereign4) Emperor3 Suiren 燧人 (456,000 years)
Sovereign1,4,5 (Emperor2,3) Fu Xi 伏羲 2852–2737 BC
Sovereign1 (Emperor2,3) Yan Emperor 炎帝 Shennong 2737–2699 BC
(Sovereign5) Emperor1,2 Yellow Emperor 黃帝 Gongsun Xuanyuan 2699–2588 BC
Emperor2 Shaohao 少昊 Jin Tian 2587–2491 BC
Emperor1,2 Zhuanxu 顓頊 Gaoyang 2490–2413 BC
Emperor1 Ku 帝嚳 Gaoxin 2412–2343 BC
Emperor1 Zhi Qingyang-shi 2343–2333 BC
Emperor1 Yao Yaotang-shi 2333–2234 BC
Emperor1 Shun Youyu-shi 2233–2184 BC
1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian.
2 — According to the Songs of Chu.
3 — According to the Book of Rites.
4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義).
5 — According to the Diwang shiji (帝王世紀)
Traditional dates are provided.

Xia dynasty[edit]

C. 2070–1600 BC1

Reign name² Given name Notes
Also known as: Dà Yǔ, 大禹 (Yǔ the Great)
Son of Yǔ; beginning of hereditary succession
Tài Kāng 太康 Kāng  
Zhòng Kāng 仲康 Kāng  
Xiāng  
No king About 40 years
Shào Kāng 少康 Kāng  
Zhù  
Huái  
Máng  
Xiè 泄/洩  
Jiàng  
Jiōng  
Yìn Jiǎ 胤甲 Jǐn  
Kǒng Jiǎ 孔甲  
Gāo  
 
Lǚ Guǐ 履癸 Jié  Reign ended in Battle of Mingtiao
1 — The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 — The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Xià (夏).

Shang dynasty[edit]

C. 1600–1046 BC1

Temple name Regnal name² Given name³ Reign years1 Capital
Tiān Yǐ 天乙 Tāng 1600–1300 BC
Wài Bǐng 外丙 Shèng
Zhòng Rén 仲壬 Yōng
Tàizōng 太宗 Tài Jiǎ 太甲 Zhì
Wò Dīng 沃丁 Xuàn
Tài Gēng 太庚 Biàn
Xiǎo Jiǎ 小甲 Gāo
Yōng Jǐ 雍己 Zhòu
Tài Wù 太戊
Zhòng Dīng 仲丁 Zhuāng Áo
Wài Rén 外壬
Jiān Jiǎ 戔甲 Zhěng Xiàng
Zhōngzōng 中宗 Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙 Téng
Zǔ Xīn 祖辛 Dàn
Wò Jiǎ 沃甲
Zǔ Dīng 祖丁 Xīn
Nán Gēng 南庚 Gēng Yǎn
Yáng Jiǎ 陽甲
Pán Gēng4 盤庚 Xún 1300–1251 BC Yīn
Xiǎo Xīn 小辛 Sòng
Xiǎo Yǐ 小乙 Liǎn
Gāozōng 高宗 Wǔ Dīng 武丁 Zhāo 1250–1192 BC
Zǔ Gēng 祖庚 Yuè 1191–1148 BC
Zǔ Jiǎ 祖甲 Zài
Lǐn Xīn 廩辛 Xiān
Kāng Dīng 康丁 Xiāo
Wǔ Yǐ 武乙 1147–1113 BC
Wén Dīng5 文丁 Tuō 1112–1102 BC
Dì Yǐ 帝乙 Xiàn 1101–1076 BC
Di Xin 帝辛 Shòu 1075–1046 BC
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Shang (商).
3 The Shang royal family name was Zǐ (子).
4 The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.
5 Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou dynasty[edit]

Circa 10461–256 BC, traditionally divided into:

Posthumous name Given name Reign years1 Common name
Pinyin Chinese Pinyin Chinese
Wǔ Wáng 武王 1046–1043 BC1 King Wu of Zhou
Chéng Wáng 成王 Sòng 1042–1021 BC1 King Cheng of Zhou
Kāng Wáng 康王 Zhāo 1020–996 BC1 King Kang of Zhou
Zhāo Wáng 昭王 Xiá 995–977 BC1 King Zhao of Zhou
Mù Wáng 穆王 Mǎn 滿 976–922 BC1 King Mu of Zhou
Gōng Wáng 共王 Yīhù 繄扈 922–900 BC1 King Gong of Zhou
Yì Wáng 懿王 Jiān 899–892 BC1 King Yi of Zhou
Xiào Wáng 孝王 Bìfāng 辟方 891–886 BC1 King Xiao of Zhou
Yí Wáng 夷王 Xiè 885–878 BC1 King Yi of Zhou
Lì Wáng 厲王 877–841 BC1 King Li of Zhou
Gonghe 共和 (regency) 841–828 BC Gonghe
Xuān Wáng 宣王 Jìng 827–782 BC King Xuan of Zhou
Yōu Wáng 幽王 Gōngshēng 宮湦 781–771 BC King You of Zhou
Ping Wang 平王 Yijiu 宜臼 770–720 BC King Ping of Zhou
Huan Wang 桓王 Lin 719–697 BC King Huan of Zhou
Zhuang Wang 莊王 Tuo 696–682 BC King Zhuang of Zhou
Xi Wang 釐王 Huqi 胡齊 681–677 BC King Xi of Zhou
Hui Wang 惠王 Lang 676–652 BC King Hui of Zhou
Xiang Wang 襄王 Zheng 651–619 BC King Xiang of Zhou
Qing Wang 頃王 Renchen 壬臣 618–613 BC King Qing of Zhou
Kuang Wang 匡王 Ban 612–607 BC King Kuang of Zhou
Ding Wang 定王 Yu 606–586 BC King Ding of Zhou
Jian Wang 簡王 Yi 585–572 BC King Jian of Zhou
Ling Wang 靈王 Xiexin 泄心 571–545 BC King Ling of Zhou
Jing Wang 景王 Gui 544–521 BC King Jing of Zhou
Dao Wang 悼王 Meng 520 BC King Dao of Zhou
Jing Wang 敬王 Gai 519–476 BC King Jing of Zhou
Yuan Wang 元王 Ren 475–469 BC King Yuan of Zhou
Zhending Wang 貞定王 Jie 468–442 BC King Zhending of Zhou
Ai Wang 哀王 Quji 去疾 441 BC King Ai of Zhou
Si Wang 思王 Shu 441 BC King Si of Zhou
Kao Wang 考王 Wei 440–426 BC King Kao of Zhou
Weilie Wang 威烈王 Wu 425–402 BC King Weilie of Zhou
An Wang 安王 Jiao 401–376 BC King An of Zhou
Lie Wang 烈王 Xi 375–369 BC King Lie of Zhou
Xian Wang 顯王 Bian 368–321 BC King Xian of Zhou
Shenjing Wang 慎靚王 Ding 320–315 BC King Shenjing of Zhou
Nan Wang 赧王 Yan 314–256 BC King Nan of Zhou
1 The first generally-accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

Qin dynasty[edit]

Sovereigns of the Qin dynasty 221–207 BC
Title Given Name Period of Reign
Qín Shǐ Huáng1 秦始皇 Zhèng 221–210 BC
Qín Èr Shì 秦二世 Húhài 胡亥 209–207 BC
Qín Sān Shì2 秦三世 Ziyīng 子嬰 207 BC
1Qin Shi Huang became king of the State of Qin in 246 BC, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BC.
2 — Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (秦王子嬰).

Han dynasty[edit]

Han dynasty Sovereigns
Posthumous Name Personal Name Period of Reign Era Name Range of years
Convention: "Han" + posthumous name, excepting Liu Gong, Liu Hong, Ruzi Ying, the Prince of Changyi, the Marquess of Beixiang, and the Prince of Hongnong.
Western Han dynasty 206 – 9 AD
Gao Zu 高祖 Liu Bang 劉邦 206 – 195 BC Did not exist
Hui Di 惠帝 Liu Ying 劉盈 195 – 188 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Shao Di Gong) 少帝 Liu Gong 劉恭 188 – 184 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Shao Di Hong) 少帝 Liu Hong 劉弘 184 – 180 BC Did not exist
Wen Di 文帝 Liu Heng 劉恆 179 – 157 BC Hòuyuán 後元 163 – 156 BC
Jing Di 景帝 Liu Qi 劉啟 156 – 141 BC Zhōngyuán 中元 149 – 143 BC
Hòuyuán 後元 143 – 141 BC
Wu Di 武帝 Liu Che 劉徹 140 – 87 BC Jiànyuán 建元 140 – 135 BC
Yuánguāng 元光 134 – 129 BC
Yuánshuò 元朔 128 – 123 BC
Yuánshòu 元狩 122 – 117 BC
Yuándǐng 元鼎 116 – 111 BC
Yuánfēng 元封 110 – 105 BC
Tàichū 太初 104 – 101 BC
Tiānhàn 天漢 100 – 97 BC
Tàishǐ 太始 96 – 93 BC
Zhēnghé 征和 92 – 89 BC
Hòuyuán 後元 88 – 87 BC
Zhao Di 昭帝 Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 86 – 74 BC Shǐyuán 始元 86 – 80 BC
Yuánfèng 元鳳 80 – 75 BC
Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC
The Prince of Changyi 昌邑王 or 海昏侯 Liu He 劉賀 74 BC Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC
Xuan Di 宣帝 Liu Xun 劉詢 73 – 49 BC Běnshǐ 本始 73 – 70 BC
Dìjié 地節 69 – 66 BC
Yuánkāng 元康 65 – 61 BC
Shénjué 神爵 61 – 58 BC
Wǔfèng 五鳳 57 – 54 BC
Gānlù 甘露 53 – 50 BC
Huánglóng 黃龍 49 BC
Yuan Di 元帝 Liu Shi 劉奭 48 – 33 BC Chūyuán 初元 48 – 44 BC
Yǒngguāng 永光 43 – 39 BC
Jiànzhāo 建昭 38 – 34 BC
Jìngníng 竟寧 33 BC
Cheng Di 成帝 Liu Ao 劉驁 32 – 7 BC Jiànshǐ 建始 32 – 28 BC
Hépíng 河平 28 – 25 BC
Yángshuò 陽朔 24 – 21 BC
Hóngjiā 鴻嘉 20 – 17 BC
Yǒngshǐ 永始 16 – 13 BC
Yuányán 元延 12 – 9 BC
Suīhé 綏和 8 – 7 BC
Ai Di 哀帝 Liu Xin 劉欣 6 – 1 BC Jiànpíng 建平 6 – 3 BC
Yuánshòu 元壽 2 – 1 BC
Ping Di 平帝 Liu Kan 劉衎 1 BC – 5 AD Yuánshǐ 元始 1 BC – 5 AD
Ruzi Ying 孺子嬰 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6 – 8 Jùshè 居攝 6 – Oct. 8
Chūshǐ 初始 Nov. 8 – Dec. 8
Xin dynasty (AD 9–23)
Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (王莽) 9 – 23 Shǐjiànguó 始建國 9 – 13
Tiānfēng 天鳳 14 – 19
Dìhuáng 地皇 20 – 23
Continuation of Han dynasty
Geng Shi Di 更始帝 Liu Xuan 劉玄 23 – 25 Gēngshǐ 更始 23 – 25
Eastern Han dynasty 25 – 220
Guang Wu Di 光武帝 Liu Xiu 劉秀 25 – 57 Jiànwǔ 建武 25 – 56
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán 建武中元 56 – 57
Ming Di 明帝 Liu Zhuang 劉莊 58 – 75 Yǒngpíng 永平 58 – 75
Zhang Di 章帝 Liu Da 劉炟 76 – 88 Jiànchū 建初 76 – 84
Yuánhé 元和 84 – 87
Zhānghé 章和 87 – 88
He Di 和帝 Liu Zhao 劉肇 89 – 105 Yǒngyuán 永元 89 – 105
Yuánxīng 元興 105
Shang Di 殤帝 Liu Long 劉隆 106 Yánpíng 延平 9 months in 106
An Di 安帝 Liu Hu 劉祜 106 – 125 Yǒngchū 永初 107 – 113
Yuánchū 元初 114 – 120
Yǒngníng 永寧 120 – 121
Jiànguāng 建光 121 – 122
Yánguāng 延光 122 – 125
Shao Di, the Marquess of Beixiang 少帝 or 北鄉侯 Liu Yi 劉懿 125 Yánguāng 延光 125
Shun Di 順帝 Liu Bao 劉保 125 – 144 Yǒngjiàn 永建 126 – 132
Yángjiā 陽嘉 132 – 135
Yǒnghé 永和 136 – 141
Hàn'ān 漢安 142 – 144
Jiànkāng 建康 144
Chong Di 沖帝 Liu Bing 劉炳 144 – 145 Yōngxī 永嘉 145
Zhi Di 質帝 Liu Zuan 劉纘 145 – 146 Běnchū 本初 146
Huan Di 桓帝 Liu Zhi 劉志 146 – 168 Jiànhé 建和 147 – 149
Hépíng 和平 150
Yuánjiā 元嘉 151 – 153
Yǒngxīng 永興 153 – 154
Yǒngshòu 永壽 155 – 158
Yánxī 延熹 158 – 167
Yǒngkāng 永康 167
Ling Di 靈帝 Liu Hong 劉宏 168 – 189 Jiànníng 建寧 168 – 172
Xīpíng 熹平 172 – 178
Guānghé 光和 178 – 184
Zhōngpíng 中平 184 – 189
Shao Di, the Prince of Hongnong 少帝 or 弘農王 Liu Bian 劉辯 189 Guīngxī 光熹 189
Zhàoníng 昭寧 189
Xian Di 獻帝 Liu Xie (liú xié) 劉協 189 – 220 Yǒnghàn 永漢 189
Chūpíng 初平 190 – 193
Xīngpíng 興平 194 – 195
Jiàn'ān 建安 196 – 220
Yánkāng 延康 220

