Dassault Mirage F1

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Mirage F1
DF-ST-91-10018.JPEG
An Ecuadorian Air Force Mirage F1JA (a variant of the F1E multi-role fighter)
Role Fighter aircraft
Manufacturer Dassault Aviation
First flight 23 December 1966
Introduction 1973
Status Retired from the French Air Force operational service on June 2014. In service in Gabon, Iran, Libya and Morocco
Primary users French Air Force (historical)
Iraqi Air Force (historical)
Hellenic Air Force (historical)
Spanish Air Force(historical)
Produced 1966-1992
Number built 720+
Developed from Dassault Mirage III

The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation as a successor of the Mirage III family. The Mirage F1 entered service in the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) in 1974. Powered by a single SNECMA Atar turbojet providing about 7 tonnes-force (69 kN; 15,000 lbf) of thrust, the F1 has been used as a light multipurpose fighter and has been exported to about a dozen nations. More than 720 F1s have been produced.[1]

Design and development[edit]

Dassault designed the Mirage F1 as a private venture, using its own funds, as a successor to its Mirage III and Mirage 5 fighters, with the F1 being a smaller version of the Mirage F2 being developed for the French Air Force. It was of similar size to the delta-winged Mirage III and V, and was powered by a SNECMA Atar 9K turbojet as used in the Dassault Mirage IV, but unlike its predecessors, it shared the layout of a swept wing mounted high on the fuselage and a conventional tail surface as used by the F2.[2] Although it has a smaller wingspan than the Mirage III, the F1 nevertheless proved to be superior to its predecessor. It can carry up to 43% more fuel, has a shorter take-off run and better maneuverability.[3]

French Air Force Mirage F1

The first prototype made its maiden flight on 23 December 1966. Despite the prototype crashing on 18 May 1967 due to flutter, killing its pilot, an order for three prototypes was placed on 26 May 1967, the larger and more expensive F2 being abandoned.[2]

In order to comply with the French Air Force's requirement for an all-weather interceptor, the first production Mirage F1C was equipped with a Thomson-CSF Cyrano IV monopulse radar. The later Cyrano IV-1 version added a limited look-down capability.[4] However Mirage F1 pilots reported that the radar can easily overheat, reducing its efficiency.[citation needed] First deliveries to the French Air Force took place in May 1973, entering squadron service with EC 2/30 Normandie-Niemen in December that year.[5] Initially, the aircraft was armed with two internal 30 mm cannons, and a single Matra R530 medium-range air-to-air missile carried under the fuselage.[6][7]

It was replaced after 1979, when the improved Matra Super 530 F entered into service with the French Air Force.[8] In 1977, the R550 Magic was released. The F1 has these missiles mounted on rails on the wingtips. Around the same time, the American AIM-9 Sidewinder became part of the Mirage F1's armament, after the Spanish and Hellenic Air Forces requested integration of the Sidewinder on their own Mirage F1CE and CG fighters. The 79 aircraft of the next production run were delivered during the period March 1977 to December 1983. These were of the Mirage F1C-200 version with a fixed refuelling probe, which required an extension of the fuselage by 7 cm.

The Mirage F1 served as the main interceptor of the French Air Force until the Dassault Mirage 2000 entered service.

Operational history[edit]

France[edit]

French Air Force Mirage F1s were first deployed operationally in 1984 during Operation Manta, the French intervention in Chad, to counter growing Libyan encroachment. Four Mirage F1C-200s provided air cover for a force of four Jaguars, and took part in skirmishes against the pro-Libyan GUNT rebels.

In 1986, French Mirage F1s returned to Chad, as part of Operation Epervier, with four F1C-200s providing fighter cover for a strike package of eight Jaguars during the air raid against the Libyan airbase at Ouadi Doum, on 16 February. Two F1CRs also flew pre and post-strike reconnaissance missions.[citation needed]

In response the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, France made two deployments of Mirage F1s to the Persian Gulf, with 12 Mirage F1Cs being deployed to Doha in Qatar in October 1991 to boost air defences, while four Mirage F1CRs of ER 33 deployed to Saudi Arabia as part of Operation Daguet in September 1991.[9] To avoid the risk of being mistaken for Iraqi Mirage F1s, the French F1CRs were grounded during the first few days of the Allied air attacks, flying their first combat mission on 26 January 1991. They were used as fighter bombers, using their more capable navigation systems to lead formations of French Jaguar fighter bombers, as well as to fly reconnaissance missions, flying 114 sorties by the end of hostilities.[9] Following the end of the Persian Gulf war, France deployed Mirage F1CRs to Turkey as part of Operation Provide Comfort to protect Kurds from Iraqi aggression.[9]

In November 2004 and in response to an Ivorian air attack on French peacekeepers three Mirage F.1 jets attack Yamoussoukro airport and destroy two Su-25 aircraft and three attack helicopters.[10]

In October 2007, three Mirage 2000s and three Mirage F1s were deployed at Kandahar Air Force Base, where they flew close air support and tactical reconnaissance missions in support of international forces in Southern Afghanistan.[11][12]

