Books in the Cthulhu Mythos
Many fictional works of arcane literature appear in H.P. Lovecraft's cycle of interconnected works often known as the Cthulhu Mythos. The main literary purpose of these works is to explain how characters within the tales come by occult or esoteric knowledge that is unknown to the general populace. However, in some cases the works themselves serve as an important plot device. Thus, in Robert Bloch's tale "The Shambler from the Stars", a weird fiction writer seals his doom by casting a spell from the arcane book De Vermis Mysteriis.
Another purpose of these tomes was to give members of the Lovecraft Circle a means to pay homage to one another. Consequently, Clark Ashton Smith used Lovecraft's Necronomicon (his most prominent creation) in Smith's tale "Ubbo-Sathla". Likewise, Lovecraft used Robert E. Howard's Nameless Cults in his tale "Out of the Aeons". Thereafter, these texts and others appear in the works of numerous other Mythos authors (some of whom have added their own grimoires to the literary arcana), including August Derleth, Lin Carter, Brian Lumley, Jonathan L. Howard, and Ramsey Campbell.
|Contents:||B C D E G K N O P R S T U Z|
|See also—References—Notes—External links|
Book of Eibon
. . . The Book of Eibon, that strangest and rarest of occult forgotten volumes ... is said to have come down through a series of manifold translations from a prehistoric original written in the lost language of Hyperborea.
—Clark Ashton Smith, "Ubbo-Sathla"
The Book of Eibon, or Liber Ivonis or Livre d'Eibon, is attributed to Clark Ashton Smith. It appears in a number of Lovecraft's stories, such as "The Haunter of the Dark" (Liber Ivonis), "The Dreams in the Witch House" (Book of Eibon),"The Horror in the Museum" (Book of Eibon) and "The Shadow Out of Time" (Book of Eibon).
The book is supposed to have been written by Eibon, a wizard in the land of Hyperborea. It was an immense text of arcane knowledge that contained, among other things, a detailed account of Eibon's exploits, including his journeys to the Vale of Pnath and the planet Shaggai, his veneration rituals of Zhothaqquah (Eibon's patron deity), and his magical formulae—such as for the slaying of certain otherworldly horrors. Unfortunately, only one complete fragment of the original is known to exist, scattered in different places of our world, though there are translations in English, French, and Latin—Liber Ivonis is the title of the Latin translation.
Smith presents his short story "The Coming of the White Worm" as Chapter IX of the Book of Eibon.
Book of Iod
The Book of Iod was created by Henry Kuttner and first appeared in his short story "Bells of Horror" (as Keith Hammond; 1939). The original Book of Iod, of which only one copy exists, is written in the "Ancient Tongue", possibly a combination of Greek and Coptic. Although its origin is unknown, the book may have been written by the mysterious author "Khut-Nah," which sounds remarkably like Kuttner. The Book of Iod contains details about Iod, the Shining Hunter, Vorvados, and Zuchequon. The Huntington Library of San Marino, California is said to hold an expurgated translation, possibly in Latin, by Johann Negus.
The Book of Iod was also the title of a short-story collection published by Chaosium in 1995, containing ten Cthulhu Mythos stories by Kuttner along with three related stories by Kuttner and Robert Bloch, Lin Carter, and Robert M. Price.
The Celaeno Fragments is credited to August Derleth. In his novel The Trail of Cthulhu, "Celaeno" refers to a distant planet that contains a huge library of alien literature. Professor Laban Shrewsbury and his companions traveled to Celaeno several times to escape Cthulhu's minions. Shrewsbury later wrote the Celaeno Fragments, a transcript of what he remembered of his translations of the books in the Great Library of Celaeno. He submitted the transcript, which consisted of about fifty pages, to the Miskatonic University library in 1915.