Three Kingdoms Period[edit]

Three Kingdoms Sovereigns
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Wei(魏) or [Cao Wei(曹魏)] 220–265
Convention: "Wei" + posthumous name, sometimes except Cao Pi who was referred using personal names.
Wén Dì 文帝 曹丕 Cáo Pī 220–226 Huángchū 黃初 220–226
Míng Dì 明帝 曹叡 Cáo Ruì 226–239 Tàihé 太和 227–233
Qīnglóng 青龍 233–237
Jǐngchū 景初 237–239
Qí Wáng 齊王 曹芳 Cáo Fāng 239–254 Zhèngshǐ 正始 240–249
Jiāpíng 嘉平 249–254
Gāoguìxiāng Gōng 高貴鄉公 曹髦 Cáo Máo 254–260 Zhèngyuán 正元 254–256
Gānlù 甘露 256–260
Yuán Dì 元帝 曹奐 Cáo Huàn 260–265 Jǐngyuán 景元 260–264
Xiánxī 咸熙 264–265
Shu(蜀) or Shu Han(蜀漢) 221–263
Convention: use personal name
Zhāoliè Dì 昭烈帝 劉備 Liú Bèi 221–223 Zhāngwǔ 章武 221–223
Hòuzhǔ 後主 劉禪 Liú Shàn 223–263 Jiànxīng 建興 223–237
Yánxī 延熙 238–257
Jǐngyào 景耀 258–263
Yánxīng 炎興 263
Wu(吳) 222–280
Convention: use personal name
Dà Dì 大帝 孫權 Sūn Quán 222–252 Huángwǔ 黃武 222–229
Huánglóng 黃龍 229–231
Jiāhé 嘉禾 232–238
Chìwū 赤烏 238–251
Tàiyuán 太元 251–252
Shénfèng 神鳳 252
Kuàijī Wáng 會稽王 孫亮 Sūn Liàng 252–258 Jiànxīng 建興 252–253
Wǔfèng 五鳳 254–256
Tàipíng 太平 256–258
Jǐng Dì 景帝 孫休 Sūn Xiū 258–264 Yǒngān 永安 258–264
Wūchéng Hóu 烏程侯 孫皓 Sūn Hào 264–280 Yuánxīng 元興 264–265
Gānlù 甘露 265–266
Bǎodǐng 寶鼎 266–269
Jiànhéng 建衡 269–271
Fènghuáng 鳳凰 272–274
Tiāncè 天冊 275–276
Tiānxǐ 天璽 276
Tiānjì 天紀 277–280

Jin dynasty[edit]

Jin dynasty (265–420) Sovereigns
Posthumous Names
(Shi Hao 諡號)
Personal Names Period
of Reigns
Era Names (Nian Hao 年號)
and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Jin" + posthumous name
Xi (Western) Jin dynasty 西晉/西晋 265-317
Wǔ Dì 武帝 Sīmǎ Yán 司馬炎 265-290 Tàishǐ 泰始 265-274
Xiánníng 咸寧 275-280
Tàikāng 太康 280-289
Tàixī 太熙 290
Huì Dì 惠帝 Sīmǎ Zhōng 司馬衷 290-306 Yǒngxī 永熙 290
Yǒngpīng 永平 291
Yuánkāng 元康 291-299
Yǒngkāng 永康 300-301
Yǒngníng 永寧 301-302
Tàiān 太安 302-303
Yǒngān 永安 304
Jiànwǔ 建武 304
Yǒngān 永安 304
Yǒngxīng 永興 304-306
Guāngxī 光熙 306
Huái Dì 懷帝 Sīmǎ Chì 司馬熾 307-313 Yǒngjiā 永嘉 307-313
Mǐn Dì 愍帝 Sīmǎ Yè 司馬鄴 313-317 Jiànxīng 建興 313-317
Dong (Eastern) Jin dynasty 東晉/东晋 317–420
Yuán Dì 元帝 Sīmǎ Ruì 司馬睿 317-322 Jiànwǔ 建武 317-318
Dàxīng 大興 318-321
Yǒngchāng 永昌 321-322
Míng Dì 明帝 Sīmǎ Shào 司馬紹 322-325 Yǒngchāng 永昌 322-323
Tàiníng 太寧 323-325
Chéng Dì 成帝 Sīmǎ Yǎn 司馬衍 325-342 Tàiníng 太寧 325
Xiánhé 咸和 326-334
Xiánkāng 咸康 335-342
Kāng Dì 康帝 Sīmǎ Yuè 司馬岳 342-344 Jiànyuán 建元 343-344
Mù Dì 穆帝 Sima Dān 司馬聃 345-361 Yǒnghé 永和 345-356
Shēngpíng 升平 357-361
Āi Dì 哀帝 Sīmǎ Pī 司馬丕 361-365 Lónghé 隆和 362-363
Xīngníng 興寧 363-365
Fèi Dì 廢帝 Sīmǎ Yì 司馬奕 365-371 Tàihé 太和 365-371
Jiǎnwén Dì 簡文帝 Sīmǎ Yù 司馬昱 371-372 Xiánān 咸安 371-372
Xiāowǔ Dì 孝武帝 Sīmǎ Yào 司馬曜 372-396 Níngkāng 寧康 373-375
Tàiyuán 太元 376-396
Ān Dì 安帝 Sīmǎ Dézōng 司馬德宗 396-418 Lóngān 隆安 397-401
Yuánxīng 元興 402-404
Yìxī 義熙 405-418
Gōng Dì 恭帝 Sīmǎ Déwén 司馬德文 419-420 Yuánxī 元熙 419-420

Sixteen Kingdoms Period[edit]

Sovereigns in the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use personal name
Han Zhao Empire 漢趙/汉赵 304-329 (addressed separately in traditional texts as Han Empire 漢/汉 and Former Zhao Empire 前赵)
Han Empire 304-318
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Guang Wen Di (光文帝 guang1 wen2 di4) Liu Yuan|劉淵 liu2 yuan1 304-310 Jiànxīng (建興) 304-307

Yǒngfèng (永鳳) 308
Héruì (河瑞) 309
Guāngxīng (光興) 310

Did not exist Liang Wang (梁王 liang2 wang2) Liu He|劉和 liu2 he2 7 days in 310 Guāngxīng (光興) 310 (continuation)
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) Liu Cong|劉聰 liu2 cong1 310-318 Guāngxīng (光興) 310 (continuation)

Jiāpíng (嘉平) 311-315
Jiànyuán (建元) 316
Línjiā (麟嘉 lin2) 317-318

Did not exist Yin Di (隱帝 yin3 di4) Liu Can|劉粲 liu2 can4 a month and days in 318 Hànchāng (漢昌) 318 (until renaming as Former Zhao)
Qian (Former) Zhao Empire 前赵 318-329
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 zhu3) Liu Yao|劉曜 liu2 yao4 318-329 Guāngchū (光初) 318-329 (until conquest by Later Zhao)
Hou (Later) Zhao Empire 后赵 319–351
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Shi Le|石勒 shi2 le4 319-333 Zhaòwáng (趙王) 319-327

Tàihé (太和) 328-329
Jiànpíng (建平) 330-332
Yánxī (延熙) 333

Did not exist Hai Yang Wang (海陽王 hai3 yang2 wang2) Shi Hong|石弘 shi2 hong2 333-334 Yánxī (延熙) 333 (continuation)

Jiànwǔ (建武) 334

Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Shi Hu|石虎 shi2 hu3 334-349 Jiànwǔ (建武) 334-348

Taìníng (太寧) 349

Did not exist Qiao Wang (譙王 qiao2 wang2) Shi Shi|石世 shi2 shi4 73 days in 349 Taìníng (太寧) 349 (continuation)
Did not exist Pang Cheng Wang (彭城王 pang2 cheng2 wang2) Shi Zun|石遵 shi2 zun1 183 days in 349 Taìníng (太寧) 349 (continuation)
Did not exist Yi Yang Wang (義陽王 yi4 yang2 wang2) Shi Jian|石鑒 shi2 jian4 103 days within 349-350 Qīnglóng (青龍) (changed mid-year)
Did not exist Xin Xing Wang (新興王 xin1 xing1 wang2) Shi Zhi|石祗 shi2 zhi1 350-351 Yǒngníng (永寧) 350-351 (until Ran Min's coup)
Cheng Han Empire 成漢/成汉 303-347 (addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng Empire and Han Empire)
Cheng Empire 303-338
Shi Zu (始祖 shi3 zu3) or Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Li Te|李特 li3 te4 303 Jiànchū (建初) or Jǐngchū (景初) 303
Did not exist Qin Wen Wang (秦文王 qin2 wen2 wang2) Li Liu|李流 li3 liu2 several months in 303 Jiànchū (建初) or Jǐngchū (景初) 303 (continuation)
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Li Xiong|李雄 li3 xiong2 303-334 Jiànchū (建初) or Jǐngchū (景初) 303 (continuation)

Jiànxīng (建興) 304-305
Yànpīng (晏平) 306-310
Yùhéng (玉衡) 311-334

Did not exist Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 si4) Li Ban|李班 li3 ban1 7 months in 334 Yùhéng (玉衡) 334 (continuation)
Did not exist You Gong (幽公 you1 gong1) Li Qi|李期 li3 qi1 334-338 Yùhéng (玉恆) 334-337 (continuation)

Hànxīng (漢興)

Han Empire 338-347
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) Li Shou|李壽 li3 shou4 338-343 Hànxīng (漢興) 338-343 (continuation)
Did not exist Gui Yi Hou (歸義侯 gui1 yi4 hou2) Li Shi|李勢 li3 shi4 343-347 Hànxīng (漢興) 343 (continuation)

Tàihé (太和) 344-345
Jiāníng (嘉寧) 346-347 (until conquest by Jin)

Qian (Former) Yan Empire 前燕 337-370
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Ming Di (文明帝 wen2 ming2 di4) Murong Huang|慕容皝 mu4 rong2 huang3 337-348 Yànwáng (燕王) 337-348
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Jing Zhao Di (景昭帝 jing3 zhao1 di4) Murong Jun|慕容俊 mu4 rong2 jun4 348-360 Yànwáng (燕王) 348 (continuation)

Yànyuán (燕元) 349-351
Yuánxǐ (元璽) 352-357
Shēngpíng (升平) 357 (as vassal of Jin)
Guāngshòu (光壽) 357-359
Jiànxī (建熙) 360

Did not exist You Di (幽帝 you1 di4) Murong Wei|慕容暐 mu4 rong2 wei3 360-370 Jiànxī (建熙) 360-365 (continuation)

Jiànyuán (建元) 366-370

Hou (Later) Yan Empire 后燕 384-407
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4) Murong Chui|慕容垂 mu4 rong2 chui2 384-396 Yànwáng (燕王 yan4 wang2) 384-385