The last French unit to still be equipped with the Mirage F1, was the Escadron de Reconnaissance 2/33 Savoie, home-based at Mont-de-Marsan, flying the latest version of the F1CR. The unit's primary mission was tactical reconnaissance, with a secondary mission of ground-attack. Because of the unique missions of the 2/33, their unofficial motto among the pilots has become, "Find; Identify; and Photograph or Destroy." In accordance with a bilateral defense agreement between France and Chad, two, 2/33 F1CRs, along with 3 pilots, a photo interpreter, an intelligence officer and ground crews are always deployed to N'Djamena, Chad. The two 2/33 F1CRs operated with three Mirage 2000Ds, also based on rotation from France to Chad.[13] In March 2011, 2/33 Mirage F1CRs were deployed to Solenzara Air Base, Corsica and conducted reconnaissance missions over Libya (also a Mirage F1 operator) as part of Opération Harmattan.[14] In 2013 2/33 F1CRs also participated in Operation Serval in Mali. On 10 January, launching from their base in N'Djamena in Chad, the first French air intervention mission against Islamist rebels in Mali, was undertaken by F1CRs and Mirage 2000Ds, supported by a French Air Force C-135K tanker. The 2/33 F1CRs provided valuable photo information for strike aircraft flying the next day from France. Later on 16 January, two 2/33 F1CRs, were deployed from Chad to Bamako, Mali. Both aircraft were fitted with extra long range 2,200 liter ventral tanks; and when operating over Mali also carried two 250 kg unguided bombs, plus their one internal 30mm cannon, in case they were called on for close air support missions.[15]

It is planned that 2/33s elderly F1CRs will be replaced by Rafales fitted with an advance reconnaissance pod. The Rafale's range, maneuverability and combat load is far superior to the F1CR that it replaces—e.g. after the Rafale's pod has taken photos they can almost instantly be transmitted back to its base or where the photos are needed that has the down link equipment.[16]

The French Air Force's last Mirage F1 fighters were retired from operational service on 13 June 2014. 11 single-seat Mirage F1CRs and three two-seat F1Bs will be transferred to storage, with six making a final appearance in a flypast during Bastille Day celebrations over Paris before eventual disposal.[17]

Ecuador[edit]

An Ecuadoran Mirage F.1JA during the joint US/Ecuadoran exercise "Blue Horizon '86".

Ecuador received 16 F.1AJs (a variant of the F1E) and two F.1JEs between 1978 and 1980, and they saw their first air combat very soon. The Ecuadorian Air Force's (FAE) squadron of Mirage F1JAs (Escuadrón de Caza 2112) entered combat in January–February 1981 during the brief Paquisha War between Ecuador and Peru, less than two years after the aircraft had been delivered to the FAE. At that time, the Ecuadorians decided against directly challenging the Peruvian Air Force (abbreviated FAP), whose Mirage 5Ps and Sukhoi Su-22Ms were providing air cover to the Peruvian heliborne operations in the combat zone. Instead, the Mirages were kept at a distance, performing combat air patrols (CAPs) on the fringes of the combat area, in case the border clashes gave way to open hostilities. Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 were spotted once, and an air-to-air R.550 missile was launched, but failed to strike the Sukhoi.[18]

In 1995, during the Cenepa War, the Ecuadorian Mirages went back into action against Peru. This time, while the bulk of the squadron was kept back at Taura AFB, a small detachment of Mirage F1s and Kfir C.2s was deployed to a forward air base to dissuade Peruvian attack aircraft from entering the combat zone. This time the planes had been upgraded: Israeli electronics and Python Mk.III air-to-air missiles, usually mounted on the outer underwing pylons, and Matra R550 Magic AAMs on wing-tip launch rails.

On 10 February 1995, two Mirage F1JAs, piloted by Maj. R. Banderas and Capt. C. Uzcátegui, were directed over five targets approaching the disputed Cenepa valley. After making visual contact, the Mirages fired their missiles, claiming two Peruvian Su-22Ms shot down, while a Kfir claimed a further A-37B Dragonfly.[19][20][21][22] Peru, however, denied that the two Sukhois Su-22Ms were shot down by Mirages, stating that one was lost due to being struck by Ecuadorian anti-aircraft artillery during a low flying ground-attack mission, with the second Sukhoi was lost because of an engine fire.[23][24][25] Banderas was made head of the Ecuadorian Air Force in May 2014, while Uzcátegui died in a training accident in 2002 at Salinas air base, in the Santa Elena Province.[26][27][28][29]

Iraq[edit]

During the Iran-Iraq war, Iraq's Mirage F1EQs were used intensively for interception, ground attack and anti-shipping missions.[30] In November 1981, an Iraqi Mirage F1 accounted for the first Iranian F-14 to be shot down, followed by several more in the following months, giving the previously timid Iraqi Airforce new confidence in air-to-air combat engagements with the Iranians.[31]

During the Iran-Iraq war 33 Iraqi Mirage F1s were shot down by Iranian F-14s, confirmed by Iranian, western and Iraqi sources.[32] and 2 Mirage F1s by F-4 Phantom II units.[33] Iraqi F1EQs claimed at least 35 Iranian aircraft, mostly McDonnell F-4 Phantoms and Northrop F-5E Tiger IIs, but also a few Grumman F-14 Tomcat[citation needed].

On September 14, 1983 two Turkish Air Force F-100F Super Sabre fighter jets of 182 Filo “Atmaca” penetrated Iraqi airspace. A Mirage F-1EQ of the Iraqi Air Force intercepted the flight and fired a Super 530F-1 missile. One of the Turkish fighter jets (s/n 56-3903) was shot down and crashed in Zakho valley near the Turkish-Iraqi border. The plane's pilots reportedly survived the crash and returned to Turkey. The incident was not made public by either side, although some details surfaced during the years. The incident was revealed in 2012 by Turkish Defence Minister İsmet Yılmaz, in response to a parliamentary question by Republican People’s Party (CHP) MP Metin Lütfi Baydar in the aftermath of the downing of a Turkish F-4 in Syria.[34]

In the opening minutes of the 1991 Persian Gulf War on 17 January 1991, an unarmed USAF EF-111, crewed by Captain James A. Denton and Captain Brent D. Brandon scored a kill against an Iraqi Dassault Mirage F1EQ, which they managed to maneuver into the ground, making it the only F-111 to achieve an aerial victory over another aircraft.

