Demographics of Bolivia

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Demographics of Bolivia
Bolivian Censuses 1826-2012.png
Scatter plot of the population of Bolivia (in thousands) from 1826-2012
Population 10,027,254 (2012)
Density 9.13persons/km2 (2012)
Growth rate 21.2% (2012)
Birth rate 23.7 per 1,000 pop. (2013)
Death rate 6.6 per 1,000 pop. (2013)
Life expectancy 68.87 years (2014)
 • male 65.4 years (2013)
 • female 71.1 years (2013)
Fertility rate 2.8 children born/woman (2013)
Infant mortality rate 39.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2013)
Age structure
0–14 years 31.0% (2012)
15–64 years 63.1% (2012)
65 and over 6.1% (2012)
Sex ratio
Total 0.99 male/female (2012)
Under 15 1.05 male/female (2012)
15–64 years 0.96 male/female (2012)
65 and over 0.88 male/female (2012)
Nationality
Nationality noun: Bolivian(s), adjective: Bolivian
Major ethnic Quechua 45.6%, Ayamara 42.4% (2012)
Minor ethnic 37 other ethic groups (2012)
Language
Official Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani, and 34 other native languages

The demographic characteristics of the population of Bolivia are known through censuses, with the first in 1826 and the most recent being in 2012. The National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia (INE) has performed this task since 1950. The population of Bolivia in 2012 had reached 10 million for the first time in history. The population density is 9.13 inhabitants per square kilometer, and the overall life expectancy in Bolivia at birth is 68.2 years. The population has steadily risen from the late 1800s to the present time. The natural growth rate of the population is positive, which has been a continuing trend since the 1950s; in 2012, Bolivia's birth rate continued to be higher than the death rate. Bolivia is in the second or third stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, the populations is dominated by the 15–64 segment. The median age of the population is 23.1, and the gender ratio of the total population is 0.99 males per female.

Bolivia is inhabited mostly by Quechua (45.6%) and Aymara (42.4%), while minorities include 37 indigenous groups (0.3% average per group). The Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani languages, as well as 34 other native languages are the official language of Bolivia. Spanish is the most-spoken language (60.7%) within the population. The main religions of Bolivia are Catholicism (81.8%), Evangelicalism (11.5%), and Protestantism (2.6%). Education is of poor quality, and has a 91.2% literacy rate. An estimated 7.6% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) is spent on education. The average monthly household income was Bs.1,378 ($293) in 1994. In December 2013 the unemployment rate was 3.2% of the working population. Average urbanisation rate in Bolivia is 67%.

Population[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1826 997,427 —    
1831 1,088,768 +1.77%
1835 1,060,777 −0.65%
1845 1,378,896 +2.66%
1854 2,326,126 +5.98%
1882 1,172,156 −2.42%
1900 1,555,818 +1.59%
1950 2,704,165 +1.11%
1976 4,613,486 +2.08%
1992 6,420,792 +2.09%
2001 8,274,325 +2.86%
2012 10,027,254 +1.76%
Source: 1826,[1] 1831–2001,[2] 2012[3]

The first true estimate of the population of Bolivia came in 1826, which 997,427 inhabitants were estimated. This number was calculated from the 1796 census organized by Francisco Gil de Taboada, which consisted of several Bolivian cities.[1] The first modern census was completed in 1831, and ten have been completed since then. The organizer of Bolivian's censuses has changed throughout the years—Andrés de Santa Cruz (1831), The Bolivian Statistical Office (1835, 1854, 1882), The Bolivian Statistical Commission (1845), The National Immigration Bureau and The Statistics and Geographic Propaganda (1900), and The Department of Statistics and Censuses (1950)—with the INE conducting the census since 1976.[1] The national census is supposed to be conducted every ten years, however, the 2012 census was late because of "climatic factors and the financing." The 2012 census data was conducted on 21 November 2012, in which 10,027,254 inhabitants were in the country. The estimated cost of the census was $50 million.[4][5]