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 386-396

Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Hui Min Di (惠愍帝 hui4 min3 di4) Murong Bao|慕容寶 mu4 rong2 bao3 396-398 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 396-398
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) Murong Sheng|慕容盛 mu4 rong2 sheng4 398-401 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 398

Changluo (長樂 chang2 le4) 399-401

Did not exist Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) Murong Xi|慕容熙 mu4 rong2 xi1 401-407 Guangshi (光始 guang1 shi3) 401-406

Jianshi (建始 jian4 shi3) 407

Nan (Southern) Yan Empire 南燕 398-410
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Xian Wu Di (獻武帝 xian4 wu3 di4) Murong De|慕容德 mu4 rong2 de2 398-405 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 398-400

Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 400-405

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Murong Chao|慕容超 mu4 rong2 chao1 405-410 Taishang (太上 tai4 shang4) 405-410
Bei (Northern) Yan Empire 北燕 407-436
Did not exist Hui Yi Di (惠懿帝 hui4 yi4 di4) Gao Yun|高雲 gao1 yun2 407-409 Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 407-409
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Cheng Di (文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4) Feng Ba|馮跋 feng2 ba2 409-430 Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 409-430
Did not exist Zhao Cheng Di (昭成帝 zhao1 cheng2 di4) Feng Hong|馮弘 feng2 hong2 430-436 Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 430-436
Qian (Former) Liang Kingdom 前凉 320-376
Did not exist Cheng Gong (成公 cheng2 gong1) Zhang Mao|張茂 zhang1 mao4 320-324 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 320-324
Did not exist Zhong Cheng Gong (忠成公 zhong1 cheng2 gong1) Zhang Jun|張駿 zhang1 jun4 324-346 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 324-346
Did not exist Huan Gong (桓公 huan2 gong1) Zhang Chonghua|張重華 zhang1 chong2 hua2 346-353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 346-353
Did not exist Ai Gong (哀公 ai1 gong1) Zhang Yaoling|張曜靈 zhang1 yao4 ling2 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353
Did not exist Wei Wang (威王 wei1 wang2) Zhang Zuo|張祚 zhang1 zuo4 353-355 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353-354

Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 354-355

Did not exist Jing Dao Gong (敬悼公 jing4 dao4 gong1) or Chong Gong (沖公 chong1 gong1) Zhang Xuanjing|張玄靖 zhang1 xuan2 jing4 355-363 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 355-361

Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 361-363

Did not exist Dao Gong (悼公 dao4 gong1) Zhang Tianxi|張天錫 zhang1 tian1 xi2 364-376 Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 364-376
Hou (Later) Liang Kingdom 后凉 386–403
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Yi Wu Wang (懿武王 yi4 wu3 wang2) Lü Guang|呂光 uu3 guang1 386-399 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 386-389

Lunjiā (麟嘉 lun2 jiā) 389-396
Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 396-399

Did not exist Yin Wang (隱王 yin3 wang2) Lü Shao|呂紹 luu3 shao4 399 Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 399
Did not exist Ling Wang (靈王 ling2 wang2) Lü Zuan|呂纂 luu3 zuan3 399-401 Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2) 399-401
Did not exist Shang Shu Gong (尚書公 shang4 shu1 gong1) or Jiankang Gong (建康公 jian4 kang1 gong1) Lü Long|呂隆 luu3 long2 401-403 Shending (神鼎 shen2 ding3) 401-403
Nan (Southern) Liang Kingdom 南凉 397–414
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Wu Wang (武王 wu3 wang2) Tufa Wugu|禿髮烏孤 tu1 fa3 wu1 gu1 397-399 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 397-399
Did not exist Kang Wang (康王 kang1 wang2) Tufa Lilugu|禿髮利鹿孤 tu1 fa3 li4 lu4 gu1 399-402 Jianhe (建和 jian4 he2) 399-402
Did not exist Jing Wang (景王 jing3 wang2) or Jing Wang (敬王 jing4 wang2) Tufa Rutan|禿髮傉檀 tu1 fa3 li4 ru4 tan2 402-414 Hongchang (弘昌 hong2 chang1) 402-404

Jiāping (嘉平 ping2) 409-414

Bei (Northern) Liang Kingdom 北凉 397-439 (as Kings of Gao Chang 442-460)
Did not exist Did not exist Duan Ye|段業 duan4 ye4 397-401 Shen Xi (神璽 shen2 xi3) 397-399

Tian Xi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 399-401

Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Xuan Wang (武宣王 wu3 xuan1 wang2) Juqu Mengxun|沮渠蒙遜 ju3 qu2 meng2 xun4 401-433 Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 401-412

Xuanshi (玄始 xuan2 shi3) 412-428
Chengxuan (承玄 cheng2 xuan2) 428-430
Yihe (義和 yi4 he2) 430-433

Did not exist Ai Wang (哀王 ai1 wang2) Juqu Mujian|沮渠牧犍 ju3 qu2 mu4 jian1 433-439 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 433-439
Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Wuhui|沮渠無諱 ju3 qu2 wu2 hui4 442-444 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 442-443

Qianshou (乾壽 qian2 shou4) 443-444

Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Anzhou|沮渠安周 ju3 qu2 an1 zhou1 444-460 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 444-460
Xi (Western) Liang Kingdom 西凉 400-421
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Wang (武昭王 wu3 zhao1 wang2) Li Gao|李暠 li3 gao3 400-417 Gengzi (庚子 geng1 zi5) 400-405

Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 406-416

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Li Xin|李歆 li3 xin1 417-420 Jiāxing (嘉興 xing1) 417-420
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Li Xun|李恂 li3 xun2 420-421 Yongjian (永建 yong3 jian4) 420-421
Qian Former Qin Empire 前秦 351–394
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Jing Ming Di (景明帝 jing3 ming2 di4) Fu Jian|苻健 fu2 jian4 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 351-355
Did not exist Li Wang (厲王 li4 wang2) Fu Sheng|苻生 fu2 sheng1 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 shou4 guang1) 355-357
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Xuan Zhao Di (宣昭帝 xuan1 zhao1 di4) Fu Jian|苻堅 fu2 jian1 357-385 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 357-359

Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 359-364
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-385

Did not exist Ai Ping Di (哀平帝 ai1 ping2 di4) Fu Pi|苻丕 fu2 pi1 385-386 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 385-386
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Gao Di (高帝 gao1 di4) Fu Deng|苻登 fu2 deng1 386-394 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 385-394
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Fu Chong|苻崇 fu2 chong2 several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 yan2 chu1) 394
Hou (Later) Qin Empire 后秦 384–417
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Di (武昭帝 wu3 zhao1 di4) Yao Chang|姚萇 yao2 chang2 384-393 Bai Que (白雀 bai2 que4) 384-386

Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 386-393

Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wen Huan Di (文桓帝 wen2 huan2 di4) Yao Xing|姚興 yao2 xing1 394-416 Huangchu (皇初 huang2 chu1) 394-399

Hongshi (弘始 hong2 shi3) 399-416

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Yao Hong|姚泓 yao2 hong2 416-417 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 416-417
Xi (Western) Qin Kingdom 西秦 385-400,409-431
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Xuan Lie Wang (宣烈王 xuan1 lie4 wang2) Qifu Guoren|乞伏國仁 qi3 fu2 guo2 ren2 385-388 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 385-388
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wu Yuan Wang (武元王 wu3 yuan2 wang2) Qifu Gangui|乞伏乾歸 qi3 fu2 gan1 gui1 388-400,409-412 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 388-400

Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 409-412

Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Zhao Wang (文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2) Qifu Chipan|乞伏熾磐 qi3 fu2 chi4 pan2 412-428 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 412-419

Jianhong (建弘 jian4 hong2) 420-428

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Qifu Mumo|乞伏暮末 qi3 fu2 mu4 mo4 428-431 Yonghong (永弘 yong3 hong2) 428-431
Xia Empire 夏 407-431
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Lie Di (武烈帝 wu3 lie4 di4) Helian Bobo|赫連勃勃 he4 lian2 bo2 bo2 407-425 Longsheng (龍升 long2 sheng1) 407-413

Fengxiang (鳳翔 feng4 xiang2) 413-418
Changwu (昌武 chang1 wu3) 418-419
Zhenxing (真興 chen1 xing1) 419-425

Did not exist Qin Wang (秦王 qin2 wang2) Helian Chang|赫連昌 he4 lian2 chang1 425-428 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 425-428
Did not exist Ping Yuan Wang (平原王 ping2 yuan2 wang2) Helian Ding|赫連定 he4 lian2 ding4 428-431 Shengguang (勝光 sheng4 guang1) 425-428

Sovereignties established by Wu Hu[edit]

Sovereignties established by Chinese and Wu Hu but traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use personal name
Ran Wei Kingdom 冉魏 350-352 (addressed as Wei Kingdom in traditional texts)
Wu Dao Tian Wang (武悼天王 wu3 dao4 tian1 wang2) Ran Min|冉閔 ran3 min3 350-352 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 350-352
Xi (Western) Yan Empire 西燕 384-394
Wei Di (威帝 wei1 di4) Murong Hong|慕容泓 mu4 rong2 hong2 384 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384
Did not exist Murong Chong|慕容沖 mu4 rong2 chong1 384-386 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384-385

Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 385-386

Did not exist Duan Sui|段隨 duan4 sui2 386 Changping (昌平 chang1 ping2) 386
Did not exist Murong Yi|慕容顗 mu4 rong2 yi3 386 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 386
Did not exist Murong Yao|慕容瑤 mu4 rong2 yao2 386 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 386
Did not exist Murong Zhong|慕容忠 mu4 rong2 zhong1 386 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 386
Did not exist Murong Yong|慕容永 mu4 rong2 yong3 386-394 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 386-394
Shu Kingdom 蜀 405-413
Cheng Du Wang (成都王 cheng2 du1 wang2) Qiao Zong|譙縱 qiao2 zong4 405-413 Did not exist
Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe 匈奴支系铁弗部首领 (mid-3rd century-391)
Did not exist Liu Qubei|劉去卑 liu2 qu4 bei1 mid-3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Gaoshengyuan|劉誥升爰 liu2 gao4 sheng1 yuan2 mid-3rd century – late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Hu|劉虎 liu2 hu3 early 4th century (309?) – 341 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Wuheng|劉務恒 liu2 wu4 heng2 341-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Eloulou|劉閼陋頭 liu2 e4 lou4 tou2 356-358 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Xiwuqi|劉悉勿祈 liu2 xi1 wu4 qi2 358-359 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Weichen|劉衛辰 liu2 wei4 chen2 359-391 Did not exist
Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe 宇文部鮮卑首領 (late-3rd century-345)
Did not exist Yuwen Mohuai|宇文莫槐 yu3 wen2 mo4 huai2 late 3rd century-293 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Puhui|宇文普回 yu3 wen2 pu3 hui2 or Yuwen Pu Bo|宇文普撥 yu3 wen2 pu3 bo1 293-late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qiubuqin|宇文丘不勤 yu3 wen2 qiu1 bu4 qin2 late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Mogui|宇文莫圭 yu3 wen2 mo4 gui1 late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Xiduguan|宇文悉獨官 yu3 wen2 xi1 du2 guan1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qidegui|宇文乞得歸 yu3 wen2 qi3 de5 gui1 early 3rd century – 333 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Yidougui|宇文逸豆歸 yu3 wen2 yi4 dou4 gui1 333-345 Did not exist
Dukes of Liaoxi 辽西公 303-338
Did not exist Duan Wuwuchen|段務勿塵 duan4 wu4 wu4 chen2 303-310 or 311 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Jilujuan|段疾陸眷 duan4 ji2 lu4 juan4 310 or 311 – 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Shefuchen|段涉復辰 duan4 she4 fu4 chen2 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Pidi|段匹磾 duan4 pi3 di1 318-321 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Mopei|段末柸 duan4 mo4 pei1 318-325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Ya|段牙 duan4 ya2 325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Liao|段遼 duan4 liao2 326-338 Did not exist
Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid-6th century (555?) )
First Phase of Chouchi 前仇池 (late 2nd century-371)
Did not exist Yang Teng|楊騰 yang2 teng2 late 2nd century- early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ju|楊駒 yang2 ju1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Qianwan|楊千萬 yang2 qian1 wan4 early 3rd century – mid-3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Feilong|楊飛龍 yang2 fei1 long2 mid-3rd century – late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Maosou|楊茂搜 yang2 mao4 sou1 late 3rd century – 317 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nandi|楊難敵 yang2 nan2 di2 317-334 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yi|楊毅 yang2 yi4 334-337 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chu|楊初 yang2 chu1 337-355 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Guo|楊國 yang2 guo2 355-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jun|楊俊 yang2 jun4 356-360 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shi|楊世 yang2 shi4 360-370 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Cuan|楊篡 yang2 cuan4 370-371 Did not exist
Second Phase of Chouchi 后仇池 385-473
武王 wu3 wang2 Yang Ding|楊定 yang2 ding4 385-394 Did not exist
惠文王 hui4 wen2 wang2 Yang Sheng|楊盛 yang2 sheng4 394-425 Did not exist
孝昭王 xiao4 zhao1 wang2 Yang Xuan|楊玄 yang2 xuan2 425-429 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Baozong|楊保宗 yang2 bao3 zong1 429 and 443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nandang|楊難當 yang2 nan2 dang1 429-441 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 436-440
Did not exist Yang Baochi|楊保熾 yang2 bao3 chi4 442-443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wende|楊文德 yang2 wen2 de2 443-454 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yuanhe|楊元和 yang2 yuan2 he2 455-466 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Sengsi|楊僧嗣 yang2 seng1 si4 466-473 Did not exist
Kings of Wuxing 武兴王 473-506 and 534-555
Did not exist Yang Wendu|楊文度 yang2 wen2 du4 473-477 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wenhong|楊文弘 yang2 wen2 hong2 477-482 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Houqi|楊後起 yang2 hou4 qi3 482-486 Did not exist
An Wang (安王 an1 wang2) Yang Jishi|楊集始 yang2 ji2 shi3 482-503 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shaoxian|楊紹先 yang2 shao4 xian1 503-506, 534-535 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Zhihui|楊智慧 yang2 zhi4 hui4 535-545 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Pixie|楊辟邪 yang2 pi4 xie2 545-553 Did not exist
Note: Yang Zhi Hui and Yang Bi Xie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 陰平王 477- mid-6th century
Did not exist Yang Guangxiang|楊廣香 yang2 guang3 xiang1 477-483? Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jiong|楊炯 yang2 jiong3 483-495 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chongzu|楊崇祖 yang2 chong2 zu3 495-before 502 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Mengsun|楊孟孫 yang2 meng4 sun1 before 502-511 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ding|楊定 yang2 ding4 511- ? Did not exist
Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 索头部鲜卑族首领 219-377 (as Kings of Dai 代王 305?-377)
As a well known fact, Tuoba Family was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.
Note: All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as 王(wang2) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
神元王 shen2 yuan2 wang2 Tuoba Li Wei(拓拔力微 tou4 ba2 li4 wei2) 219-277 Did not exist
Note: His temple name was Shi Zu|始祖 shi2 zu3. Another column was not created since only he was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name
章王 zhang1 wang2 Tuoba Xi Lu(拓拔悉鹿 tou4 ba2 xi1 lu4) 277-286 Did not exist
平王 ping2 wang2 Tuoba Chuo(拓拔綽 tou4 ba2 chuo4) 286-293 Did not exist
思王 si1 wang2 Tuoba Fu(拓拔弗 tou4 ba2 fu2) 293-294 Did not exist
昭王 zhao1 wang2 Tuoba Lu Guan(拓拔祿官 tou4 ba2 lu4 guan1) 294-307 Did not exist
桓帝 huan2 di4 Tuoba Yi Tuo(拓拔猗 (㐌 - 拖 without 手) tou4 ba2 yi1 yi2) 295-305 Did not exist
穆王 mu4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Lu(拓拔猗盧 tou4 ba2 yi1 lu2) 295-316 Did not exist
Did not exist Tuoba Pu Gen(拓拔普根 tou4 ba2 pu3 gen1) 316 Did not exist
Did not exist 拓拔? tou4 ba2 ? 316 Did not exist
平文王 ping2 wen2 wang2 Tuoba Yu Luu(拓拔鬱律 tou4 ba2 yu4 luu4) 316-321 Did not exist
惠王 hui4 wang2 Tuoba He Ru(拓拔賀傉 tou4 ba2 he4 ru4) 321-325 Did not exist
煬王 yang2 wang2 Tuoba He Na(拓拔紇那 tou4 ba2 he2 na3) 325-329 and 335-337 Did not exist
烈王 lie4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Huai(拓拔翳槐 tou4 ba2 yi4 huai2) 329-335 and 337-338 Did not exist
昭成王 zhao1 cheng2 wang2 Tuoba Shi Yi Jian(拓拔什翼健 tou4 ba2 shi2 yi4 jian4) 338-377 Jianguo (建國 jian4 guo2) 338-377

Northern and Southern Dynasties[edit]

Sovereigns in the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Northern dynasty 北朝
Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty 北魏 386-535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name
As a well known fact Tuoba family changed their family name to 元(yuan2) during the reign of Xiao Wen Di in 496 so we will also change from there.
Dao Wu Di (道武帝 daò wǔ dì) Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪 tuò bá guī) 386-409 Dengguo (登國 dēng guó) 386-396
Huangshi (皇始 huáng shǐ) 396-398
Tianxing (天興 tiān xīng) 398-404
Tianci (天賜 tiān cì) 404-409
Ming Yuan Di (明元帝 míng yuán dì) Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣 tuò bá sì) 409-423 Yongxing (永興 yǒng xīng) 409-413
Shenrui (神瑞 shén ruì) 414-416
Taichang (泰常 tài cháng) 416-423
Tai Wu Di (太武帝 tài wǔ dì) Tuoba Tao (拓拔燾 tuò bá táo) 424-452 Shiguang (始光 shǐ guāng) 424-428
Shenjia (神䴥 shén jiā) 428-431
Yanhe (延和 yán hé) 432-434
Taiyan (太延 tài yán) 435-440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君 tài píng zhēn jūn) 440-451
Zhengping (正平 zhèng píng) 451-452
Nan An Wang (南安王 nán ān wáng) Tuoba Yu (拓拔余 tuò bá yú) 452 Chengping (承平 chéng píng) 452
Wen Cheng Di (文成帝 wén chéng dì) Tuoba Jun (拓拔濬 tuò bá jùn) 452-465 Xingan (興安 xīng ān) 452-454
Xingguang (興光 xīng guāng) 454-455
Tai'an (太安 tài ān) 455-459
Heping (和平 hé píng) 460-465
Xian Wen Di (獻文帝 xiàn wén dì) Tuoba Hong (拓拔弘 tuò bá hóng) 466-471 Tian'an (天安 tiān ān) 466-467
Huangxing (皇興 huáng xīng) 467-471
Xiao Wen Di (孝文帝 xiào wén dì) Yuan Hong (元宏 yuán hóng) 471-499 Yanxing (延興 yán xīng) 471-476
Chengming (承明 chéng míng) 476
Taihe (太和 tài hé) 477-499
Xuan Wu Di (宣武帝 xuān wǔ dì) Yuan Ke (元恪 yuán kè) 499-515 Jingming (景明 jǐng míng) 500-503
Zhengshi (正始 zhèng shǐ) 504-508
Yongping (永平 yǒng píng) 508-512
Yanchang (延昌 yán chāng) 512-515
Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuan Xu (元詡 yuán xǔ) 516-528 Xiping (熙平 xī píng) 516-518
Shengui (神龜 shén guī) 518-520
Zhengguang (正光 zhèng guāng) 520-525
Xiaochang (孝昌 xiào chāng) 525-527
Wutai (武泰 wǔ tài) 528
Youzhu (幼主 yòu zhǔ) Yuan Zhao (元釗 yuán zhāo) 528 None
Xiao Zhuang Di (孝莊帝 xiào zhuāng dì) Yuan Ziyou (元子攸 yuán zǐ yōu) 528-530 Jianyi (建義 jiàn yì) 528
Yongan (永安 yǒng ān) 528-530
Chang Guang Wang (長廣王 cháng guǎng wáng) Yuan Ye (元曄 yuán yè) 530-531 Jianming (建明 jiàn míng) 530-531
Jie Min Di (節閔帝 jié mǐn dì) Yuan Gong (元恭 yuán gōng) 531-532 Putai (普泰 pǔ tài) 531-532
An Ding Wang (安定王 ān dìng wáng) Yuan Lang (元朗 yuán lǎng) 531-532 Zhongxing (中興 zhōng xīng) 531-532
Xiao Wu Di (孝武帝 xiào wǔ dì) or
Chu Di (出帝 chū dì)
Yuan Xiu (元脩 yuán xiū) 532-535 Taichang (太昌 tài chāng) 532
Yongxing (永興 yǒng xīng) 532
Yongxi (永熙 yǒng3 xī) 532-535
Dong (Eastern) Wei dynasty 东魏 534-550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name
Xiao Jing Di (孝靜帝 xiào jìng dì) Yuan Shanjian (元善見 yuán shàn jiàn) 534-550 Tianping (天平 tiān píng) 534-537
Yuanxiang (元象 yuán xiàng) 538-539
Xinghe (興和 xīng hé) 539-542
Wuding (武定 wǔ dìng) 543-550
Bei (Northern) Qi dynasty 北齐 550-577
Convention: Bei (Northern) Qi + posthumous name
Wen Xuan Di (文宣帝 wén xuān dì) Gao Yang (高洋 gāo yáng) 550-559 Tianbao (天保 tiān bǎo) 550-559
Fei Di (廢帝 fèi dì) Gao Yin (高殷 gāo yīn) 559-560 Qianming (乾明 qián míng) 560
Xiao Zhao Di (孝昭帝 xiào zhāo dì) Gao Yan (高演 gāo yǎn) 560-561 Huangjian (皇建 huáng jiàn) 560-561
Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wǔ chéng dì) Gao Dan (高湛 gāo dān) 561-565 Taining (太寧 tài níng) 561-562
Heqing (河清 hé qīng) 562-565
Hou Zhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Gao Wei (高緯 gāo wěi) 565-577 Tiantong (天統 tiān tǒng) 565-569
Wuping (武平 wǔ píng) 570-576
Longhua (隆化 lóng huà) 576
You Zhu (幼主 yòu zhǔ) Gao Heng (高恆 gāo héng) 577 Chengguang (承光 chéng guāng) 577
Fan Yang Wang (范陽王 fàn yáng wáng) Gao Shaoyi (高紹義 gāo shào yì) 577-579? Did not exist
Xi (Western) Wei dynasty 西魏 535-556
Convention: Xi (Western) Wei + posthumous name
Wen Di (文帝 wén dì) Yuan Baoju (元寶炬 yuán bǎo jù) 535-551 Datong (大統 dà tǒng) 535-551
Fei Di (廢帝 fèi dì) Yuan Qin (元欽 yuán qīn) 552-554 Did not exist
Gong Di (恭帝 gōng dì) Tuoba Kuo (拓拔廓 tuò bá kuò) 554-556 Did not exist
Bei (Northern) Zhou dynasty 北周 557-581
Convention: Bei (Northern) Zhou + posthumous name
Xiao Min Di (孝閔帝 xiào mǐn dì) Yuwen Jue (宇文覺 yǔ wén jué) 557 Did not exist
Ming Di (明帝 míng dì) or Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuwen Yu (宇文毓 yǔ wén yù) 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wǔ chéng) 559-560
Wu Di (武帝 wǔ dì) Yuwen Yong (宇文邕 yǔ wén yōng) 561-578 Baoding (保定 bǎo dìng) 560-565
Tianhe (天和 tiān hé) 566-572
Jiande (建德 jiàn dé) 572-578
Xuanzheng (宣政 xuān zhèng) 578
Xuan Di (宣帝 xuān dì) Yuwen Yun (宇文贇 yǔ wén yūn) 578-579 Dacheng (大成 dà chéng) 579
Jing Di (靜帝 jìng dì) Yuwen Chan (宇文闡 yǔ wén chǎn) 579-581 Daxiang (大象 dà xiàng) 579-581
Dading (大定 dà dìng) 581
Southern dynasty 南朝 420-589
Song dynasty 刘宋 (420-479)
Convention: Song + posthumous name, sometimes except Liu Yu who was referred using personal name.
Wu Di (武帝 wǔ dì) Liu Yu (劉裕 liú yù) 420-422 Yongchu (永初 yǒng chū) 420-422
Shao Di (少帝 shào dì) Liu Yifu (劉義符 liú yì fú) 423-424 Jingping (景平 jǐng píng) 423-424
Wen Di (文帝 wén dì) Liu Yilong (劉義隆 liú yì lóng) 424-453 Yuanjia (元嘉 yuán jiā) 424-453
Xiaowu (孝武帝 xiaò wǔ dì) Liu Jun (劉駿 liú jùn) 454-464 Xiaojian (元嘉 xiaō jiàn 454-456