Coalition forces shot down several Iraq Mirages during the Persian Gulf War. Six F1EQs were shot down by US Air Force F-15 Eagles during the war. Two F1EQs preparing to carry out an Beluga cluster bomb attack on Saudi oil facilities were shot down by a Royal Saudi Air Force F-15C.[35][36]

Morocco[edit]

Moroccan Mirage F1CH.

30 Mirage F1CHs and 20 Mirage F1EHs were ordered from Dassault by the Royal Moroccan Air Force (RMAF) in 1975, with the first deliveries taking place in 1978. They were engaged in combat as soon as 1979 against the forces of the Polisario Front operating in Western Sahara. The RMAF lost seven Mirages shot down and six others crashed due to different mishaps. Three Mirage-pilots were killed, three were captured and one killed by the guerillas.

South Africa[edit]

South Africa began looking for a replacement for the Mirage III in 1971. South Africa bought a licence manufacture of the Mirage F1 and its engine. The intention was to produce up to 100 Mirage F1s but the 1977 arms embargo caused this licence to be cancelled. The SAAF bought 16 Mirage F1CZs and 32 Mirage F1AZs, quickly delivered by Dassault before the embargo was implemented, with deliveries starting in 1975. Both the F1CZ and F1AZ variants of the SAAF saw action during operations in the Border War.

In November 1978 five F1CZs were first deployed to South-West Africa (Namibia), tasked with providing escort for reconnaissance flights over Southern Angola. From 1980 these deployments as escort aircraft became regular. Due to teething problems with the F1AZ, F1CZs soon also were assigned with pre-emptive strikes in southern Angola using Matra M155 rocket pods or 250 kg bombs.

F1CZs of 3 Squadron downed two Angolan MiG-21s in 1981 and 1982. On 6 November 1981, during Operation Daisy, two F1CZs were vectored by GCI to intercept two MiG-21s heading south. Major Johan Rankin shot down the wingman with cannon fire, as the missiles failed to lock on to the MiGs. On 5 October 1982, while escorting a Canberra of 12 Squadron on a photo-reconnaissance sortie, Major Rankin and his wingman engaged two MiG-21s on an intercept course. He fired two Magic AAMs at one of the MiGs, damaging the aircraft with the second missile. Rankin then attacked the second MiG and destroyed it with cannon fire.[37] The first MiG was able to return to base, but sustained additional damage making a belly landing.

In May 1982 an Angolan Mi-8 helicopter that the SADF believed to be carrying senior officers was located and destroyed in the Cuvelai area. The helicopter was located with rotors running on the ground by a pair of F1CZs and destroyed by 30mm cannon fire.

Two F1AZs of 1 Squadron were lost over Angola. On 20 February 1988, while flying an interdiction sortie in F1AZ '245' against a road convoy during Operation Hooper, Major Ed Every was shot down by an SA-13 Gopher SAM. F1AZ '223' was lost almost a month later, on 19 March, when Captain Willie van Coppenhagen flew into the ground while returning from a diversionary strike at night.; a SAAF Board of Inquiry was unable to determine the causes of the crash.[37][38]

Two F1AZs and a F1CZ were also damaged by enemy action, but were able to return to base.
On 7 June 1980, while attacking SWAPO's Tobias Haneko Training Camp during Operation Sceptic (Smokeshell), Major Frans Pretorius and Captain IC du Plessis were both hit by SA-3 Goa SAMs. Du Plessis' aircraft was hit in a fuel line and he had to perform a deadstick landing at AFB Ondangwa. Pretorius's aircraft sustained heavier damage and had to divert to Ruacana forward airstrip, where he landed with only the main undercarriage extended. Both aircraft were repaired and returned to service.[37] During the last phase of the Bush war 683 combat sorties were flown by the F1AZs, and more than 100 SAM’s were fired at them.

On 27 September 1987, during Operation Moduler, an attempt was mounted to intercept two Cuban FAR MiG-23MLs. Captain Arthur Piercy's F1CZ was damaged by either an AA-7 Apex or AA-8 Aphid AAM fired head-on by Major Alberto Ley Rivas. The explosion destroyed the aircraft's drag chute and damaged the hydraulics. Piercy was able to recover to AFB Rundu, but the aircraft overshot the runway. The impact with the rough terrain caused Piercy's ejection seat to fire; he failed to separate from the seat and suffered major spinal injuries.[37]

In February 1987 three F1AZs fired several V-3B missiles at a group of MiG-23s without success. This was repeated again in February 1988 when a F1AZ fired a missile at a MiG-23 and fired 30mm canon, again without success. Various other unsuccessful attempts were made during the 1987-88 period.

Apart from operations from Namibia in July 1981 a pilot of the Mozambican Air Force defected with his MiG-17. He flew from his base near Maputo towards South Africa. Two F1AZs returning from a training exercise intercepted the MiG-17. In March 1981 two F1AZs intercepted a Zimbabwean Army CASA C-212 and forced it to land in South Africa after asserting that the aircraft had strayed into South African airspace.

The SAAF lost an additional six F1AZs and three F1CZs to various mishaps. F1CZ '205' caught fire after landing and was repaired using the tail section of F1CZ '206' (Piercy's aircraft).[37]

Spain[edit]

Spanish Air Force F.1M at Kecskeméti Repülőnap 2010.

In June 1975, with tension growing with Morocco, Spain decided to strengthen its Air Force and bought 15 Mirage F1C that were allovated to Albacete AB. In mid-1976 there was still some tension with Morocco and Algerian and Libyan MiG-25 flights on the Mediterranean, which would made Spanish Air Force to purchase ten more Mirage F1C and two years later order 48 Mirage F1C and F1E. They have also bought 12 F1EDA/DDA's from Qatar. In Spanish service the F1CE was known as the C.14A, the F1EE was the C.14B and the two-seater F1EDA as the C.14C.