The Cthäat Aquadingen, possibly meaning Things of the Water, was created by Brian Lumley for his short story "The Cyprus Shell" (1968). This text, by an unknown author, deals with Cthulhu and other sea-horrors, such as Inpesca. It also contains many so-called Sathlattae, rituals and spells related to Ubbo-Sathla. It is first mentioned as appearing in northern Germany around 400 AD. A Latin version was apparently written between the 11th and 12th century, as was an English translation that appeared sometime in the 14th century.
Cultes des Goules
Cultes des Goules, or Cults of Ghouls, was created by Robert Bloch (August Derleth claimed to have invented the fictional text, but this was denied by both Lovecraft and Bloch himself). It is a book of black magic written by Francois-Honore Balfour (Comte d'Erlette) in 1702. It was published in France and later denounced by the church. Only a handful of copies are in existence. One of the known copies was kept for 91 years in an arcane library of the Church of Starry Wisdom in Providence, Rhode Island. After Robert Blake’s mysterious death in 1935, Doctor Dexter removed the grimoire and added it to his library.
Cultes des Goules is mentioned numerous times in the works of Caitlin R. Kiernan and plays an especially important role in her 2003 novel Low Red Moon. The text is also prominently mentioned in her short story "Spindleshanks (New Orleans, 1956)" — collected in To Charles Fort, With Love (2005).
The book "Cultes des Goules" is also mentioned in passing as being part of a collection that was discovered in the titular castle in the 1981 novel The Keep but does not appear in the 1983 movie based on the book.
De Vermis Mysteriis
De Vermis Mysteriis, or Mysteries of the Worm, is a grimoire created by Robert Bloch, first appearing in Bloch's short story "The Shambler from the Stars" (1935). It also appeared in Stephen King's novels "Jerusalem's Lot" and recent "Revival".
The Dhol Chants was first mentioned in the short story "The Horror In The Museum" (1932) by Lovecraft and Hazel Heald. They are alluded to in passing as a semi-mythical collection of chants attributed to the almost-human people of Leng. The chants themselves are never described, nor do they appear in any other of Lovecraft's works. August Derleth later used the chants in his stories "The Gable Window" (1957), The Lurker at the Threshold (1945), and "The Shadow Out of Space" (1957).
Miskatonic University's library is said to hold a copy of the Dhol Chants.
Richard F. Searight invented The Eltdown Shards in a head-note (which purported to be a quotation from this text) to his story "The Sealed Casket" (Weird Tales, March 1935). The story was actually published in that issue without the headnote. Lovecraft later quoted the unpublished headnote in a letter to Clark Ashton Smith, "leading some to believe that he wrote it". He cited the book in The Shadow out of Time and The Challenge from Beyond.
The Eltdown Shards are mentioned in numerous mythos stories. They are mysterious pottery fragments found in 1882 and named after the place where they were discovered, Eltdown in southern England. The shards date to the Triassic period and are covered with strange symbols thought to be untranslatable. Nonetheless, several authors have penned their own interpretations of the markings, including Gordon Whitney and his The Eltdown Shards: A Partial Translation. Many of these works, as well as a number of non-academic versions, have circulated among secretive cults.
Whitney's translation is remarkably similar to the Pnakotic Manuscripts, a text produced by the Great Race of Yith. The translation describes Yith, the planet from which the Great Race came, and the Great Race's fateful encounter with the Yekubians. A magical formula from the nineteenth shard is for the summoning of the "Warder of Knowledge"; unfortunately, the dismissal portion of the ritual is garbled, so the summoning of this being could prove calamitous. Despite its connections to the Great Race, the Eltdown Shards were most likely inscribed by the Elder Things, who probably buried the ceramics in England when it was part of the great supercontinent Pangaea.
The G'harne Fragments first appeared in the works of Brian Lumley. They are described as a set of miraculously preserved shards of obsidian or some other black stone that record the history of the pre-human African city of G'harne. The lost city is located somewhere in the southern Sahara Desert and is currently a frequent haunt of the chthonians.
