Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link

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Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
ChinaRailwayHighspeed.svg
Shenzhen section of GSGXRL.jpg
Shenzhen section of the railway under construction in May 2011
Overview
Type High-speed rail
Status Partial-Operational
Locale Guangdong, China and Kowloon, Hong Kong
Termini Guangzhou South
Futian (Shenzhen)
Stations 5-7
Operation
Opening 2010-2017
Operator(s) China Railway High-speed (MTR Corporation Limited for through service with Kowloon, Hong Kong)
Technical
Line length 142 km (88.23 mi)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 25kV AC 50Hz
Operating speed 350 km/h (220 mph) (Guangshen section)
200 km/h (120 mph) (Hong Kong section)
Route map

Italic font indicates station or line under construction or planning.
Only transfers with urban rapid transits are marked in this diagram.

( Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR )
( Chengdu-Guangzhou HSR )
( Nanning-Guangzhou HSR )
0 Guangzhou South(GZ Metro: 1 7)
( Guangzhou-Zhuhai ICR )
Guangzhou Motor Depot
Shawan Shuidao
Qingsheng
Shiziyang Tunnel Pearl River
Humen(Dongguan Metro Line R2)
Guangmingcheng
Gaofeng Reservoir
Shenzhen EMU Depot
( Shenzhen-Maoming HSR )
102 Shenzhen North(SZ Metro: 4 5)
Xiamen-Shenzhen HSR )
106 Futian(SZ Metro: 2 3)
Mainland
Hong Kong
border
Shenzhen River
Shek Kong Emergency Station
142 West Kowloon(MTR: )
Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Guangzhou Shenzhen Hongkong Express Rail Link en.svg
Route of Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong XRL
(Guangshen section in red and Hong Kong section in blue)
Overview
Transit type Passenger high-speed rail
Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Traditional Chinese 廣深港高速鐵路
Simplified Chinese 广深港高速铁路
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 廣深港客運專線
Simplified Chinese 广深港客运专线

Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link (XRL), also known as "Guangshen'gang XRL" (officially Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Section), is a high-speed railway line to be inaugurated in phases between 2011 and 2017. It will connect Beijing/Peking, the capital city of China, and Hong Kong (Kowloon) via Guangzhou and Shenzhen.

The first phase, Shenzhen (North)Guangzhou (South), commenced revenue operation in December 2011. Services are to be extended to the city centre of Shenzhen at Futian in December 2015. The final phase, which connects Shenzhen-Futian to Hong Kong (Kowloon), is under construction and planned to be completed by early 2018.[1]

Journey times[edit]

Current intercity trains

  • Hong Kong (Hung Hom) – Guangzhou/Canton (East): 1 hour and 53 minutes
  • Hong Kong (Hung Hom) – Shanghai: 20 hours
  • Hong Kong (Hung Hom) – Beijing/Peking (West): 24 hours

Suburban railway

  • Hong Kong (Hung Hom) – Lo Wu (Hong Kong): 45 minutes

with additional border checks (Hong Kong-side and China-side) and change at Loh Wu (Shenzhen Metro)

High-speed intercity trains

  • Hong Kong (West Kowloon/International) – Shenzhen-Futian: 14 minutes (proposed)
  • Hong Kong (West Kowloon/International) – Shenzhen (North): 23 minutes (proposed)
  • Hong Kong (West Kowloon/International) – Guangzhou/Canton (South): 48 minutes (proposed)
  • Guangzhou/Canton (South) – Shanghai: 7 hours (fastest)
  • Guangzhou/Canton (South) – Beijing/Peking (West): 8 hours 3 minutes (fastest)

History[edit]

Background[edit]

A high-speed railway connecting three major port cities, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, railway was brought up in the late 1990s by the British Government of Hong Kong. This Regional Express Railway (RER) proposal was developed in the 1994 "Railway Development Study"(RDS); it foresaw a continual growth of Hong Kong's population over the next two decades and strong demand for cross-border passenger traffic. The Hong Kong (SAR) Government commissioned a second Railway Development Study in March 1998.[2] The Study went further on the British proposal of connecting Hong Kong and China from Kowloon. The RER could be further extended to Hong Kong Island. At the same time, the report recommended that Hung Hom station should continue to play a central role in Hong Kong's mass transit. Since the typical timeframe for rail projects, from conception to completion phase, would take eight or nine years, the Railway Development Study recommended that the Hong Kong (SAR) Government should commence as soon as possible, so that the new express railway could be constructed in time to meet capacity demands.