They served as Spain's primary air defence interceptors until they were superseded by Spain's EF-18A Hornets. They served with Ala 11 (11th Wing) in Manises, Ala 14 in Albacete, and Ala 46 at Gando in the Canary Islands.[39] In October 1996 Thomson-CSF was awarded a FFr700 million (US$96m) contract to upgrade 48 F1C/E single-seaters and 4 F1EDA trainers to Mirage F1M standard (see below).[40] As well as a service-life extension, this improved the avionics and added anti-shipping capability with a modernised Cyrano IVM radar and Exocet compatibility. By 2009 there were 38 F1M's in service with Escuadrón 141 (141st Squadron) "Patanes" and Escuadrón 142 (142nd Squadron) "Tigres" of Ala 14, but they left Spanish service on 23 June 2013[39] as Spain built up its fleet of Eurofighter Typhoon. In 2013 it was reported that Spain may sell sixteen F1M's to Argentina but it seems they now have the budget to buy new Kfirs instead.[41] The deal went through and Argentina bought the Spanish Mirages in October 2013,[42] but the deal was scrapped in March 2014 after pressure from the United Kingdom on Spain to not assist in FAA modernization over tensions between the countries over the Falkland Islands.[43]

Spanish Mirage F1 were deployed to Lithuania, during NATO Baltic Air Policing from July 2006 to November 2006, and were scrambled twice to intercept undisclosed intruders. On 20 January 2009 two Spanish F1s from the 14th Wing crashed near their base, during a routine Spanish Air Force dogfight training mission, killing all three crew members. The wreckage of the two jets, including the remains of the aircrew, was found about 3 km (1.9 mi) apart.[44]

The Spanish Air Force retired its fleet of Mirage F-1 in 2013,[45] replacing it with the Eurofighter Typhoon.

Libya[edit]

Mirage F1ED.

Libya bought the Mirage F.1AD, F.1ADs, a specialized strike-variant lacking the radar but having a retractable fuel probe mounted instead. Libyan Mirage F.1s participated in the war in Chad intensively and proved its worth during the Libyan campaigns, in 1981 and 1983, but were not used later as the Air Force held them back for an eventual confrontation with the USA and its allies. When operating in Chad Mirage F1.ADs were flown by Libyan, Pakistani and Palestinian pilots, usual configuration consisted in two 1.300 litre drop tanks and a pair of Belouga CBUs under the "surfboard"[clarification needed]. From 1981 a detachment was deployed at Marten es-Serra, in southern Libya, and from 1983 they were regularly detached also to Faya-Largeau, in central northern Chad. Together with Mirage 5s, Mirage F.1s were instrumental in the huge success enjoyed during different campaigns against the Chadian troops in the early 1980s: operating over the open and barren desert terrain, they caused heavy damage, making any larger troop movements very costly, for no losses in exchange.

The Mirage F1 fleet saw action during the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two Libyan aircraft landed in Malta on the 21 February 2011 after they were ordered to bomb protesters in Benghazi; both of the pilots claimed political asylum. Following the death of Muammar Gaddafi and end of the civil war, France and Libya formed an agreement in 2012 to modernise the Mirage F-1 fleet and potentially purchase addition Mirage F1s formerly operated by the French Air Force.[46]

Variants[edit]

Mirage F1A[edit]

Single-seat ground-attack fighter aircraft, with limited daylight-only air-to-air capability. Fitted with lightweight EMD AIDA 2 ranging radar instead of Cyrano IV of other variants, with laser rangefinder under nose, retractible refuelling probe and more fuel.[47][48] Developed in concert between the SAAF and Dassault.[citation needed]

  • Mirage F1AD : Mirage F1A for Libya. 16 delivered 1978–1979.[49]
  • Mirage F1AZ : F1A for South Africa. 32 delivered 1975–1976.[50]

Mirage F1B[edit]

The French Air Force also ordered 20 Mirage F1B, a two-seat operational conversion trainer; these were delivered between October 1980 and March 1983.[51] The extra seat and controls added only 30 cm (12 in) to the length of the fuselage, but at the cost of less internal fuel capacity and the loss of the internal cannon.[7]

The empty weight increased by 200 kg (440 lb),[7] partly due to the addition of two Martin-Baker Mk 10 zero-zero ejection seats, in place of the Mk 4 used in the F1C, which had a forward speed limitation.

In all other aspects the F1B is a combat-capable aircraft and it can compensate for the lack of internal space by carrying external cannon pods and fuel tanks.

  • Mirage F1BD : Export version of the Mirage F1D for Libya. Six delivered 1978–1979.[49]
  • Mirage F1BE : Mirage F1B for Spain, local designation CE.14A. Six delivered 1980–1981.[52]
  • Mirage F1BJ : Mirage F1B for Jordan. Two built.[53]
  • Mirage F1BK : Export version of the Mirage F1B for Kuwait. Two built.[49]
  • Mirage F1BK-2 : Multi-role two-seater for Kuwait, equivalent to F1Dl. Four built.[49]
  • Mirage F1BQ : Two-seat trainer for Iraq, some of which fitted with dummy flight refuelling probe. 18 ordered of which 15 were delivered between 1980 and 1989.[54]

Mirage F1C[edit]

  • Mirage F1CE : Export version of the Mirage F1C for Spain, with local designation C.14A. 45 purchased in three batches, delivered between 1975 and 1981.[52]
  • Mirage F1CG : Export version of the Mirage F1C for Greece. 40 built, which were delivered between 1975 and 1978.[18]
  • Mirage F1CH : Export version of the Mirage F1C for Morocco. 30 built, delivered 1978–1979.[55]
  • Mirage F1CJ : Export version of the Mirage F1C for Jordan. 17 built.[53]
  • Mirage F1CK : Export version of the Mirage F1C for Kuwait. 18 built and delivered 1976–1977. Later upgraded to CK-2 standard.[49]
  • Mirage F1CK-2 : Nine multi-role aircraft, equivalent to F-1E, were sold to Kuwait as part of a follow up order.[49]
  • Mirage F1CZ : Export version of the Mirage F1C for South Africa. 16 delivered 1974–1975, with two further aircraft received to replace aircraft lost in a February 1979 collision.[56]

Mirage F1D[edit]

Two-seat training version, based on the Mirage F1E multi-role fighter, ground-attack aircraft.