The two primary translators of the fragments are Sir Amery Wendy-Smith and Gordon Walmsley. Both of these scholars died in Lumley's works: Sir Amery in "Cement Surroundings" (1969) and Walmsley in "In the Vaults Beneath" (1971).
The King in Yellow
The King in Yellow is a widely-censored play. Its author is unknown and is believed to have committed suicide after publishing it in 1889. The play is named after a mysterious supernatural figure featured in it, who is connected to a peculiar alien symbol, usually wrought in gold, called the Yellow Sign. Though the first act is said to be "innocent", all who read the play's second act either go mad or suffer another terrible fate. Its setting and events include mysterious places and entities such as Carcosa, Hastur, and the Lake of Hali, names that Chambers borrowed from the writings of Ambrose Bierce.
The play was first imagined in a collection of short stories by Robert W. Chambers also named The King in Yellow, published in 1895 and set in a hypothetical year 1920. Lovecraft was a fan of the book and included references to the Lake of Hali and The Yellow Sign in his short story "The Whisperer in Darkness" (1930). August Derleth later expanded on this connection in his own stories, rendering Hastur as an evil deity related to Cthulhu and the King In Yellow as one of his incarnations. Karl Edward Wagner and Joseph S. Pulver returned Chambers creations to their original cosmic horror roots. Both are great advocates of Chambers' work and have written many stories that utilize Chambers creations. Pulver also edited an anthology of Chambers inspired stories called A Season in Carcosa.
See Book of Eibon.
The Necronomicon is arguably the most famous (or infamous) of Lovecraft's grimoires. It appears in a number of Lovecraft's stories, as well as in the writings of other authors.
On the Sending Out of the Soul
On the Sending Out of the Soul appears in Henry Kuttner's short story "Hydra" (1939). It is an eight page pamphlet on astral projection. The pamphlet appeared in Salem, Massachusetts in 1783 and circulated among occult groups. Most copies were destroyed in the wake of a series of grisly murders.
The first seven pages of the pamphlet contain vague mystic writing; however, the eighth page details a formula for effecting astral travel. Among the required ingredients are a brazier and the drug Cannabis indica. The formula is always successful but has an unforeseen side effect: it invokes the horrid Outer God the Hydra.
Parchments of Pnom
The Parchments of Pnom is a manuscript written by Hyperborea's leading genealogist and soothsayer. It is written in the "Elder Script" of that land and contains a detailed account of the lineage of the Hyperborean gods, most notably Tsathoggua.
The Pnakotic Manuscripts is named after the place where it was kept, the city of Pnakotus, a primordial metropolis built by the Great Race of Yith. The Great Race is credited with authoring the Manuscripts, though other scribes would add to it over the ages.
Also known as Puahotic Fragments mentioned in H. P. Lovecraft's ghost writing "The Horror in the Museum".
The Ponape Scripture first appeared in Lin Carter's short story "Out of the Ages" (1975). The Scripture is a manuscript found in the Caroline Islands by Captain Abner Exekiel Hoag sometime around 1734. The book showed signs of great age—its pages were made of palm leaves and its binding was of an ancient, now-extinct cycadean wood. It was written in Naacal (the language of Mu) and appears to have been authored by Imash-Mo, high priest of Ghatanothoa, and his successors. The book contains details of Mu and of Zanthu, high priest of Ythogtha. With the help of his servant Yogash (hinted to be a Deep One hybrid), Hoag managed to write a translation of the manuscript. But when he tried to have it published, his efforts were thwarted by religious leaders who strongly objected to the book's references to Dagon. Nonetheless, copies of the Scripture have circulated among secretive cults (such as the Esoteric Order of Dagon) and other occult groups. After Hoag's death, his granddaughter, Beverly Hoag Adams, published an expurgated version of the book.
In contemporary times, other versions of the Ponape Scripture have seen print. Harold Hadley Copeland, a leading authority on the Scripture, produced a translation of the book, published in 1907 by Miskatonic University Press. Copeland also cited the book in his work The Prehistoric Pacific in Light of the 'Ponape Scripture' (1911). The original version of the manuscript remains at the Kester Library in Salem, Massachusetts.