Maglev proposal[edit]

In September 1999, the former mayor of Guangzhou/Canton, Lin Shusen, announced his "Suigang maglev rail project" at the "Fortune Global Forum" in Shanghai. Lin was already working with then-Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Tung Chee-hwa, on the development of Hong Kong Disneyland. Lin proposed that a maglev railway between Guangzhou/Canton and Hong Kong would benefit visitor numbers. The cost of construction was to be borne in equal proportion by governments of both cities.[3]

Railway Development Strategy 2000[edit]

The Hong Kong government, based on the results of the Second Railway Development Study by the Department of Transportation, issued a new plan, "Railway Development Strategy 2000 – new railway strategy". On 16 May's Legislative Council meeting, the Legco Panel on Transport Railway Development Strategy tabled the strategy for use by the Hong Kong (SAR) Government. The Executive Council (upper house) recommended that, under the Chief Executive's advice, Hong Kong should adopt the "Railway Development Strategy 2000" until a further review in 2016.

Proposed options for Regional Express Railway

Regional Express Railway[edit]

"Railway Development Strategy 2000" recommended new six new rail corridors, through the New Territories, connecting the East Rail or the West Rail Line to the border, operating between Hung Hom and the border in an express manner similar to Hong Kong Airport's Airport Express line. " The decision to build a "Regional Express", depended on the Lok Ma Chau Spur provided additional transport capacity which would soon be saturated. According to the 1998 price estimates, construction of the RER needed a budget of about HK$130 to 170 billion.[4] It was intended that this railway would be operated by the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation or the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation, depending on the location of the downtown terminal.

At that time about the "RER" concept, was not a high-speed rail, but only a commuter line connecting the city and the border with "rapid rail" services, in addition to the idea of a small number of intermediate stations being set up alongside the route, but also allowing for Hong Kong and China Intercity trains to run, reducing the load on the existing East Rail Line. At that time the initial alignment program has two starting points located around Hung Hom Station. The first one was the Eastern scheme, a new line following the East Rail Line of pink Lingnan station, connecting to Lo Wu station or a new rail crossings in the east of Luohu. However, this proposal needed to co-operation with the mainland. The second program for a new line from the West Rail line at Kam Sheung Road Station, northwards to Lo Wu or Lok Ma Chau Station.

Since 2001, the Hong Kong government began working on the "Regional Express" with mainland China, and discussing the feasibility of cooperation on "Suigang maglev rail project." In 2001, the Hong Kong DoT, with the Shenzhen Municipal Government and Chinese railway authorities to explore the use of "RER" and maglev technology, project feasibility and actively using magnetic levitation technology to build a line from Hong Kong to Guangzhou.[5] The study pointed out that the use of a maglev train would reduce the Hong Kong to Shenzhen running time of 40 minutes to 15 minutes.[6] September 2001, when he was the Hong Kong SAR Chief Secretary Donald Tsang, visited Guangzhou, where he met with the Governor of Guangdong Province, Lu Ruihua, acting mayor of Guangzhou, Lin Shusen and Shenzhen Mayor Yu Youjun for talks about the "Regional Express line "concept.[7] Tung attended the Shanghai APEC Summit in October 2001, formally proposing the construction of a maglev railway between Guangzhou and Hong Kong Express Line plans to the State Planning Commission. The Mayor of Shenzhen Yu Youjun said at a news conference at the APEC Senior Officials' Meeting, Shenzhen and Hong Kong is planning to build maglev railway and to continue to discuss the issue.[8] But also at this time, the Guangzhou-Shenzhen Railway Co. also made a Guangzhou–Kowloon Through Train speed plan.

Switch to high-speed rail[edit]

By the end of January 2002, the concept of "Regional Express" gained further development. Tsang in Beijing to attend the "Mainland and Hong Kong SAR major infrastructure coordination meeting", and with the State Development Planning Commission and the relevant ministry officials, the talks were initially on Regional Express railway line connecting Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, focussing on the design and coordination of consensus between the parties. The central government officially approved research and co-ordination by the Ministry of Railways,[9][10] and officially named this railway the "Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link". With a formal agreement with the Hong Kong SAR Government, decided by the Ministry of Railways, led the establishment of an expert group to study the construction of the Regional Express high-speed rail line.[11]

In February 2002, in the framework of "collaborative meetings" by the Hong Kong SAR Government Environment, Transport and Works Bureau and the Ministry of Railways, the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link Planning Group was established, which meant the "Railway Development Strategy 2000" planned "Regional Express" was set aside for the "Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link - Hong Kong section". The planning Group conducted preliminary studies on the main railway necessity, function, alignment, location transit, rail technology and economic benefits.[12]

The first phase of the study topics included the functional and strategic importance of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link project, the relevant regional passenger transport demand analysis and forecasting, as well as railway lines and public transit locations.[13] The first phase of the study completed in September 2002[14] and reported on the September 20th 2002 at the Second "Mainland and Hong Kong's major infrastructure cooperation held meeting". At the meeting, the high-speed rail planning team reported the first phase of on the planning for the GZ-SZ-HK XRL. Including the necessities of GZ-SZ-HK XRL construction, function and regional transportation needs, forecasting and route traffic in order to determine the strategic value of the railway.[15] Experts in Hong Kong and mainland China reached a consensus after comparing different alignments, shortlisting two options, "Guangzhou East – Dongguan – Lin Tong – Hong Kong" and "Panyu – Nansha – Shekou – Hong Kong". A planning goal was to reduce Guangzhou to Hong Kong travel time from 100 minutes to less than 60 minutes. In addition, effective integration with the national high-speed rail network and the connections with the planned Pearl River Delta intercity rapid rail transit network.