  • Mirage F1DE  : Export version of the Mirage F1D for Spain. 22 built.
  • Mirage F1DDA : Export version of the Mirage F1D for Qatar. Two built.

Mirage F1E[edit]

Mirage F1ED of the Libyan Air Force

Single-seat all-weather multi-role fighter and ground-attack aircraft.

  • Mirage F1JA : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Ecuador. 16 built.
  • Mirage F1ED : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Libya. 16 built.
  • Mirage F1EE : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Spain. 22 built.
  • Mirage F1EH : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Morocco. 14 built.
  • Mirage F1EH-200 : Morocco aircraft fitted with a flight refuelling probe. Six built.
  • Mirage F1EJ : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Jordan. 17 built.
  • Mirage F1EQ : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Iraq. 16 built.
  • Mirage F1EQ-2 : Single-seat air defence fighter version for Iraq. 16 built.
  • Mirage F1EQ-4 : Single-seat multi-role fighter, ground-attack, reconnaissance version for Iraq. 28 built.
  • Mirage F1EQ-5 : Single-seat anti-shipping version for Iraq. 20 built.
  • Mirage F1EQ-6 : Single-seat anti-shipping version for Iraq. 30 built.
  • Mirage F1EDA : Export version of the Mirage F1E for Qatar. 12 built.

Mirage F1CG[edit]

Hellenic Air Force Mirage F1CG

Greece operated 40 Dassault Mirage F1CG single seat aircraft. F1CG was first ordered in 1974 and entered service with the Hellenic Air Force in 1975[57] The aircraft were used by 334 Squadron and 342 Squadron.[58] Mirage F1CG was armed with the Sidewinder AIM-9P missile, rather than the most commonly used Matra Magic II, and it could carry four AIM-9Ps, rather than just two.[57]

The Hellenic Air Force retired the remaining 27 Mirage F1CGs on 30 June 2003 after 28 years of service and 160 000 flying hours.[57] A number of F1CG aircraft have been preserved in non-flying condition for display. At least four are preserved in Tanagra (LGTG), Greece (115, 124, 129 and 140).[59][60] One more (134) is preserved at HAF History Department, Delta Falirou.

Mirage F1CR[edit]

French Air Force F1CR in 2009
French Air Force Mirage F1 at RIAT 2009

When it became clear that the Mirage F1 was becoming a successful production aircraft, Dassault began investigating the possibility of a dedicated reconnaissance version for its most important client, the French Air Force. However, the escalating cost of fighter aircraft meant that add-on pods for this purpose were a more economical alternative.

Many French Air Force aircraft, as well as those of some export clients (such as Iraq's Mirage F1EQ), did indeed have a variety of reconnaissance pods available, which were attached to the underside of the main fuselage.

However, the development of a tactical reconnaissance aircraft for the French Air Force continued, and the first Mirage F1CR-200 flew on 20 November 1981.[61]

The Mirage F1CR carries reconnaissance equipment, internally and externally:[62]

  • A SAT SCM2400 Super Cyclone infrared linescan unit is installed in the space previously occupied by the port cannon.
  • A space under the nose can be used for a Thomson-TRT 40 panoramic camera or a Thomson-TRT 33 vertical camera.
  • The Cyrano IVM-R radar has extra ground- and contour-mapping modules.
  • A variety of sensors can be carried in external pods carried under the fuselage centreline. These include the Raphaël TH Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR), the ASTAC ELINT pod and the RP35P optical reconnaissance pod.[63]

A total of 64 Mirage F1CRs were ordered by the French Air Force.[51] The first air force unit equipped with the CR was Escadron de Reconnaissance 2/33 which became operational in September 1983.[64]

Mirage F1CT[edit]

The Mirage F1CT is a ground attack version of the Mirage F1C-200. Following their replacement in the air defence role by the Mirage 2000, the French Air Force had a number of surplus Mirage F1C-200s, and in 1988 it launched a conversion programme to turn these aircraft into interim ground attack aircraft to replace elderly Mirage IIIEs and Mirage Vs.[65] The Mirage F1CT program brought the avionics of the F1C up to the standard of the F1CR, with the radar upgraded with the additional air-to-ground modes of the Cyrano IVM-R, an improved navigation/attack system fitted, with a laser rangefinder fitted under the nose. It was fitted with new Mk 10 ejection seats, while improved radar detection and warning devices, chaff/flare dispensers, and secure radios were also added.[66] It gained the ability to carry a variety of air-to-ground weapons, including rockets, cluster bombs and laser-guided bombs, while retaining the F1Cs air-to-air armament.[67]

Two prototypes were converted by Dassault, the first flying on 3 May 1991, with a further 55 converted by the workshops of the French Air Force at Clermont Ferrand by 1995.[65][68]

Mirage F1AZ and F1CZ[edit]

The South African Air Force (SAAF) flew both the Mirage F1AZ ground-attack version as well as the radar-equipped Mirage F1CZ fighter. The first two examples of the first order (48 aircraft, comprising 32 F1AZ and 16 F1CZ) were delivered on 5 April 1975. Both of these F1CZs were transported under a blanket of secrecy by a SAAF C-130 Hercules. In July of the same year, the remainder of the F1CZs were delivered, and 3 Squadron was re-commissioned to operate the aircraft from AFB Waterkloof. In 1975 the F1CZs also appeared at a South African airshow, but the public wasn't informed that the aircraft were already operational in the SAAF.