Daming (大明 dà míng) 457-464

Qian Fei Di (前廢帝 qián feì dì) Liu Ziye (劉子業 liú zǐ yè) 465 Yongguang (永光 yǒng guāng) 465

Jinghe (景和 jǐng hé) 465

Ming Di (明帝 míng dì) Liu Yu (劉彧 liú yù) 465-472 Taishi (泰始 taì shǐ) 465-471

Taiyu (泰豫 taì yù) 472

Houfei Di (後廢帝 hoù feì dì) or Cangwu Wang (蒼梧王 cāng wú wáng) Liu Yu (劉昱 liú yù) 473-477 Yuanhui (元徽 yuán huī) 473-477
Shun Di (順帝 shùn dì) Liu Zhun (劉準 liú zhǔn) 477-479 Shengming (昇明 shēng míng) 477-479
Qi dynasty 齐 479-502
Convention: Qi + posthumous name
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi
(Gao Di 高帝 gāo dì)
Xiao Daocheng (蕭道成 xiāo dào chēng 479-482 Jianyuan (建元 jiàn yuán) 479-482
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi
(Wu Di 武帝 wǔ dì)
Xiao Ze (蕭賾 xiāo zé) 482-493 Yongming (永明 yǒng míng) 483-493
Prince of Yulin
(Yu Lin Wang 鬱林王 yù lín wáng)
Xiao Zhaoye (蕭昭業 xiāo zhāo yè) 493-494 Longchang (隆昌 lóng chāng) 494
Prince of Hailing
(Hai Ling Wang (海陵王 hài líng wáng)
Xiao Zhaowen (蕭昭文 xiāo zhāo wén) 494 Yanxing (延興 yán xīng) 494
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi - Ming Di
(明帝 míng dì)
Xiao Luan (蕭鸞 xiāo luán) 494-498 Jianwu (建武 jiàn wǔ) 494-498
Yongtai (永泰 yǒng tài) 498
Marquess of Donghun - Dong Hun Hou
(東昏侯 dōng hūn hóu)
Xiao Baojuan (蕭寶卷 xiāo bǎo juǎn) 499-501 Yongyuan (永元 yǒng yuán) 499-501
Emperor He of Southern Qi - He Di
(和帝 hé dì)
Xiao Baorong (蕭寶融 xiāo bào róng) 501-502 Zhongxing (中興 zhōng xīng) 501-502
Liang dynasty 梁 (502-557)
Convention: Liang + posthumous name
Emperor Wu of Liang - Wu Di
(武帝 Wǔ Dì)
Xiao Yan (蕭衍 Xiāo Yǎn) 502-549 Tianjian (天監 tiān-jiān) 502-519
Putong (普通 pǔ-tōng) 520-527
Datong (大通 dà-tōng) 527-529
Zhongdatong (中大通 zhōng-dà-tōng) 529-534
Datong (大同 dà-tóng) 535-546
Zhongdatong (中大同 zhōng-dà-tóng) 546-547
Taiqing (太清 tài-qīng) 547-549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang - Jianwen Di
(簡文帝 jiān wén dì)
Xiao Gang (蕭綱 xiāo gāng) 549-551 Dabao (大寶 dà bǎo) 550-551
Prince of Yuzhang - Yu Zhang Wang
(豫章王 yù zhāng wáng)
蕭棟 xiāo dòng 551-552 Tianzheng (天正 tiān zhèng) 551-552
Emperor Yuan of Liang - Yuan Di
(元帝 yuán dì)
蕭繹 xiāo yì 552-555 Chengsheng (承聖 chéng shèng) 552-555
Marquess of Zhenyang - Zhen Yang Hou
(貞陽侯 zhēn yáng hóu)
蕭淵明 xiāo yuān míng 555 Tiancheng (天成 tiān chéng) 555
Emperor Jing of Liang - Jing Di
(敬帝 jìng dì)
蕭方智 xiāo fāng zhì 555-557 Shaotai (紹泰 shào tài) 555-556
Taiping (太平 tài píng) 556-557
Chen dynasty 陈 557-589
Convention: Chen + posthumous name
Emperor Wu of Chen - Wu Di (武帝 wǔ dì) Chen Baxian (陳霸先 chén bà xiān) 557-559 Yongding (永定 yǒng dìng) 557-559
Emperor Wen of Chen - Wen Di (文帝 wén dì) Chen Qian (陳蒨 chén qiàn) 559-566 Tianjia (天嘉 tiān jiā) 560-566
Tiankang (天康 tiān kāng) 566
Emperor Fei of Chen - Fei Di (廢帝 fèi dì) Chen Bozong (陳伯宗 chén bó zōng) 566-568 Guangda (光大 guāng dà) 566-568
Emperor Xuan of Chen - Xuan Di (宣帝 xuān dì) Chen Xu (陳頊 chén xū) 569-582 Taijian (太建 tài jiàn) 569-582
Houzhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Chen Shubao (陳叔寶 chén shú bǎo) 583-589 Zhide (至德 zhì dé) 583-586
Zhenming (禎明 zhēn míng) 587-589
Nan (Southern) Liang dynasty 南梁 555-587
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 ) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: Nan (Southern) Liang + posthumous name
Note: some historians set Nan Liang as a continuation of the Liang dynasty since it was founded by descendants of the Xiao's, the ruling family of the Liang dynasty.
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhōng zōng) Xuan Di (宣帝 xuān dì) Xiao Cha (蕭詧 xiāo chá) 555-562 Dading (大定 dà dìng) 555-562
Shi Zong (世宗 shì zōng) Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Xiao Kui (蕭巋 xiāo kuī) 562-585 Tianbao (天保 tiān bǎo) 562-585
Did not exist Xiao Jing Di (孝靖帝 xiào jìng dì) or Ju Gong (莒公 jǔ gōng) Xiao Cong (蕭琮 xiāo cóng) 585-587 Guangyun (廣運 guǎng yùn) 562-585

Sui dynasty[edit]

Sui dynasty 隋 581-618
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) Range of years
Convention: "Sui" + posthumous name
Wén Dì 文帝 楊堅 Yáng Jiān 581-604 Kāihuáng 開皇 581-600
Rénshòu 仁壽 601-604
Yáng Dì 煬帝 楊廣 Yáng Guǎng 605-617 Dàyè 大業 605-617
Gōng Dì1 恭帝 楊侑 Yáng Yòu 617-618 Yìníng 義寧 617-618
none awarded2 楊浩 Yáng Hào 618
Gōng Dì3 恭帝 楊侗 Yáng Tóng 618-619 Huángtài 皇泰 618-619
1 Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.
'2 Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (許) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.
3 After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty[edit]

Tang dynasty 唐 618-690, 705-907
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟;號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Tang" + temple name
Gao Zu (Kao-Tsu) (高祖 gao1 zu3) 李淵 li3 yuan1 618-626 Wude (武德 wu3 de2) 618-626
Tai Zong (Tai-Tsung) (太宗 tai4 zong1) 李世民 li3 shi4 min2 627-649 Zhenguan (貞觀 zhen1 guan1) 627-649
Gao Zong (Kao-Tsung) (高宗 gao1 zong1) 李治 li3 zhi4 650-683 Yonghui (永徽 yong3 hui1) 650-655

Xianqing (顯慶 xian3 qing4) 656-661
Longshuo (龍朔 long2 shuo4) 661-663
Linde (麟德 lin2 de2) 664-665
Qianfeng (乾封 qian2 feng1) 666-668
Zongzhang (總章 zong3 zhang1) 668-670
Xianheng (咸亨 xian2 heng1) 670-674
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 674-676
Yifeng (儀鳳 yi2 feng4) 676-679
Tiaolu (調露 tiao2 lu4) 679-680
Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 680-681
Kaiyao (開耀 kai1 yao4) 681-682
Yongchun (永淳 yong3 chun2) 682-683
Hongdao (弘道 hong2 dao4) 683

Zhong Zong (Chung-Tsung) (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Li Xian (李顯 Lǐ Xiǎn) or Li Zhe (李哲 Lǐ Zhé) 684, 705-710 Sisheng (嗣聖 si4 sheng4) 684

Shenlong (神龍 shen2 long2) 705-707
Jinglong (景龍 jing3 long2) 707-710

Rui Zong (Jui-Tsung) (睿宗 rui4 zong1) 李旦 li3 dan4 684-690, 710-712 Wenming (文明 wen2 ming2) 684-690

Jingyun (景雲 jing3 yun2) 710-711
Taiji (太極 tai4 ji2) 712
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 712

Zhou dynasty (690–705)
Convention: family name + posthumous name
Wu Zetian (武則天 wu3 ze2 tian1) (no official temple name) Wǔ Zhào(武曌) 690-705 Tianshou (天授 tian1 shou4) 690-692

Ruyi (如意 ru2 yi4) 692
Changshou (長壽 chang2 shou4) 692-694
Yanzai (延載 yan2 zai4) 694
Zhengsheng (證聖 zheng4 sheng4) 695
Tiancewansui (天冊萬歲 tian1 ce4 wan4 sui4) 695-696
Wansuidengfeng (萬歲登封 wan4 sui4 deng1 feng1) 696
Wansuitongtian (萬歲通天 wan4 sui4 tong1 tian1) 696-697
Shengong (神功 shen2 gong1) 697
Shengli (聖曆 sheng4 li4) 698-700
Jiushi (久視 jiu3 shi4) 700
Daju (大足 da4 ju2) 701
Changan (長安 chang2 an1) 701-705

Continuation of Tang dynasty
Shang Di (殤帝 shang1 di4)1 李重茂 li3 chong2 mao4 710 Tanglong (唐隆 tang2 long2) 710
Xuan Zong (玄宗 xuan2 zong1) 李隆基 li3 long2 ji1 712-756 Xiantian (先天 xian1 tian1) 712-713

Kaiyuan (開元 kai1 yuan2) 713-741
Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 742-756

Su Zong (肅宗 su4 zong1) 李亨 li3 heng1 756-762 Jide (至德 zhi4 de2) 756-758

Qianyuan (乾元 qian2 yuan2) 758-760
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 760-761

Dai Zong (代宗 dai4 zong1) 李豫 li3 yu4 762-779 Baoying (寶應 bao3 ying4) 762-763

Guangde (廣德 guang3 de2) 763-764
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 765-766
Dali (大曆 da4 li4) 766-779

De Zong (德宗 de2 zong1) 李适 li3 gua1 780-805 Jianzhong (建中 1jian4 zhong1) 780-783

Xingyuan (興元 xing1 yuan2) 784
Zhenyuan (貞元 zhen1 yuan2) 785-805

Shun Zong (順宗 shun4 zong1) 李誦 li3 song4 805 Yongzhen (永貞 yong3 zhen1) 805
Xian Zong (憲宗 xian4 zong1) 李純 li3 chun2 806-820 Yuanhe (元和 yuan2 he2) 806-820
Mu Zong (穆宗 mu4 zong1) 李恆 li3 heng2 821-824 Changqing (長慶 chang2 qing4) 821-824
Jing Zong (敬宗 jing4 zong1) 李湛 li3 zhan4 824-826 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 824-826
Wen Zong (文宗 wen2 zong1) 李昂 li3 ang2 826-840 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 826

Dahe (大和 da4 he2) or Taihe (tai4 he2 太和) 827-835
Kaicheng (開成 kai1 cheng2) 836-840

Wu Zong (武宗 wu3 zong1) 李炎 li3 yan2 840-846 Huichang (會昌 hui4 chang1) 841-846
Xuan Zong (宣宗 xuan1 zong1) 李忱 li3 chen2 846-859 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 847-859
Yi Zong (懿宗 yi4 zong1) 李漼 li3 cui3 859-873 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 859

Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 860-873

Xi Zong (僖宗 xi1 zong1) 李儇 li3 xuan1 873-888 Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 873-874

Ch'ien Fu (乾符 qian2 fu2) 874-879
Guangming (廣明 guang3 ming2) 880-881
Zhonghe (中和 zhong1 he2) 881-885
Guangqi (光啟 guang1 qi3) 885-888
Wende (文德 wen2 de2) 888