With a population of 10.0 million in 2012, Bolivia ranks 87th in the world by population.[3] Its population density is 9.13 inhabitants per square kilometer. The overall life expectancy in Bolivia is 65.4. The total fertility rate is 2.87 children per mother.[6] Since 1950, the World Health Organization's (WHO) estimates the birth rate exceeded the death rate of the country.[7] The population of Bolivia has been increasing since 1900, and has only had a negative per annum growth rate twice in its history (1835 and 1882). Bolivia is considered to be in the second stage of demographic transition.[8] There were 562,461 immigrants in Bolivia in 2012, with the most (40.5%) coming from Argentina.[9] In 2008, there were 48,809 marriages in Bolivia, and 5,887 divorces throughout the country in 2011.[10][11]

Cities[edit]

Vital statistics[edit]

Year Population Births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate Crude death rate Natural change Fertility rates
1950 2,714 134 70 64 46.9 24.4 22.5 6.75
1955 3,007 149 73 76 46.8 23.0 23.8 6.75
1960 3,353 163 77 86 45.9 21.5 24.4 6.63
1965 3,751 181 81 100 45.4 20.2 25.2 6.56
1970 4,217 203 85 118 45.3 19.0 26.3 6.50
1975 4,786 208 81 127 41.1 16.0 25.1 5.80
1980 5,369 220 76 144 38.6 13.3 15.3 5.30
1985 6,041 238 72 166 37.1 11.3 25.8 5.00
1990 6,794 259 71 188 36.0 9.9 25.1 4.8
1995 7,635 263 71 192 32.7 8.9 23.8 4.32
2000 8,495 270 72 198 30.3 8.1 22.2 3.96
2005 9,355 267 73 194 27.3 7.5 19.8 3.50
 • All statistics are per 1,000 inhabitants
 • All data comes from estimations from the United Nations.[7]

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[12]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1989 4,9 4,0 6,4
1994 34 4,8 32 3,8 37 6,3
1998 30,4 4,2 27,4 3,3 35,4 6,4
2003 28 3,8 26 3,1 32 5,5
2008 26 3,5 24 2,8 28 4,9

Indigenous ethnic groups[edit]

Map showing the area of indigenous peoples in Bolivia
Ethnic
group
census 2001 census 2012
Number  % Number  %
Quechua 1,555,641 30.7 1,281,116 18.5
Aymara 1,277,881 25.2 1,191,352 17.2
Guarani 78,359 1.5 55,990 0.8
Chiquitano 112,216 2.2 87,885 1.2
Mojeño 43,303 0.8 31,078 0.4
Other 75,237 1.4 156,171 2.2
None 1,922,355 37.9 4,105,721 59.3
Total 5,064,992 100 6,916,732 100

[13][14]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Bolivia

The official languages of Bolivia are Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní, plus other 33 native languages. Originally only Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua were the official languages until the 2009 Constitution was passed.[15] According to the 2001 census, 60.7% of the population over six years old speak Spanish,

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Bolivia
Religion in Bolivia[16]
religion percent
Catholicism
  
81.8%
Evangelicalism
  
11.5%
Atheism or Agnosticism
  
3.3%
Protestantism
  
2.6%
Non-Christianity
  
0.4%
Mormonism
  
0.3%
Traditional religion
  
0.1%

In a 2012 Gallup poll, 87% answered affirmatively when asked "Is religion important in your daily life?"[17]

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Bolivia

The literacy rate in Bolivia is 94.98%.[18]

Health[edit]

Main article: Health in Bolivia

Healthcare expenditures comprise only 4.9% of the GDP.[6] According to the 2013 World Factbook, Bolivia ranks 161st in life expectancy with an average age of 68.2 years.[6] In 2009, the World Factbook estimated 12,000 people are living in Bolivia with HIV/AIDS (0.2%) and less than 1,000 of that population died from it.[6] In 2003, it was estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that 31.9% of the adult population (12–64) were smokers.[19] According to 2008 WHO data, 17.9% of the population is obese.[20] In 2011, there were 3,255 healthcare institutions, of which 1,134 are considered "first class" (medical personnel and registered nurses) by the Bolivian Ministry of Health Management.[21] The hospitals employed an estimated 10,000 medical doctors in 2001.[22]

In 2012, the causes of death in Bolivia were:[23]

Economic indicators[edit]

Main article: Economy of Bolivia

Personal income, jobs, and unemployment[edit]