The F1AZ was developed in conjunction with Dassault and the SAAF as a dedicated ground attack variant. Paramount Group, a South African based company owns the intellectual property for the Mirage F1AZ. The AZ variant has a laser-based rangefinder, permitting extremely accurate fusing and aiming of unguided munitions, which consist of bombs and rockets. Optical design was by Armscor in South Africa, by the Optics (later ELOPTRO) division of that company. Despite their retirement in 1997, the accuracy of the F1AZ's armament delivery is still considered classified information by the SAAF, but observer analysis by informed news services (e.g., Jane's Defence Weekly) and pilot reports (e.g., Commandant Dick Lord, 'Vlamgat', 1999) conclude that the AZ variant has accuracies within the order disclosed by the USAF for their F-15E Strike Eagle in unguided ballistic mode.[69]

The F1AZs were delivered between November 1975 and October 1976. They were assigned to 1 Squadron, stationed at AFB Waterkloof.

The SAAF retired the F1CZs in 1992, followed by the F1AZs in 1997.[citation needed]

Aerosud Mirage F1 AAD2006

As an upgrade program for the SAAF, Aerosud, a South African aero-engineering concern, equipped a Mirage F1 with a Klimov RD-33 engine, the same engine used in the MiG-29. This development was dubbed the "SuperMirage" F1, and held the distinction of being the first Western aircraft to perform a display at the MAKS Airshow in Moscow.[citation needed]

In 2004 up to 21 F1AZs were reported in storage at AFB Hoedspruit, awaiting a possible buyer. In April 2006, it was reported that Aerosud had purchased the surviving Mirage F1AZs and spares. On 17 August 2006, French news agency Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported that two upgraded ex-South African F1AZs had taken part in a fly-past over Libreville earlier that day in celebration of Gabon's independence day. The refurbishment and upgrade of the aircraft was carried out by Aerosud. Aerosud Group managing director Dr. Paul Potgieter confirmed his company's involvement, but declined to give numbers or cite figures. It was also reported at that time that Gabon had only bought 3 Mirage F1's from South Africa. However it was later noted that the Gabonese government bought 4 Mirage F1AZ's in total.[citation needed]

The F1AZ features an integrated ground-attack system, comprising two on-board computers that enable the pilot to identify targets at a distance of 5 km. These computers are connected to a laser range finder, situated below its conical nose. This device provides the computers – and the pilot - with target info without the emission of radar signals. After identifying the target and obtaining the necessary information, bombs are automatically released at the right moment.[citation needed]

While the range-finding ability of the aircraft’s EMD AIDA 2 radar unit permits it to operate combat and visual interception missiles, the helmet-mounted sight element enables the pilot to make bore attacks, without having to wait until he has reached the best firing position.

The F1AZ is equipped with two internal DEFA 30mm cannons with 125 rounds each, and carries a wide variety of external ordnance, which includes various types of bombs, cluster munitions, missiles, and rocket launchers. The most common configuration is however six MK81 or MK82 bombs, together with two Kentron Kukri V3b or V3c missiles on the wingtip rails.[citation needed]

Mirage F1 M-53[edit]

Developed for the participation in the "European" NATO fighter competition of early seventies, seeking to replace the F-104G. It was equipped with a more powerful engine, the SNECMA M-53, and other improvements. Failed to succeed, the contest was eventually won by the General Dynamics F-16. The Mirage F.1 came in second place[70]

Mirage F1M[edit]

The F1M upgrade (unrelated to the M-53 prototype) was applied to 48 Spanish F1CE/EE and four F1EDA trainers under a FFr700 million (US$96m) contract awarded to Thomson-CSF in October 1996.[40] The prototype F1M flew in April 1998, and CASA delivered the remainder between March 1999 and 15 March 2001.[40] The project included a revised cockpit with colour LCDs and a Smart HUD from Sextant Avionique, a Sextant inertial navigation system with GPS interface; NATO-compatible Have Quick 2 secure communications; Mode 4 digital IFF; a defensive aids suite; and flight recorders.[40] The radar was upgraded to Cyrano IVM standard, adding sea search and air to ground ranging modes.

Mirage MF2000[edit]

The MF2000 is a comprehensive upgrade by ASTRAC for Morocco, with improved engines and a new avionics package based on that of the Mirage 2000.

Operators[edit]

Mirage F1 operators, current (blue) and former (red)

Dassault Mirage F1 has been used by 14 air forces, with 4 of them still using it. Out of these, 3 air forces have been European, 5 Middle Eastern (with 1 still flying the aircraft), and 4 African (3 still operating it).

Current operators[edit]

Mirage F1BQ of The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force.
 Gabon
 Iran
 Libya
  • Libyan Air Force (2011–present) received 16 F1AD, 16 F1ED & 6 F1BD aircraft. All were grounded; but, 12 were contracted for refurbishment, of which only four were returned to service.[71] Of these 12, two have defected to Malta.[72][73] France will renovate Libya’s small fleet of Dassault Mirage F1 and train its personnel as part of a defense cooperation agreement signed in 2012.
 Morocco

Former operators[edit]

Qatari Air Force Mirage F1EDA
Jordan Air Force Dassault Mirage F1EJ
 Ecuador
  • Ecuadorian Air Force operated 16 F1JA & 2 F1JE. During their operational service, at least three of these aircraft were confirmed as lost in accidents. In February 2011, the remaining aircraft in the squadron were retired from service.[76]
 France
  • French Air Force received 246 aircraft. The last squadron flying the aircraft was officially disbanded on June 13, 2014.[77]
 Greece
 Iraq
  • Iraqi Air Force received 93 F1EQ & 15 F1BQ between 1980 and 1989, with a further 17 EQs and three trainers undelivered due to Iraq's inability to pay and the UN arms embargo imposed following the 1990 invasion of Kuwait.[54] In early 2011, the French government offered to update and refurbish 18 French-held F1 Mirages and sell these to the Iraqi Air Force.[78]
 Jordan
  • Royal Jordanian Air Force received 17 F1CJ, 17 F1EJ & 2 F1BJ. In 2010 it was reported that Argentina might lease twelve F1CJ's and an F1BJ but nothing came of it.
 Kuwait
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Libyan Air Force (1951-2011). Passed on to successor government.