Zhao Zong (昭宗 zhao1 zong1) 李曄 li3 ye4 888-904 Longji (龍紀 long2 ji4) 889

Dashun (大順 da4 shun4) 890-891
Jingfu (景福 jing3 fu2) 892-893
Qianning (乾寧 qian2 ning2) 894-898
Guanghua (光化 guang1 hua4) 898-901
Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 901-904
Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904

Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4)1
or Zhao Xuan Di(昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4)1
李柷 li3 zhu4 904-907 Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904-907
1 Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4), Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) and Zhao Xuan Di (昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4) are posthumous names, not temple names. A new column for only three commonly used posthumous names was not be created since other Tang emperors are commonly referred using temple names.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms[edit]

Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十国 907-960
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
the Five Dynasties 五代
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang dynasty 后梁 907-923
Taìzǔ (太祖) Xiànwǔ (獻武) Zhū Wēn (朱溫) 907-912 Kaīpíng (开平) 907-911
Qiánhuà (乾化) 911-912
Zhu Yougui 朱友珪 912-913 Qiánhuà (乾化) 912-913
Fengli 913
Did not exist Mòdì (末帝) Zhū Zhèn (朱瑱) 913-923 Qiánhuà (乾化) 913-915
Zhēnmíng (贞明) 915-921
Lóngdé (龙德) 921-923
Hou (Later) Tang dynasty 后唐 923-936
Zhuang Zong (莊宗 Zhuāngzōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Cúnxù (李存勗) 923-926 Tongguang (同光 Tóngguāng) 923-926
Ming Zong (明宗Míng zōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Sìyuán (李嗣源) or Lǐ Dǎn (李亶) 926-933 Tiancheng (天成 Tiān chéng) 926-930

Changxing (長興 Cháng xīng) 930-933

Did not exist Min Di (閔帝 Mǐndì) Lǐ Cónghòu (李從厚) 933-934 Yingshun (應順 Yìngshùn) 913-915
Did not exist Mo Di (末帝 Mò dì) Lǐ Cóngkē (李從珂) 934-936 Qingtai (清泰 Qīngtaì) 934-936
Hou (Later) Jin dynasty 后晋 936-947
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jingtang (石敬瑭 shi4 jing4 tang2) 936-942 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 936-942
Did not exist Chu Di (出帝 chu1 di4) Shi Chonggui (石重貴 shi4 chong2 gui4) 942-947 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 942-944

Kaiyun (開運 kai1 yun4) 944-947

Hou (Later) Han dynasty 后汉 947-950
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Zhiyuan (劉知遠 liu3 zhi1 yuan3) 947-948 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 947

Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948

Did not exist Emperor Yin (隱帝 yin3 di4) Liu Chengyou (劉承祐 liu3 cheng2 you4) 948-950 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948-950
Hou (Later) Zhou dynasty 后周 951-960
Taizu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Not used when referring to this sovereign Guo Wei (郭威 guo1 wei1) 951-954 Guangshun (廣順 guang3 shun4) 951-954

Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954

Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Not used when referring to this sovereign Chai Rong (柴榮 chai2 rong2) 954-959 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954-959
Did not exist Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) Chai Zongxun (柴宗訓 chai2 zong1 xun4) 959-960 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 959-960
the Ten Kingdoms 十国
Convention: use personal names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 吴越 904-978
太祖 tai4 zu3 武肅王 wu3 su4 wang2 Qian Liu|錢鏐 qian2 liu2 904-932 Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 908-923

Baoda (寶大 bao3 da4) 923-925
Baozheng (寶正 bao3 zheng4) 925-932

Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) 文穆王 wen2 mu4 wang2 Qian Yuanguan|錢元瓘 qian2 yuan2 guan4 932-941 Did not exist
Cheng Zong 成宗 cheng2 zong1) 忠獻王 zhong1 xian4 wang2 Qian Zuo|錢佐 qian2 zuo3 941-947 Did not exist
Did not exist 忠遜王 zhong1 xun4 wang2 Qian Zong|錢倧 qian2 zong1 947 Did not exist
Did not exist 忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 Qian Chu|錢俶 qian2 chu4 947-978 Did not exist
Min Kingdom 闽 909-945 including Yin Kingdom 殷 943-945
太祖 tai4 zu3 忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 Wang Shenzhi|王審知 wang2 shen3 zhi1 909-925 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Wang Yanhan|王延翰 wang2 yan2 han4 925-926 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) Wang Yanjun|王延鈞 wang2 yan2 jun1 926-935 Longqi (龍啟 long2 qi3) 933-935

Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 935

Kang Zong (康宗 kang1 zong1) Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jipeng|王繼鵬 wang2 ji4 peng2 935-939 Tongwen (通文 tong1 wen2) 936-939
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Yanxi|王延羲 wang2 yan2 xi1 939-944 Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 939-944
Did not exist Tian De Di (天德帝 tian1 de2 di4) (as Emperor of Yin) Wang Yanzheng|王延政 wang2 yan2 zheng4 943-945 Tiande (天德 tian1 de2) 943-945
Jing Nan 荆南 or Nan Ping Kingdom 南平 906-963
Did not exist 武信王 wu3 xin4 wang2 Gao Jixing|高季興 gao1 ji4 xing1 909-928 Did not exist
Did not exist 文獻王 wen2 xin4 wang2 Gao Conghui|高從誨 gao1 cong2 hui4 928-948 Did not exist
Did not exist 貞懿王 yi4 wang2 Gao Baorong|高寶融 gao1 bao3 rong2 948-960 Did not exist
Did not exist 侍中 shi4 zhong1 Gao Baoxu|高寶勗 gao1 bao3 xu4 960-962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Gao Jichong|高繼沖 gao1 ji4 chong1 962-963 Did not exist
Chu Kingdom 楚 897-951
Did not exist 武穆王 wu3 mo4 wang2 Ma Yin|馬殷 ma3 yin1 897-930 Did not exist
Did not exist 衡陽王 heng2 yang2 wang2 Ma Xisheng|馬希聲 ma3 xi1 sheng1 930-932 Did not exist
Did not exist 文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2 Ma Xifan|馬希範 ma3 xi1 fan4 932-947 Did not exist
Did not exist 廢王 fei4 wang2 Ma Xiguang|馬希廣 ma3 xi1 guang3 947-950 Did not exist
Did not exist 恭孝王 gong1 xiao4 wang2 Ma Xi E|馬希萼 ma3 xi1 e4 950 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Ma Xichong|馬希崇 ma3 xi1 chong2 950-951 Did not exist
Wu Kingdom 吴 904-937
太祖 tai4 zu3 孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4 Yang Xingmi|楊行密 yang2 xing2 mi4 904-905 Tianyou (天祐 tian1 you4) 904-905
烈宗 lie4 zong1 景帝 jing3 di4 Yang Wo|楊渥 yang2 wo4 905-908 Tianyou (天祐 tian1 you4) 905-908
高祖 gao1 zu3 宣帝 xuan1 di4 Yang Longyan|楊隆演 yang2 long2 yan3 908-921 Tianyou (天祐 tian1 you4) 908-919

Wuyi (武義 wu3 yi4) 919-921

Did not exist 睿帝 rui4 di4 Yang Pu|楊溥 yang2 pu3 921-937 Shunyi (順義 shun4 yi4) 921-927

Qianzhen (乾貞 qian2 zhen1) 927-929
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) 929-935
Tianzuo (天祚 tian1 zuo4) 935-937

Nan (Southern) Tang Kingdom 南唐 937-975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Hou Zhu|李後主 li3 hou4 zhu3.
先主 xian1 zhu3 or Lie Zu|烈祖 lie4 zu3 Not used when referring to this sovereign Li Bian|李 (曰 on top of 弁) li3 bian4 937-943 Shengyuan (昇元 sheng1 yuan2) 937-943
中主 zhong1 zhu3 or Yuan Zong|元宗 yuan2 zong1 Not used when referring to this sovereign Li Jing|李璟 li3 jing3 943-961 Baoda (保大 bao3 da4) 943-958

Jiaotai (交泰 jiao1 tai4) 958
Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 958

Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 武王 wu3 wang2 李煜 li3 yu4 961-975 Did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 南汉 917-971
高祖 gao1 zu3 天皇大帝 tian1 huang2 da4 di4 Liú Yán|劉巖
or
Liú Yǎn|劉龑
917-925 Qiánhēng (乾亨) 917-925

Báilóng (白龍) 925-928
Dàyǒu (大有) 928-941

Did not exist 殤帝 shang1 di4 Liú Fēn|劉玢 941-943 Guāngtiān (光天) 941-943
中宗 zhong1 zong1 Not used when referring to this sovereign Liú Shèng|劉晟 943-958 Yìngqián (應乾) 943

Qiánhé (乾和) 943-958

後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Liú Chǎng|劉鋹 958-971 Dàbbǎo (大寶) 958-971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 北汉 951-979
世祖 shi4 zu3 神武帝 shen2 wu3 di4 Liu Min|劉旻 liu3 min2 951-954 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 951-954
睿宗 rui4 zong1 孝和帝 xiao4 he2 di4 Liu Chengjun|劉承鈞 liu3 cheng2 jun1 954-970 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 954-957

Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 957-970

少主 shao4 zhu3 Did not exist Liu Jien|劉繼恩 liu3 ji4 en1 970 Did not exist
Did not exist 英武帝 ying1 wu3 di4 Liu Jiyuan|劉繼元 liu3 ji4 yuan2 970-982 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 970-982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 前蜀 907–925
高祖 gao1 zu3 Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jian|王建 wang2 jian4 907-918 Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 907

Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng22) 908-910
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 911-915
Tongzheng (通正 tong1 zheng4) 916
Tianhan (天漢 tian1 han4) 917
Guangtian (光天 guang1 tian1) 918

後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Wang Yan|王衍 wang2 yan3 918-925 Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 918-925

Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 925

Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 后蜀 934–965
高祖 gao1 zu3 Not used when referring to this sovereign Meng Zhixiang|孟知祥 meng4 zhi1 xiang2 934 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934
後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Meng Chang|孟昶 meng4 chang3 938-965 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934-938

Guangzheng (廣政 guang3 zheng4) 938-965

Independent Regimes during Ten Kingdoms[edit]

local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Personal Names Period on post
Captaincy General of Wuping/Hunan (武平/湖南節度使)
Captain General of Wuping|武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 Liu Yan|劉言 liu3 yan2 950-953
Captain General of Wuping|武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 Wang Kui|王逵 wang2 kui2 or Wang Jin Kui|王進逵 wang2 jin4 kui2 953-956
Captain General of Hunan|湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhou Xingfeng|周行逢 zhao1 xing2 feng2 956-962
Captain General of Hunan|湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhou Baoquan|周保權 zhao1 bao3 quan2 962-963
Captaincy General of Quanzhang (泉漳節度使)
Captain General of Quanzhang|泉漳都指揮使 quan2 zhang1 du1 zhi3 hui1 shi3 Liu Congxiao|留從效 liu2 cong2 xiao4 945-962
Captain General of Quanzhang|泉漳留守 quan2 zhang1 liu2 shou3 Liu Shaozi|留紹鎡 liu2 shao4 zi1 962
Captain General of Quanzhang|泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhang Hansi|張漢思 zhang1 han4 si1 962-963
Captain General of Quanzhang|泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 Chen Hongjin|陳洪進 chen2 hong2 jin4 963-978

Liao dynasty[edit]

Liao dynasty 907-1125
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Not used when referring to this sovereign Yelü Abaoji (耶律阿保機 Yēlǜ Ābǎojī) 907-926 Shence (神冊 Shéncè) 916-922

Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzàn) 922-926
Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926

Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律德光 Yēlǜ Déguāng 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 927-938

Huitong (會同 Huìtóng) 938-947
Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 947

Shizong (世宗 Shìzōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律阮 Yēlǜ Ruǎn 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānlù) 947-951
Muzong (穆宗 Mùzōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律璟 Yēlǜ Jǐng 951-969 Yingli (應曆 Yìnglì) 951-969
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律賢 Yēlǜ Xián 969-982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎoníng) 969-979

Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 979-982

Shengzong (聖宗 Shèngzōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律隆緒 Yēlǜ Lóngxù 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 982

Tonghe (統和 Tǒnghé) 983-1012
Kaitai (開泰 Kāitài) 1012-1021
Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 1021-1031

Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律宗真 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn 1031–1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngfú) 1031-1032

Chongxi (重熙 Chóngxī) 1032-1055

Daozong (道宗 Dàozōng) Not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律洪基 Yēlǜ Hóngjī 1055–1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngníng) 1055-1064

Xianyong (咸雍 Xiányōng) 1065-1074
Taikang (太康 Tàikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dàkāng) 1075-1084
Da'an (大安 Dà'ān) 1085-1094
Shouchang (壽昌 Shòuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shòulóng) 1095-1101

Did not exist Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzuòdì) 耶律延禧 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ 1101–1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qiántǒng) 1101-1110

Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqìng) 1111-1120
Baoda (保大 Bǎodà) 1121-1125

Song dynasty[edit]

For a list of Song emperors on a separate page, click here.