Las Reglas de Ruina
Las Reglas de Ruina (literally "the Laws of Ruin") first appeared in Joseph S. Pulver's novel Nightmare's Disciple. It is a tome written by Philip of Navarre in 1520, a Spanish friar of 16th Century. The book has been translated in English by Professors Theodore Hayward Gates and Pascal Chevillion in 1714 and describes the Great Old One Kassogtha, sister and incestuous bride of Cthulhu. The book also foretells of the coming of a messiah of destruction, who would be born in the western land of the red savage across the great ocean in Columbus' New World, a man that shall set the Great Old One free from her stellar prison.
Revelations of Glaaki
The Revelations of Glaaki first appeared in Ramsey Campbell's short story "The Inhabitant of the Lake" (1964). It was written by the undead cult worshipping the Great Old One Glaaki. Whenever Glaaki slept, the members of his cult had periods of free will, and, since they were part of Glaaki and shared his memories, they wrote down what they remembered of their master's thoughts. The cult's handwritten manuscripts later came to be known as the Revelations of Glaaki. The text originally contained nine volumes, but it may have had more at different times in the past. Rumor has it that Mythos scholar Antonius Quine published a corrected edition of the Revelations of Glaaki bound in a single volume.
Seven Cryptical Books of Hsan
The Seven Cryptical Books of Hsan is a collection of writings mentioned by Lovecraft in "The Other Gods" (1921) and "The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath" (1926). In both stories, the books are mentioned in conjunction with the Pnakotic Manuscripts. They are kept in the temple of the Elder Ones in the city of Ulthar; no other existing copies are mentioned in Lovecraft's works. Barzai the Wise studied the books before his journey to see the gods dancing on Mount Hatheg-Kla, while Randolph Carter consulted them during his quest to reach Kadath.
The collection can be considered to be an analogue to the I Ching, a Chinese text of cosmology and divination.
The Tarsioid Psalms are a collection of writings dating back the early Cenozoic Era, probably attributed to a primate-folk which lived in North America during Paleocene/Eocene times. They describe the evil destructive entity named Ngyr-Korath and its spawn, the Great Old One 'Ymnar.
Testament of Carnamagos
Now, as he sat there in a state half terror, half stupor, his eyes were drawn to the wizard volume before him: the writings of that evil sage and seer, Carnamagos, which had been recovered a thousand years agone from some Graeco-Bactrian tomb, and transcribed by an apostate monk in the original Greek, in the blood of an incubus-begotten monster. In that volume were the chronicles of great sorcerers of old, and the histories of demons earthly and ultra-cosmic, and the veritable spells by which the demons could be called up and controlled and dismissed.
—Clark Ashton Smith, "The Treader of the Dust"
The Testament of Carnamagos was created by Clark Ashton Smith and first appeared in his short story "Xeethra" (1934). The text is featured more prominently in Smith's "The Treader of the Dust" (1935).
The book gives a description of the Great Old One Quachil Uttaus, among others. Only two copies are known of, though one was destroyed during the Spanish Inquisition. The only remaining copy is bound in shagreen and fastened with hasps of human bone.
Unaussprechlichen Kulten was created by Robert E. Howard and was written by the fictional Friedrich von Junzt. Howard originally called the book Nameless Cults, but Lovecraft and Derleth gave it the German title which can translate to either Unspeakable Cults or Unpronounceable Cults (both meaning of the word are in common usage).
The Zanthu Tablets first appeared in "The Dweller in the Tomb" (1971), by Lin Carter. The centerpiece of the story is the discovery of the tablets, which are an important part of Carter's Xothic legend cycle.