 Qatar
 South Africa
 Spain
  • Spanish Air Force received originally 45 F1CE, 22 F1EE & 6 F1BE. Also acquired 24 second-hand examples from France and Qatar in the early 1990s. Spanish F1s were deployed in 2006 for Baltic Air Policing mission. Finally, Spain decommissioned its Mirage F1 fleet in February 2013.

Specifications (Mirage F1)[edit]

Orthographically projected diagram of the Dassault Mirage F1
External images
Dassault Mirage F1 cutaway
Hi-res cutaway of the Dassault Mirage F1 by Flightglobal.com.

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89[79]

General characteristics

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.2 (2,338 km/h,[80] 1,262 knots, 1,453 mph) at 11,000 m (36,090 ft)
  • Combat radius: 425 km (230 nm, 265 mi) hi-lo-hi at Mach 0.75/0.88 with 14 × 250 kg bombs
  • Ferry range: 3,300 km[81] (1,780 nmi, 2,050 mi)
  • Endurance: 2 hr 15 min (combat air patrol, with 2 × Super 530 missiles and centreline drop tank)
  • Service ceiling: 20,000 m (65,600 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 243 m/s (47,835 ft/min) at high altitude

Armament

  • Guns:30 mm (1.18 in) DEFA 553 cannons with 150 rounds per gun
  • Hardpoints: 1 centreline pylon, four underwing and two wingtip pylons with a capacity of 6,300 kg (13,900 lb) (practical maximum load 4,000 kg (8,800 lb)) and provisions to carry combinations of:
    • Rockets: 8× Matra rocket pods with 18× SNEB 68 mm rockets each
    • Bombs: various
    • Other: reconnaissance pods or Drop tanks
  • Missiles:AIM-9 Sidewinders OR Matra R550 Magics on wingtip pylons, 2× Super 530Fs underwing, 1× AM-39 Exocets anti-ship missile, 2× AS-30L laser-guided missiles