Song dynasty 宋 960-1279
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (short form)( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty 北宋, 960- 1127
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) 孝帝 Zhao Kuangyin (趙匡胤 Zhào Kuāngyìn) 960-976 Jianlong (建隆 Jiànlóng) 960-963

Qiande (乾德 Qiándé) 963-968
Kaibao (開寶 Kāibǎo) 968-976

Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) 德帝 Zhao Kuangyi (趙匡義 Zhào Kuāngyì) or Zhao Guangyi (趙光義 Zhào Guāngyì) or Zhao Jiong (趙炅 Zhào Jiǒng) 976-997 Taipingxingguo (太平興國 Tàipíngxīngguó) 976-984

Yongxi (雍熙 Yōngxī) 984-987
Duangong (端拱 Duāngǒng) 988-989
Chunhua (淳化 Chúnhuà) 990-994
Zhidao (至道 Zhìdào) 995-997

Zhenzong (真宗 Zhēnzōng) 章帝 Zhao Heng (趙恆 Zhào Héng) 997-1022 Xianping (咸平 Xiánpíng) 998-1003

Jingde (景德 Jǐngdé) 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符 Dàzhōngxiángfú) 1008-1016
Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxǐ) 1017-1021
Qianxing (乾興 Qiánxīng) 1022

Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng) 文帝 Zhao Zhen (趙禎 Zhào Zhēn) 1022–1063 Tiansheng (天聖 Tiānshèng) 1023-1032

Mingdao (明道 Míngdào) 1032-1033
Jingyou (景祐 Jǐngyòu) 1034-1038
Baoyuan (寶元 Bǎoyuán) 1038-1040
Kangding (康定 Kāngdìng) 1040-1041
Qingli (慶曆 Qìnglì) 1041-1048
Huangyou (皇祐 Huángyòu) 1049-1054
Zhihe (至和 Zhìhé) 1054-1056
Jiayou (嘉祐 Jiāyòu) 1056-1063

Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng) 宣帝 Zhao Shu (趙曙 Zhào Shù) 1063–1067 Zhiping (治平 Zhìpíng) 1064-1067
Shenzong (神宗 Shénzōng) 欽帝 Zhao Xu (趙頊 Zhào Xū) 1067–1085 Xining (熙寧 Xīníng) 1068-1077

Yuanfeng (元豐 Yuánfēng) 1078-1085

Zhezong (哲宗 Zhézōng) 昭帝 Zhao Xu (趙煦 Zhào Xǔ) 1085–1100 Yuanyou (元祐 Yuányòu) 1086-1094

Shaosheng (紹聖 Shàoshèng) 1094-1098
Yuanfu (元符 Yuánfú) 1098-1100

Huizong (徽宗 Huīzōng) 顯帝 Zhao Ji (趙佶 Zhào Jí) 1100–1125 Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國 Jiànzhōngjìngguó) 1101

Chongning (崇寧 Chóngníng) 1102-1106
Daguan (大觀 Dàguān) 1107-1110
Zhenghe (政和 Zhènghé) 1111-1118
Chonghe (重和 Chónghé) 1118-1119
Xuanhe (宣和 Xuānhé) 1119-1125

Qinzong (欽宗 Qīnzōng) 仁帝 Zhao Huan (趙桓 Zhào Huán) 1126–1127 Jingkang (靖康 Jìngkāng) 1125-1127
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty 南宋, 1127-1279
Gaozong (高宗 Gāozōng) 憲帝 Zhao Gou (趙構 Zhào Gòu) 1127–1162 Jianyan (建炎 Jiànyán) 1127-1130

Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) 1131-1162

Xiaozong (孝宗 Xiàozōng) 成帝 Zhao Shen (趙昚 Zhào Shèn) 1162–1189 Longxing (隆興 Lóngxīng) 1163-1164

Qiandao (乾道 Qiándào) 1165-1173
Chunxi (淳熙 Chúnxī) 1174-1189

Guangzong (光宗 Guāngzōng) 慈帝 Zhao Dun (趙惇 Zhào Dūn) 1189–1194 Shaoxi (紹熙 Shàoxī) 1190-1194
Ningzong (寧宗 Níngzōng) 恭帝 Zhao Kuo (趙擴 Zháo Kuó) 1194–1224 Qingyuan (慶元 Qìngyuán) 1195-1200

Jiatai (嘉泰 Jiātài) 1201-1204
Kaixi (開禧 Kāixǐ) 1205-1207
Jiading (嘉定 Jiādìng) 1208-1224

Lizong (理宗 Lǐzōng) 安帝 Zhao Yun (趙昀 Zhào Yún) 1224–1264 Baoqing (寶慶 Bǎoqìng) 1225-1227

Shaoding (紹定 Shàodìng) 1228-1233
Duanping (端平 Duānpíng) 1234-1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙 Jiāxī) 1237-1240
Chunyou (淳祐 Chúnyòu) 1241-1252
Baoyou (寶祐 Bǎoyòu) 1253-1258
Kaiqing (開慶 Kāiqìng) 1259
Jingding (景定 Jǐngdìng) 1260-1264

Duzong (度宗 Dùzōng) 景帝 Zhao Qi (趙禥 Zhào Qí) 1264–1274 Xianchun (咸淳 Xiánchún) 1265-1274
Gongzong (恭宗 Gōngzong) Gong Di (恭帝 Gōngdì) Zhao Xian (趙顯 Zhào Xiǎn) 1274–1276 Deyou (德祐 Déyòu) 1275-1276
Duan Zong (端宗 Duān Zōng) not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shi (趙昰 Zhào Shì) 1276–1278 Jingyan (景炎 Jǐngyán) 1276-1278
did not exist Di (帝 Dì) or Wei Wang (衛王 Wèiwáng) Zhao Bing (趙昺 Zhào Bǐng) 1278–1279 Xiangxing (祥興 Xiángxīng) 1278-1279

Western Xia[edit]

Western Xia 1032-1227
Temple names Posthumous names Chinese family name and first names Reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: "Western Xia" + temple name or "family name + first names"
Jǐngzōng

(景宗)

Wǔlièdì

(武烈帝)

Lǐ Yuánhào

(李元昊)

1032–1048 Xiǎndào (顯道) 1032-1034

Kāiyùn (開運) 1034
Guǎngpíng (廣平) 1035-1036
Dàqìng (大慶) 1036-1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò (天授禮法延祚) 1038-1048

Yìzōng

(毅宗)

Zhāoyīngdì

(昭英帝)

Lǐ Liàngzuò

(李諒祚)

1048–1067 Yánsìníngguó (延嗣寧國) 1048-1049

Tiānyòuchuíshèng (天祐垂聖) 1050-1052
Fúshèngchéngdào (福聖承道) 1053-1056
Duǒdū (奲都) 1036-1038
Gǒnghuà (拱化) 1063-1067

Huìzōng

(惠宗)

Kāngjìngdì

(康靖帝)

Lǐ Bǐngcháng

(李秉常)

1067–1086 Qiándào (乾道) 1067-1069

Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng (天賜禮盛國慶) 1070-1074
Dà'ān (大安) 1075-1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng (天安禮定) 1085-1086

Chóngzōng

(崇宗)

Shèngwéndì

(聖文帝)

Lǐ Qiánshùn

(李乾順)

1086–1139 Tiānyízhìpíng (天儀治平) 1086-1089

Tiānyòumín'ān (天祐民安) 1090-1097
Yǒng'ān (永安) 1098-1100
Zhēnguān (貞觀) 1101-1113
Yōngníng (雍寧) 1114-1118
Yuándé (元德) 1119-1127
Zhèngdé (正德) 1127-1134
Dàdé (大德) 1135-1139

Rénzōng

(仁宗)

Shèngzhēndì

(聖禎帝)

Lǐ Rénxiào

(李仁孝)

1139–1193 Dàqìng (大慶) 1139-1143

Rénqìng (人慶) 1144-1148
Tiānshèng (天盛) 1149-1170
Qiányòu (乾祐) 1170-1193

Huánzōng

(桓宗)

Zhāojiǎnjì

(昭簡帝)

Lǐ Chúnyòu

(李純佑)

1193–1206 Tiānqìng (天慶) 1193-1206
Xiāngzōng

(襄宗)

Jǐngwǔdì

(景武帝)

Lǐ Ānquán

(李安全)

1206–1211 Qìngtiān (慶天) 1206-1209

Huángjiàn (皇建) 1210-1211

Shénzōng

(神宗)

Yīngwéndì

(英文帝)

Lǐ Zūnxū

(李遵頊)

1211–1223 Guāngdìng (光定) 1211-1223
Xiànzōng

(獻宗)

Did not exist Lǐ Déwàng

(李德旺)

1223–1226 Qiándìng (乾定) 1223-1226
Mòzhǔ

(末主)

Did not exist Lǐ Xiàn

(李晛)

1226–1227 Bǎoyì (寶義) 1226-1227

Jin dynasty[edit]

Jin dynasty 1115-1234
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name
Tàizǔ

太祖

(1) Wányán Āgǔdǎ

完顏阿骨打

1115–1123 Shōuguó

收國
1115-1116
 
Tiānfǔ
天輔
1117-1123

Tàizōng

太宗

(1) Wányán Wúqǐmǎi

完顏吳乞買
or
Wányán (Shèng or Chéng)
完顏晟

1123–1134 Tiānhuì

天會
1123-1134

Xīzōng

熙宗

(1) Wányán Hélá

完顏合剌
or
Wányán Dǎn
完顏亶

1135–1149 Tiānhuì

天會
1135-1138
 
Tiānjuàn
天眷
1138-1141
 
Huángtǒng
皇統
1141-1149

(2) Hǎilíngwáng

海陵王

Wányán Liàng

完顏亮

1149–1161 Tiāndé

天德
1149-1153
 
Zhènyuán
貞元
1153-1156
 
Zhènglóng
正隆
1156-1161

Shìzōng

世宗

(1) Wányán Yōng

完顏雍

1161–1189 Dàdìng

大定
1161-1189

Zhāngzōng

章宗

(1) Wányán Jǐng

完顏璟

1190–1208 Míngchāng

明昌
1190-1196
 
Chéng'ān
承安
1196-1200
 
Tàihé
泰和1200-1208

(2) Wèishàowáng

衛紹王
or
Wèiwáng
衛王

Wányán Yǒngjì

完顏永濟

1209–1213 Dà'ān

大安
1209-1212
 
Chóngqìng
崇慶
1212-1213
 
Zhìníng
至寧
1213

Xuānzōng

宣宗

(1) Wányán Xún

完顏珣

1213–1223 Zhēnyòu

貞祐
1213-1217
 
Xīngdìng
興定
1217-1222
 
Yuánguāng
元光
1222-1223

Āizōng

哀宗

(1) Wányán Shǒuxù

完顏守緒

1224–1234 Zhèngdà

正大
1224-1232
 
Kāixīng
開興
1232
 
Tiānxīng
天興
1232-1234

(2) Mòdì

末帝

Wányán Chénglín

完顏承麟

1234 (2)
(1) Quite long and thus not used when referring to this sovereign.
(2) Did not exist.