The tablets themselves are twelve engraved pieces of black jade inscribed by Zanthu, a wizard and high priest of Ythogtha. They are written in a hieratic form of Naacal, the language of the sunken continent of Mu. The tablets reveal a partial history of Mu, describing Zanthu's struggle against the rising cult of Ghatanothoa and his own religion's lamented decline. He also describes his failed attempt to release the god Ythogtha from its prison. Upon witnessing three black, beaked, slimy heads, "vaster than any mountain", rising from a gorge, he flees in terror when he realizes that they are merely the god's fingertips. According to Zanthu, he and some of his people escaped the destruction of Mu, which was sunk by the wrath of the Elder Gods.
In 1913, guided by the Ponape Script, Harold Hadley Copeland led an expedition into Indochina to locate the plateau of Tsang and to find the tomb of Zanthu. After the other members of the expedition died or deserted him, Copeland pressed on, eventually reaching his goal. Opening the tomb, he was horrified to discover that the mummified face of Zanthu resembled his own. Later wandering into a Mongolian outpost, a starving and raving Copeland was the only survivor of the expedition.
Copeland published a brochure entitled The Zanthu Tablets: A Conjectural Translation in 1916. He made the rough translation using a key borrowed from the estate of Colonel Churchward, the last qualified translator of ancient Naacal, and heavily edited it out of a concern for "public sanity". The controversial brochure was later denounced by the academic community and was suppressed by the authorities. Copeland's later manuscripts were never published. Ten years after the publication of the brochure, Copeland died in an asylum.
Carter's story "The Thing in the Pit" in his Lost Worlds purports to be a translation from the Zanthu Tablets.
The following is a list of miscellaneous books — both real and fictitious — appearing in the Cthulhu Mythos. Along with the use of arcane literature, texts which innately possess supernatural powers or effects, there is also a strong tradition of fictional works or fictionalizing real works in the Mythos. The main literary purpose of books in the Mythos is to explain how characters within the tales come by occult or esoteric knowledge that is unknown to the general populace. However, in some cases the works themselves serve as important plot devices or simply opportunities for members of the Lovecraft Circle to pay homage to one another and other sources.
The following table is organized as follows:
- Title. The title of the work as it appears in the Cthulhu Mythos.
- Fict/Real. Fictitious works are denoted by F; real-life works by R.
- Author. The person or character credited as the author of the work. Authors of nonfictional works are real people. If the author is fictitious, the name of the writer who created the work appears in parenthesis after the character's name. Surnames of mythos writers are as follows:
- Notes. A brief summary of the work.
- References. A two-letter code denoting the stories or other sources in which the work appears. A code in bold indicates the work's first appearance in mythos fiction.
to the R'lyeh Text
||Prof. Laban Shrewsbury
|Ars Magna et Ultima||
||Raymond Lully (1235–1315)||Ars Magna et Ultima roughly translates to Universal Art. The proper title of this work is Ars Magna, Generalis et Ultima (1517).||CA, WN|
|Atlantis and the Lost Lemuria||
|Azathoth and Other Horrors||
||Edward Pickman Derby (Lovecraft)||
||HZ, RZ, TD, TN|
|The Black Rites||
||HG, SU, TK, UC|
|Book of Azathoth||
||(Lovecraft)||In Lovecraft's fiction, it is a book carried by Nyarlathotep in his aspect as the Black Man which initiates must sign in blood to enter into his service. It is also said to contain prose in imitation of Scripture that ridicules Christianity and glorifies the Outer Gods.||DW|
|Book of Dzyan||
||Anonymous||The Book of Dzyan purports to be an ancient text of Tibetan origin, but only came to light in the late nineteenth century and may be a forgery dating from that time.||HD, YT|
|Book of Hidden Things||
||Originally created by William Lumley in his draft version of "The Diary of Alonzo Typer", the book was retained by Lovecraft when he revised the story, though it receives only passing mention.||YT|
|Book of Thoth||
||A book from Egyptian mythology but an actual text in mythos stories.||LI, TG, WZ|
||Robert Fludd (1574–1637)||
|Commentaries on Witchcraft||
||Mycroft (Bloch)||The fictitious author Mycroft may allude to Sherlock Holmes' brother, Mycroft Holmes.||MA|