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "MIRAGE F1". Federation of American Scientists. 11 March 1999. Retrieved 4 December 2007. 
  2. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, pp. 50–51.
  3. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, pp. p. 53–54.
  4. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 56.
  5. ^ Jackson 1985, p. 85.
  6. ^ Jackson 1985, p. 89.
  7. ^ a b c Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 72.
  8. ^ "Super 530". Flight International: p. 1889. 15 November 1980. 
  9. ^ a b c Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 79.
  10. ^ note - Disputed. See Talk:Dassault Mirage F1#Destruction of two SU-25s and three HINDs by French Air Force F1, Ivory Coast 2004
  11. ^ "Redflag Alaska 2007". Embassy of France in the United States. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2007. 
  12. ^ Laurent, Zecchini (24 November 2007). "A Kandahar, dans la base sous haute sécurité, d'où opèrent les Mirage français en Afghanistan" (in French). Le Monde. Retrieved 4 December 2007. 
  13. ^ Christophe Gasztych, "Savoie's AUTUMN" Air Force's Monthly, March 2013, page 41
  14. ^ "Libye : point de situation opération Harmattan n°11". French Ministry of Defense. 29 March 2011. 
  15. ^ Christophe Gasztych, "Operational Serval: ER 2/33 Savoie swansong?" Air Force's Monthly, March 2013, page 44
  16. ^ Christophe Gasztych, "Savoie's AUTUMN" Air Force's Monthly, March 2013, page 44
  17. ^ France retires last Mirage F1s - Flightglobal.com, 18 June 2014
  18. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 88.
  19. ^ "El Ecuador 1972-1999. La Guerra del Cenepa" (in Spanish). Official Web Site of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces (www.fuerzasarmadasecuador.org). Archived from the original on 18 May 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2006. 
  20. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Peru vs. Ecuador. Alto-Cenepa War, 1995". Air Combat Information Group (www.acig.org). Retrieved 20 June 2006. 
  21. ^ ACIG Team. "Central & South American Air-to-Air Victories". Air Combat Information Group (www.acig.org). Retrieved 20 June 2006. 
  22. ^ Klaus, Erich. "Ecuador Air Force". Aeroflight (www.aeroflight.co.uk). Retrieved 20 June 2006. 
  23. ^ Diario "El Mundo", edición N° 114 del 4-5 de Marzo de 1995, p. 2
  24. ^ Cruz, Cesar. "Peruvian Fitters Unveiled". Air Forces Monthly, August 2003.
  25. ^ Warnes, Alex and Cesar Cruz. "Tiger Sukhois Frogfoots & Fitters in Peru". Air Forces Monthly, March 2006, p.48.
  26. ^ http://ecuadorinmediato.com/index.php?module=Noticias&func=news_user_view&id=2818762093&umt=con_aviones_combate_se_realiza_cambio_mando_en_fae
  27. ^ http://www.fuerzaaereaecuatoriana.mil.ec/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=780:bgrl-raul-banderas-duenas-comandante-general-fae&catid=19:noticias&Itemid=260
  28. ^ http://www.elistas.net/lista/notisar/archivo/indice/179/msg/244/
  29. ^ http://www.fuerzaaerea.net/index_menu_Tributo.htm
  30. ^ Cooper, Tom, Bishop, Faraz. "Persian Gulf War, 1980-1988". Air Combat Information Group (www.acig.org). Retrieved 15 March 2007. 
  31. ^ Kenneth M. Pollack (2004). Arabs at war: military effectiveness, 1948-1991. University of Nebraska Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-8032-8783-6. Retrieved 7 May 2008. 
  32. ^ Iranian F-14 Tomcat Units in Combat by Tom Cooper & Farzad Bishop, 2004, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 85-88
  33. ^ Cooper and Bishop 2003, pp. 87—88.
  34. ^ http://theaviationist.com/2012/09/06/tuaf-incidents/
  35. ^ [2.0] F-15 In Service
  36. ^ Iraqi Perspectives Project Phase II. Um Al-Ma'arik (The Mother of All Battles): Operational and Strategic Insights from an Iraqi Perspective, Volume 1 (Revised May 2008) http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA484530
  37. ^ a b c d e Lord, Dick (2000). Vlamgat: The Story of the Mirage F1 in the South African Air Force. Covos-Day. ISBN 0-620-24116-0. 
  38. ^ Lord, Dick (2008). From Fledgling to Eagle: The South African Air Force During the Border War. 30 Degrees South. ISBN 978-1-920143-30-5. 
  39. ^ a b "Fin de la vida operativa del Mirage F-1" (in Spanish). Ejército del Aire. 30 May 2013. 
  40. ^ a b c d Gething, Michael J (26 April 2001). "Spain - Final Mirage F1 upgrade delivered". Jane's International Defence Review. Archived from the original on 2005-01-12. 
  41. ^ Guevara, Inigo (2 January 2014). "Argentine Mirage F1 buy reportedly stalls". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. 
  42. ^ "Argentina buys 16 Mirage F 1 from Spain; half have air-refuelling capacity". Mercopress. 26 February 2014. 
  43. ^ Argentina; Spanish Mirage F-1 deal scrapped due to UK preassure - Dmilt.com, 7 March 2014
  44. ^ "Spain warplane crash kills three". BBC News. 20 January 2009. 
  45. ^ Osborne, Tony, Painful contractions, Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 9, 2013, p.35
  46. ^ Batacchi P (2012). Libyan Airforce May Purchase Mirage F1 or 2000-9 Armed Forces International, Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  47. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 70.
  48. ^ Jackson 1985, p. 82.
  49. ^ a b c d e f Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 91.
  50. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 93.
  51. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 78.
  52. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 94.
  53. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 90.
  54. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 89.
  55. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 92.
  56. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, pp. 93–94.
  57. ^ a b c Mirage Aircraft for Flight Simulator
  58. ^ Dassault Mirage F1CG, 140, Greek Air Force
  59. ^ Photos: Dassault Mirage F1CG Aircraft Pictures | Airliners.net
  60. ^ Greece Mirage F1CG photo - Elias Hantzakos photos at pbase.com
  61. ^ Jackson Air International March 1988, p. 129.
  62. ^ Kromhaut Air International June 1998, p. 378.
  63. ^ Kromhaut Air International June 1998, pp. 379–380.
  64. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 86.
  65. ^ a b Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, p. 71.
  66. ^ Jackson World Air Power Journal Volume 17 Summer 1994, pp. 64–67, 71.
  67. ^ Lake International Air Power Review Volume 1 - Summer 2001, pp. 23–24.
  68. ^ Lake International Air Power Review Volume 1 - Summer 2001, p. 24.
  69. ^ Jane's 'F15', Electronic Arts, 1996; Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 2000
  70. ^ Take Off Aerospace Publishing Ltd, London 1988 ISSN 0953-7473, p.1155
  71. ^ (French) [1]
  72. ^ "Updated: Libyan fighter jets arrive in Malta". Timesofmalta.com. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  73. ^ Airplane Pictures, 21 February 2011, 20:35 CET by Martin Krupka.
  74. ^ (French) FlightGlobal world air forces inventory
  75. ^ (French) Jane's aircraft upgrades[dead link]
  76. ^ http://www.infodefensa.com/?noticia=la-fuerza-aerea-de-ecuador-da-de-baja-a-historicos-aviones-mirage
  77. ^ Les Mirage F1 tirent leur révérence | Le Journal de l'Aviation
  78. ^ France Offers Mirage F1 Fighters to Iraq | Air Force News at DefenseTalk
  79. ^ Taylor 1988, pp. 67–68.
  80. ^ a b Donald and Lake p131.
  81. ^ Jackson Air International March 1988, p. 155.
Bibliography
  • Donald, David; Jon Lake (1996). Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-874023-95-6. 
  • Hoyle, Craig (13–19 December 2011). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International 180 (5321): pp. 26–52. ISSN 0015-3710. 
  • Jackson, Paul. "Dassault's Mid-life Mirage". Air International (March 1988): pp. 121–129, 154–155. ISSN 0306-5634. 
  • Jackson, Paul (1994). "Dassault Mirage F1: Gallic Guardian". World Air Power Journal (Aerospace Publishing) (Volume 17 Summer 1994): pp. 46–95. ISBN 1-874023-43-3. ISSN 0959-7050. 
  • Jackson, Paul (1985). Modern Combat Aircraft 23:Mirage. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allen. ISBN 0-7110-1512-0. 
  • Kromhout, Gert. "Mirage image". Air International (June 1998): pp. 378–381. ISSN 0306-5634. 
  • Lake, Jon. "Dassault Mirage F1: Armeé de l'Air versions". International Air Power Review (AIRtime Publishing) (Volume 1 - Summer 2001): pp. 20–27. 
  • Taylor, John W. R. (1988). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5. 

External links[edit]