Duruwa language

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Duruwa
दुरुवा
Native to India
Native speakers
51,000  (2001)[1]
Dravidian
Devanagari script, Oriya script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 pci
Glottolog duru1236[2]

Duruwa (Devanagari: दुरुवा) or Parji is a Central Dravidian language spoken by the Dhurwa tribe, a scheduled tribe people of India, in the districts of Koraput and Bastar in Chhattisgarh state. The language is related to Ollari and Kolami, which is also spoken by other neighbouring tribes.

Classification[edit]

Duruwa is a member of the Central Dravidian languages.[3][4] Duruwa is a spoken language and is generally not written. Whenever it is written, it makes use of the Devanagari script in Bastar district and Oriya script in Koraput district.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[5]
Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ c k
voiced b d ɖ ɟ ɡ
Fricative (s) (h)
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Approximant central ʋ j
lateral l
Tap ɾ ɽ

Dialects[edit]

There are four dialects: Tiriya, Nethanar, Dharba, and Kukanar. They are mutually intelligible.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Duruwa at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Duruwa". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Fairservis, Walter Ashlin (1997). The Harappan Civilization and Its Writing: A Model for the Decipherment of the Indus Script. Asian Studies. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-90-04-09066-8. 
  4. ^ Stassen, Leon (1997). Intransitive Predication. Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory. Oxford University Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-19-925893-2. 
  5. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian languages (null ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780511060373.