||John Falconer||The title of this work, first published in 1685, translates to "The Art of Secret Information Disclosed without a Key". Lovecraft found this work in the entry on "Cryptography" in the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica and included it, along with other titles from the same article, in his story "The Dunwich Horror" (1929).||DH|
|Cthulhu in the Necronomicon||
||Prof. Laban Shrewsbury
|The work is Professor Shrewsbury's supposed sequel to his An Investigation into Myth-Patterns of Latter-Day Primitives. Shrewsbury's unfinished work was published posthumously following his alleged demise. The original manuscript is kept at the Miskatonic University library.||HC|
||Remigius||Remigius is the Latinized pen name for Nicholas Remy (1530–1612), an infamous French judge who presided over witchcraft trials. During a fifteen-year period, he convicted and sentenced to death about nine hundred reputed witches. His work, Daemonolatreia or Demonolatry, is a compendium of information about witchcraft, intended to be used for prosecuting alleged witches.||DH, FE|
|De Furtivis Literarum Notis||
||Giovanni Battista della Porta (1535?–1615)||The title means "On the Secret Symbols of Letters". Like Cryptomenysis Patefacta, Lovecraft found the work under "Cryptography" in the 20th century edition of Encyclopædia Britannica.||DH|
|De Lapide Philosophico||
||Johannes Trithemius (1462–1516)||
|De Masticatione Mortuorum in Tumulis||
|The title means "On the Eating of the Dead in the Tomb", a reference to a legend that claims that entombed corpses, driven by pangs of hunger, feed on their burial shrouds and even their own rotting flesh. Two real-life books share this title, one by Michael Raufft (1728) and the other by Philip Rehrius (1679).||MA|
||(Willis Conover)||An invention of one of Lovecraft's correspondents.||HG, LL, TP|
||Gauthier de Metz||
|Invocations to Dagon||
|Key of Wisdom||
||J.H. Klüber||A real book on cryptography, published 1809.||DH|
||Geber (c. 721–c. 815)||Liber investigationis magisterii||CA|
|Marvells of Science||
||Morryster (Lovecraft)||Though mentioned by Lovecraft, the book was actually created by Ambrose Bierce in his story "The Man and the Snake" (1890).||FE|
||Edgar Hengist Gordon
|Observations on the several parts of Africa||
||Sir Wade Jermyn
in no Humane Shape
||(Lovecraft & Derleth)||
||Johannes Trithemius (1462–1516)||Another book on cyptography from the Encyclopædia Britannica that Lovecraft mentions in "The Dunwich Horror".||DH|
||Joseph Glanvill||A revised edition was published in London in 1681.||FE|
|The Saurian Age||
(Lovecraft & Derleth)
|The Seventh Book of Moses||
||(Derleth)||A work supposedly written by Moses that purports to be a lost book of the Bible. Lin Carter, referring to the Lewis de Claremont edition in his collection, called the work a "sloppy literary forgery".||OV|
|The Soul of Chaos||
||Edgar Hengist Gordon
||(Fred L. Pelton)||Pelton, a Lovecraft fan in Lincoln, Nebraska, wrote the work as an alleged English translation of the Necronomicon. Derleth, who was initially interested in the book and intended to publish it, mentioned it in his novel The Trail of Cthulhu to make it part of the mythos canon. Although Arkham House never published the work, it was printed in a special issue of Crypt of Cthulhu #63 (Eastertide 1989).||GS|
|The Tablets of Nhing||
||(Lovecraft & E. Hoffman Price)||They are engraved tablets kept on the planet Yaddith which the wizard Zkauba consulted in "Through the Gates of the Silver Key" (1934).||TG|
Prodigies in the
||Rev. Ward Phillips
|Although created by Lovecraft, the book is featured more prominently in Derleth's posthumous collaboration The Lurker at the Threshold (1945).||LT|
||Roger Bacon||Although Roger Bacon is cited as the writer of the work in The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, the provenance of Thesaurus Chemicus is not known. A similar work on alchemy, Speculum Alchemiae (1541), is credited to Bacon, though he may not have been its author.||CA|
||Blaise de Vigenère||Vigenère was a leading European authority on cryptography and wrote a similarly titled book, Traicté des Chiffres ou d'Escrire, which was published in Paris in 1586.||DH|
||(Lovecraft)||A book of alchemy whose title means "Gathering of Philosophers", published in Basel in 1613.||CA|
|The Witch-Cult in Western Europe||
||Dr. Margaret Alice Murray||Lovecraft cited this work as early as "The Horror at Red Hook" (1927).||CC, WD|
|We Pass From View||
||Roland Franklyn (Campbell)||
||(Lovecraft)||Actual key work of Jewish kabbalism||CA|
- Harms, Daniel (1998). The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana (2nd ed. ed.). Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-119-0.
