Demographics of Bolivia
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bolivia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Since Bolivia was created as a state on its own in 1825 it has been a multiethnic society. As a result, Bolivians tend to treat their nationality as a citizenship instead of an ethnicity. The largest of the approximately 36 indigenous peoples in Bolivia are the Quechuas,Aymaras, Chiquitanos, Guaraní (Chiriguanos, Guarayos), and Mojeños. The majority of European-Bolivians are of Spanish descent, including Basque origin, but there are large German (including Mennonite) and small Croats, Asian (notably Japanese Okinawans relocated there after expropriation of farmland by the U.S. military after World War II ), Middle Eastern, and other minorities (Afro Bolivian), many of whose members descend from families that have lived in Bolivia for several generations.
The four main groups in the country are the indigenous peoples (mainly Quechua and Aymara), who make up almost 55% of the population; the mestizos of mixed European and indigenous background, who are 30% of the population; persons of European descent, making up 14%; and the approximately 1% Afro-Bolivian community.
Bolivia is one of the least-industrialised countries in South America. About two-thirds of its people, many of whom are subsistence farmers, live in poverty. Population density ranges from less than one person per square kilometer in the southeastern plains to about 10/km² (25/mi²) in the central highlands. As of 2006, population is increasing 1.45% per year. Increasing numbers of Bolivians migrated to economically prosperous Chile and Argentina, and even to industrialised countries in Europe (primarily the UK and Spain) and North America (esp. tens of thousands went to Mexico and the United States) in search of economic opportunities.
La Paz is at the highest elevation of the world's capital cities—3,600 meters (11,800 ft) above sea level. The adjacent city of El Alto, at 4,200 meters above sea level, is one of the fastest-growing in the hemisphere. Santa Cruz, the commercial and industrial hub of the eastern lowlands, also is experiencing rapid population and economic growth.
The great majority of Bolivians are Roman Catholic, although Protestant denominations are expanding strongly. Many indigenous communities interweave pre-Columbian (pre-Hispanic) and Catholic Christian symbols in their religious practices. About half of the people speak Spanish as their first language. Approximately 90% of the children attend primary school but often for a year or less. The literacy rate is low in many rural areas.
According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 9,930,000 in 2010, compared to only 2,714,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.1%, 59.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.7% was 65 years or older .
|Total population (x 1000)||Population aged 0–14 (%)||Population aged 15–64 (%)||Population aged 65+ (%)|
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR*||CDR*||NC*||TFR*||IMR*|
|1950-1955||134 000||70 000||64 000||47.0||24.3||22.7||6.75||176|
|1955-1960||149 000||73 000||76 000||46.9||23.1||23.8||6.75||170|
|1960-1965||163 000||77 000||86 000||46.0||21.7||24.3||6.63||164|
|1965-1970||181 000||81 000||100 000||45.4||20.4||25.1||6.56||158|
|1970-1975||203 000||85 000||118 000||45.2||19.1||26.1||6.50||151|
|1975-1980||207 000||81 000||126 000||40.9||16.2||24.8||5.80||131|
|1980-1985||217 000||75 000||142 000||38.3||13.4||24.9||5.30||109|
|1985-1990||233 000||72 000||161 000||36.8||11.4||25.4||5.00||90|
|1990-1995||253 000||71 000||182 000||35.8||9.9||25.8||4.80||75|
|1995-2000||257 000||71 000||186 000||32.6||8.9||23.7||4.32||67|
|2000-2005||265 000||72 000||193 000||30.3||8.1||22.2||3.96||56|
|2005-2010||263 000||73 000||190 000||27.4||7.5||19.9||3.50||46|
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
In Bolivia, a 62% majority of residents over the age of 15 self-identify as belonging to an indigenous people, while another 3.7% grew up with an indigenous mother tongue yet do not self-identify as indigenous.
|* Araona 90, Ayoreo 798, Baure 475, Canichana 208, Cavineño 836, Cyabuba 326, Chácobo 247, Chimán(Tsimane) 4,126, Ese-ejja/Chama 396, Guarasugwe 9, Guarayo 5,904, Itonama 1,416, Joaquiniano 160, Leco 2,296, Machineri Yine 15, Moré 43, Mosetén 789, Movima 6,008, Pacahuara 31, Reyesano/Maropa 2,717, Sirionó 133, Tacana 3,452, Tapieté 18, Urus 1,190, Weenhayek/Mataco 973, Yaminawa 41, Yuqui 112, Yurakaré 1,366|
Including both of these categories, and children under 15, some 66.4% of Bolivia's population was registered as indigenous in the 2001 Census. The largest indigenous ethnic groups are: Quechua, about 2.5 million people; Aymara, 2.0 million; Chiquitano, 181 thousand; Guaraní, 126 thousand; and Mojeño, 69 thousand. Some 124 thousand pertain to smaller indigenous groups.
- Roman Catholic 81.6%, Protestant 2.6%, Evangelical 10.3%, Mormon and Jehova's Witnesses 1.7%, No religion 3.3%, other (Islam, the Baha'i Faith, Judaism, Buddhism, Shinto etc.) 0.4%, Native religions 0.1%.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. 10,118,683
- Total: 22.5 years
- Male: 21.8 years
- Female: 23.2 years (2011 est.)
- At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
- Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- Total population: 67.57 years
- Male: 64.84 years
- Female: 70.42 years (2011 est.)
- Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
- People living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2009 est.)
- Deaths: less than 1000 (2009 est.)
- Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
- Total population: 87.2%
- Male: 93.1%
- Female: 81.6% (2003 est.)
- Javier A. Galvan, Culture and Customs of Bolivia, p.9. ABC-CLIO, 2011, ISBN 0313383642.
- "Background Note: Bolivia". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- Indigenous identification was treated in a complex way in the 2001 Census, which collected data on self-identification, capacity to speak an indigenous language, and learning an indigenous language as a child. CEPAL, "Los pueblos indígenas de Bolivia: diagnóstico sociodemográfico a partir del censo del 2001," 2005, p. 32
- CEPAL, "Los pueblos indígenas de Bolivia: diagnóstico sociodemográfico a partir del censo del 2001," 2005, p. 42
- CEPAL, "Los pueblos indígenas de Bolivia: diagnóstico sociodemográfico a partir del censo del 2001," 2005, p. 47