Yuan dynasty[edit]

Yuan dynasty 元 1271-1368
Temple names Posthumous names Khan Names Given names Period of Reigns Era names and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use first name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names for khans before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.
Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khubilai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame, or Tamerlane.
Tàizǔ (太祖) not used when referring to this sovereign Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin (孛兒只斤鐵木真 Bóérzhījīn Tiěmùzhēn) 1206–1227 did not exist
Ruìzōng (睿宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Tolui Borjigin Tolui (孛兒只斤拖雷 Bóérzhījīn Tuōléi) 1228 did not exist
Tàizōng (太宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei (孛兒只斤窩闊台 Bóérzhījīn Wōkuòtái) 1229–1241 did not exist
Dìngzōng (定宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük (孛兒只斤貴由 Bóérzhījīn Guìyóu) 1246–1248 did not exist
Xiànzōng (憲宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke (孛兒只斤蒙哥 Bóérzhījīn Ménggē) 1251–1259 did not exist
Shìzǔ (世祖 Shìzǔ) not used when referring to this sovereign Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai (孛兒只斤忽必烈 Bóérzhījīn Hūbìliè) 1260–1294 Zhōngtǒng (中統) 1260-1264

Zhìyuán (至元) 1264-1294

Chéngzōng (成宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Temür Öljeytü Khân Borjigin Temür (孛兒只斤鐵穆耳 Bóérzhījīn Tiěmù'ěr) 1294–1307 Yuánzhēn (元貞) 1295-1297

Dàdé (大德) 1297-1307

Wǔzōng (武宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Qayshan Gülük Borjigin Qayshan (孛兒只斤海山 Bóérzhījīn Hǎishān) 1308–1311 Zhìdà (至大) 1308-1311
Rénzōng (仁宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Ayurparibhadra Borjigin Ayurparibhadra (孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 Bóérzhījīn Àiyùlíbálìbādá) 1311–1320 Huángqìng (皇慶) 1312-1313

Yányòu (延祐) 1314-1320

Yīngzōng (英宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Suddhipala Gege'en Borjigin Suddhipala (孛兒只斤碩德八剌 Bóérzhījīn Shuòdébālá) 1321–1323 Zhìzhì (至治) 1321-1323
did not exist (1) Tàidìng Dì (泰定帝) (2) Yesün-Temür Borjigin Yesün-Temür (孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Yěsūntiěmùér) 1323–1328 Tàidìng (泰定) 1321-1328

Zhìhé (致和) 1328

did not exist (1) Tiānshùn Dì (天順帝) (2) Arigaba Borjigin Arigaba (孛兒只斤阿速吉八 Bóérzhījīn Āsùjíbā) 1328 Tiānshùn (天順) 1328
Wénzōng (文宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Jijaghatu Toq-Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür (孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾 Bóérzhījīn Tútiěmùér) 1328–1329 and 1329–1332 Tiānlì (天曆) 1328-1330

Zhìshùn (至順) 1330-1332

Míngzōng (明宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Qoshila Qutuqtu Borjigin Qoshila (孛兒只斤和世剌 Bóérzhījīn Héshìlà) 1329 did not exist
Níngzōng (寧宗) not used when referring to this sovereign Irinchibal Borjigin Irinchibal (孛兒只斤懿璘質班 Bóérzhījīn Yìlínzhìbān) 1332 Zhìshùn (至順) 1332
Huìzōng (惠宗) (1) Shundi (順帝 Shùndì) Toghan-Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér) 1333–1370 Zhìshùn (至順) 1333

Yuántǒng (元統) 1333-1335
Zhìyuán (至元) 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng (至正) 1341-1368
Zhìyuán (至元) 1368-1370

(1) Convention: for these sovereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tài Dìng Dì.

(2) Not actually a posthumous name, but adopted from era name.

Northern Yuan dynasty 北元 (after overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China in 1368) 1368 – early 15th century[citation needed]
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Khan Names Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use khan names or born names.
Note: 1) />2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names. 2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Huìzōng (惠宗) (same person as the last Yuan emperor in China) Shundi (順帝 Shùndì) Toghan-Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér) 1333–1370 Zhìshùn (至順) 1333

Yuántǒng (元統) 1333-1335
Zhìyuán (至元) 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng (至正) 1341-1368
Zhìyuán (至元) 1368-1370

Zhàozōng (昭宗) did not exist Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara of the Borjigin clan (孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘 Bóérzhījīn Àiyùshílǐdálà) 1370–1378 Xuānguāng (宣光) 1371-1378
did not exist did not exist Usakhal Khan Tögüs Temür of the Borjigin clan (孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Tuōgǔsī Tiěmùér) 1378–1387 Tiānguāng (天光) 1378-1387
(1) Convention: for these souvereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tài Dìng Dì.

For the later Mongol Khans, see List of Mongol Khans

Ming dynasty[edit]

Personal Name Posthumous name1

(short form)

Temple name1 Era name Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Zhū Yuánzhāng

朱元璋

Gāodì

高帝

Tàizǔ

太祖

Hóngwǔ

洪武

1368–1398 Hongwu Emperor
Zhū Yǔnwén

朱允炆

Huìdì

惠帝

Huizong² Jiànwén

建文

1398–1402 Jianwen Emperor
Zhū Dì

朱棣

Wēndì

文帝

Chéngzǔ, 成祖 or

Tàizōng, 太宗

Yǒnglè

永樂

1402–1424 Yongle Emperor
Zhū Gāochì

朱高熾

Zhāodì

昭帝

Rénzōng

仁宗

Hóngxī

洪熙

1424–1425 Hongxi Emperor
Zhū Zhānjī

朱瞻基

Zhāngdì

章帝

Xuānzōng

宣宗

Xuāndé

宣德

1425–1435 Xuande Emperor
Zhū Qízhèn

朱祁鎮

Ruìdì

睿帝

Yīngzōng

英宗

Zhèngtǒng, 正統

1436-1449;
Tiānshùn, 天順
1457-1464

1435–1449;

1457-1464³

Zhengtong Emperor
Zhū Qíyù

朱祁鈺

Jǐngdì

景帝

Dàizōng

代宗

Jǐngtài

景泰

1449–1457 Jingtai Emperor
Zhū Jiànshēn

朱見深

Chúndì

純帝

Xiànzōng

憲宗

Chénghuà

成化

1464–1487 Chenghua Emperor
Zhū Yòutáng

朱祐樘

Jìngdì

敬帝

Xiàozōng

孝宗

Hóngzhì

弘治

1487–1505 Hongzhi Emperor
Zhū Hòuzhào

朱厚照

Yìdì

毅帝

Wǔzōng

武宗

Zhèngdé

正德

1505–1521 Zhengde Emperor
Zhū Hòucōng

朱厚熜

Sùdì

肅帝

Shìzōng

世宗

Jiājìng

嘉靖

1521–1566 Jiajing Emperor
Zhū Zǎihòu

朱載垕

Zhuāngdì

莊帝

Mùzōng

穆宗

Lóngqìng

隆慶

1566–1572 Longqing Emperor
Zhū Yìjūn

朱翊鈞

Xiǎndì

顯帝

Shénzōng

神宗

Wànlì

萬曆

1572–1620 Wanli Emperor
Zhū Chángluò

朱常洛

Zhēndì

貞帝

Guāngzōng

光宗

Tàichāng

泰昌

1620 Taichang Emperor
Zhū Yóujiào

朱由校

Zhédì

悊帝

Xīzōng

熹宗

Tiānqǐ

天啓

1620–1627 Tianqi Emperor
Zhū Yóujiǎn

朱由檢

Zhuānglièmǐnhuángdì

莊烈愍皇帝

Sīzōng, 思宗 or

Yìzōng, 毅宗

Chóngzhēn

崇禎

1627–1644 Chongzhen Emperor
1 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.
2 The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (福王), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong
3 After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother, the Jingtai emperor, assumed the throne and, a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However, the Zhengtong emperor was able to reclaim his position upon the death of his brother, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty[edit]

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Personal Name Temple name Era name Reign years
Li Zicheng
李自成
Chuǎng Wáng

闖王

Yung Chang

永昌

1644

Southern Ming dynasty[edit]

The Southern Ming dynasty refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Personal Name Temple name Era name Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Zhū Yóusōng

朱由崧

Ānzōng

安宗

Hóngguāng

弘光

1644–1645 Prince of Fu

福王 Fú Wáng

Zhū Yùjiàn

朱聿鍵

Shàozōng

紹宗

Lóngwǔ

隆武

1645–1646 Prince of Tang

唐王 Táng Wáng

Zhū Chángfāng

朱常淓

None given None given,

but sometimes referred to as the
Regency of the Prince of Lu (Luh)
潞王臨國 Lù Wáng Lín Guó

1645 Prince of Lu (Luh*)

潞王 Lù Wáng

Zhū Yǐhǎi

朱以海

None given None given,

but sometimes referred to as the
Regency of the Prince of Lu (Lou)
魯王臨國 Lǔ Wáng Lín Guó

1645–1653 Prince of Lu (Lou*)

魯王 Lǔ Wáng

Zhū Yùyuè

朱聿𨮁

Wénzōng

文宗

Shàowǔ

紹武

1646 Prince of Tang (Shaowu)

唐王 Táng Wáng

Zhū Yóuláng

朱由榔

Zhāozōng

昭宗

Yǒnglì

永曆

1646–1662 Prince of Gui

桂王 Guì Wáng

* The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty[edit]

Given name1 Posthumous name²

(short form)

Temple name² Reign name

Chinese, Manchu

Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Nurhaci

努爾哈赤
pinyin: Nǔ'ěrhāchì

Gāodì

高帝

Tàizǔ

太祖

Tiānmìng

天命
Abkai fulingga

1616-1626³ Nurhaci
Hong Taiji4

皇太極
pinyin: Huángtàijí

Wéndì

文帝

Tàizōng

太宗

Tiāncōng

天聰
Abkai sure
1627-1636;
Chóngdé
崇德
Wesihun erdemungge
1636-1643

1626–1643 Huang Taiji
Fúlín

福臨

Zhāngdì

章帝

Shìzǔ

世祖

Shùnzhì

順治
Ijishūn dasan

1643-16615 Shunzhi Emperor
Xuányè

玄燁

Réndì

仁帝

Shèngzǔ

聖祖

Kāngxī

康熙
Elhe taifin

1661–1722 Kangxi Emperor
Yìnzhēn

胤禛

Xiàndì

憲帝

Shìzōng

世宗

Yōngzhèng

雍正
Hūwaliyasun tob

1722–1735 Yongzheng Emperor
Hónglì

弘曆

Chúndì

純帝

Gāozōng

高宗

Qiánlóng

乾隆
Abkai wehiyehe

1735-1796

(died 1799)6

Qianlong Emperor
Yóngyǎn

顒琰

Ruìdì

睿帝

Rénzōng

仁宗

Jiāqìng

嘉慶
Saicungga fengšen

1796–1820 Jiaqing Emperor
Mínníng

旻寧

Chéngdì

成帝

Xuānzōng

宣宗

Dàoguāng

道光
Doro eldengge

1820–1850 Daoguang Emperor
Yìzhǔ

奕詝

Xiǎndì

顯帝

Wénzōng

文宗

Xiánfēng

咸豐
Gubci elgiyengge

1850–1861 Xianfeng Emperor
Zǎichún

載淳

Yìdì

毅帝

Mùzōng

穆宗

Tóngzhì

同治
Yooningga dasan

1861-18757 Tongzhi Emperor
Zǎitián

載湉

Jǐngdì

景帝

Dézōng

德宗

Guāngxù

光緒
Badarangga doro

1875-19087 Guangxu Emperor
Pǔyí

溥儀
also known as Henry

Xùn Dì 8

遜帝

Gongzōng 9

恭宗

Xuāntǒng

宣統
Gehungge yoso

1908-191110

(died 1967)

Xuantong Emperor
1 The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.
2 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.
3 Nurhaci founded the Jin () or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.
4 Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).
5 The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.
6 The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
7 The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.
8 Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Pu-yi.
9 In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Pu-yi. Posthumous name: Mindi (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). It remains to be seen whether these names will be accepted by the Chinese public.
10 The Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, and the last emperor, Pu-yi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. However, that same day the Republic of China granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Pu-yi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Pu-yi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic of China. Pu-yi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Pu-yi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Pu-yi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932–1934), then the puppet emperor of the same under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934–1945).

Taiping Rebellion[edit]

Personal name Reign name

年號
(nian hao)

Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Hong Xiuquan

洪秀全

Yuánnián

元年

August 1851 – May 1864 Hong Xiuquan
Hong Tianguifu

洪天貴福

None given May 1864 – August 1864 Hong Tianguifu

Yuan Shikai's Empire of China[edit]

Yuan Shikai attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1916, but his rule is universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, the reign collapsed.

Personal name Reign name

年號
(nian hao)

Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Yuan Shikai

袁世凱

Hóngxiàn (Hung-hsien)

洪憲

December 1915 – March 1916 (1912-1915 as the President of the Republic of China) Yuan Shikai

References[edit]

External links[edit]