- Carter, Lin; revised by Robert M. Price and S. T. Joshi (2001) . "H. P. Lovecraft: The Books". In Darrell Schweitzer (ed.). Discovering H. P. Lovecraft. Holicong, PA: Wildside Press. ISBN 1-58715-471-4.
- Pearsall, Anthony B. (2005). The Lovecraft Lexicon (1st ed.). Tempe, AZ: New Falcon. ISBN 1-56184-129-3.
- Harms, "Book of Eibon", The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana, pp. 30–3.
- The Coming of the White Worm
- Harms, "Book of Iod", The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana, p. 33.
- Robert M. Price (Hallowmas 1985). "H. P. Lovecraft and the Cthulhu Mythos". Crypt of Cthulhu #35: A Pulp Thriller and Theological Journal 5 (1): 11, footnote #11. Check date values in:
|date=(help) Robert M. Price (ed.), Mount Olive, NC: Cryptic Publications.
- S. T. Joshi, David Schultz, ed. (2001). An H.P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 232.
- Harms, "Ponape Scripture", The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana, pp. 102–3.
- Henry Kuttner selected and edited by Robert M. Price ; chapter decorations by Dreyfus. (1995) . "Hydra". In Robert M. Price (ed.). The Azathoth Cycle. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-040-2.
- The servant in question is referred to as a "half-breed Polynesian or Oriental", though the character Professor Harold Hadley Copeland claimed that he was a "hybrid human/Deep One". (Lin Carter edited by Gerald W. Page. (1975) . "Out of the Ages". In Gerald W. Page (ed.). Nameless Places. Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. p. 193. ISBN 0-87054-073-4.)
- Harms, "Ponape Scripture", The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana, pp. 244–5.
- Ramsey Campbell Ramsey Campbell. (1987) . "The Inhabitant of the Lake". Cold Print (1st ed.). New York, NY: Tom Doherty Associates. ISBN 0-8125-1660-5.
- A twelfth volume had a different origin than the original eleven, written by an old recluse living near the lake where Glaaki lives, from his dreams. When he died, the book wound up in a job lot and came into the possession of the god Y'golonac, who uses it in his search for a high priest. Notes on The Revelations of Glaaki
- Compiled from Lin Carter's "H. P. Lovecraft: The Books" (2001).
- Harms, "Book of Azathoth", The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana, p. 29.
- Darrell Schweitzer (2001). Discovering H. P. Lovecraft: Essays on America's Master Writer of Horror. Wildside Press LLC. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-1-58715-471-3. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- Carter, "H. P. Lovecraft: The Books", Discovering H. P. Lovecraft, p. 139.
- Mythos Tomes, a web site dedicated to the forbidden tomes of the Cthulhu Mythos
- The Dan Clore Necronomicon Page Everything You Never Wanted To Know About The Necronomicon (Al Azif) Of The Mad Arab Abdul Alhazred But Weren't Afraid Enough To Know Better Than To Ask!