Average monthly income in 1994 was Bs.1,378 ($293).[24] Since April 2014, the minimum wage in Bolivia is Bs.1,488 ($215) per month.[25] The unemployment rate in Bolivia in December 2013 was 3.2%.[26] There are an estimated 4.7 million workers in Bolivia. Of that population, 48% are considered to be services, 32% are industry workers (mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry), and 32% are agriculture workers (soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; Brazil nuts; timber).[6] In comparison with other countries in South America, Bolivia's median equivalent household income in terms of the Purchasing Power Standard stands at $5,000, which is last in South America.[6]

Urbanization and housing[edit]

The 2012 census recorded a total of 3,158,691 households in Bolivia—an increase of 887,960 from 2001.[27] In 2009, 75.4% of homes were classified as a house, hut, or Pachuichi; 3.3% were apartments; 21.1% were rented out homes; and 0.1% were mobile homes.[28] The urbanization rate of Bolivia is 67%.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Hitos En La Producción Estadística" [Milestones in Statistical Production] (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Censo en Bolivia se Inició en 1831" [Census in Bolivia Began in 1831]. La Opinión (in Spanish). 18 November 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia 2012, p. 4
  4. ^ "El Gobierno Realizará el Censo 2012 el 21 de Noviembre" [The Government will make the 2012 Census on 21 November]. Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 19 April 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  5. ^ "Censo 2012: Bolivia Tiene 10.389.913 habitantes" [Census 2012: Bolivia has 10,389,913 inhabitants]. Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 23 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "South American :: Bolivia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". United Nations. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  8. ^ "Globalization – Industrialization – Urbanization". Indiana University of Pennsylvania. 24 March 2011. p. 2. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  9. ^ National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia 2012, p. 30
  10. ^ "Bolivia: Número de Matrimonios Registrados, por Departamento" [Bolivia: Number of Marriage Registrations, by Department]. National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  11. ^ "En Bolivia Registran más de 16 Divorcios Diarios" [In Bolivia, Divorces Recorded more than 16 per Day]. La Razon (in Spanish). 28 September 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  12. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=2&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  13. ^ "Bolivia: Autoidentificación con Pueblos Originarios o Indígenas de la Población de 15 Años o más de Edad Segun Sexo, Área Geografica y Grupo de Edad, Censo 2001" [Bolivia: Self-identification with Native Peoples or Indigenous population 15 years or more of age by sex, geographic area and age group, 2001 Census] (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  14. ^ National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia 2012, p. 31
  15. ^ Arnade, Charles (14 March 2013). "Bolivia: Languages and Religion". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  16. ^ Díaz-Domínguez 2009, p. 11
  17. ^ "Gallup World View". Gallup. Retrieved 23 February 2014. (registration required (help)). 
  18. ^ 2012 census
  19. ^ "Bolivia: Smoking Prevalence". World Health Organization. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Bolivia (Plurinational State of)". World Health Organization. 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  21. ^ "Según Diagnóstico: Bolivia Cuenta con 3.255 Centros de Salud" [According Diagnosis: Bolivia has 3,255 Health Centers]. La Patria. 2 December 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  22. ^ "Field Listing :: Physicians Density". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2001. Retrieved 23 January 2014. The number of 10,000 comes from the physician density (1.22/1,000 inhabitants) multiplied by the population (8,274,325) in 2001. 
  23. ^ "Diez eEnfermedades son Principales Causas de Mortalidad en el País" [Ten Diseases are Leading Causes of Mortality in the Country]. FM Bolivia (in Spanish). 20 July 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  24. ^ Israel 1994, p. 11
  25. ^ "Bolivia Raises Minimum Wage by 20%". BBC News. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  26. ^ "Desempleo en Bolivia es de 3,2% de la Población Activa" [Unemployment in Bolivia is 3.2% of the Active Population]. El Deber (in Spanish). 4 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  27. ^ National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia 2012, p. 16
  28. ^ "Bolivia: Hogares por Tipo y Tenencia de la Vivienda, Según Área Geográfica, 2000 – 2009" [Bolivia: Households by Type and Tenure, According to Geographic Area, 2000 – 2009]. National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 

References[edit]