The second phase of the study, included rail alignments, station locations and the Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen line connections, the main technical standards, passenger flow forecasting, financial benefits. During the study, in response to the latest developments of both the overall urban planning and transportation network planning, the Ministries of Railways, Environment, Transport and Works respectively needed to consider some new ideas and make adjustments for the Hong Kong section of GZ–SZ–HK XRL project. In mainland China, the Ministry of Railways had to consider the feasibility of the PRD Intercity Rapid Rail network together with the Guangzhou–Shenzhen section of GZ–SZ–HK XRL. In Hong Kong, the government began to consider the use of the proposed North West Rail Link, Northern Link and the feasibility GZ–SZ–HK XRL Hong Kong section. Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation and the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation produced a consolidated joint report submitted to the Government, it was a preliminary assessment of their ideas, but also required further studies by the Environment, Transport and Works Bureau & KCRC of the Northern Link.

In the first and second phases of the study, the planning team had to investigate and compare the traditional wheel-rail and maglev technologies. Operating and maintenance costs were greater with maglev than with wheel-rail technology, The construction period of the project was expected to be longer for maglev than the wheel-rail technology solutions. Maglev was not conducive to the existing rail network and compatibility. Also with current high-speed railway operating speeds of up to 350 km / h, the less than an hour goal was able to be achieved. Thus to reach the GZ–SZ–HK XRL's three goals, there was no need to adopt a relatively high cost and the technical difficulty of maglev technology. Thus, despite the advantages that high-speed maglev technology has, until August 2003, both sides tended to choose more mature high-speed wheel-rail plans. In other words, the "Regional Express" that was originally intended to have been conceived as a maglev train was cancelled.

March 2003, the Guangzhou Railway Group Corporation general manager,Wú Jùnguāng, at the National People's Congress, submitted a bill that called for the construction of a Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link Passenger Line as soon as possible. The Guangzhou–Shenzhen Railway utilization has exceeded 90% and was saturated. According to the existing passenger growth rate, to 2005, the Guangzhou East to Shenzhen route would require 96-151 train pairs daily, which will greatly exceed the capacity of the line. It is difficult to meet the transportation needs of the future with the new high-speed rail showing greater potential in the pipeline.[16]

On January 7, 2004, China's State Council considered the "long-term railway network plan", deciding to build more than 12,000 kilometers of "four vertical and four horizontal" Passenger Lines, including Hong Kong in the planning. The Guangzhou–Shenzhen section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link correspondingly accelerated planning until July 2004, decinding to adopt the "Panyu – Nansha – Shekou – Hong Kong" route. The station located in Guangzhou's Panyu district would also connect with the Wuhan–Guangzhou Passenger Line.

Route[edit]

Guangzhou South Railway Station east concourse

The 143 km route starts with a connection to the Wuguang High-Speed Railway at Guangzhou South Railway Station in Shibi, Guangzhou. From there it travels south to the same district before tunnelling eastwards underneath the Pearl River to Humen in Dongguan. It then moves south through 3 stations within Shenzhen and then across into Hong Kong where it will arrive at West Kowloon Terminus in Kowloon.

This project has been divided into two sections, the Guangshen section with six stations, and the Hong Kong section, with one station.

Guangshen section[edit]

Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen starts at Guangzhou South Railway Station and ends at Shenzhen Futian Railway Station, it is 116 km line length,[17] with a design speed of 350 km / h. From there it travels south to Qingsheng before tunnelling eastwards underneath the Pearl River to Humen in Dongguan. It then moves south to Guangmingcheng, Shenzhen North and Futian(u/c) in Shenzhen.[18][19][20][21][22]

The People's Republic of China Ministry of Railways and the Guangdong government agreed to establish the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Passenger limited liability company for the purpose of constructing this line, with an expected investment cost of about 16.7 billion yuan RMB.

Originally the station in Humen was to be named Dongguan but this was changed to Humen to avoid confusion with an existing Dongguan Railway Station on the Guangzhou–Shenzhen Railway.

Hong Kong section[edit]

It includes construction of 26 km of dedicated underground track, emergency rescue sidings and the stabling sidings in Shek Kong, ventilation facilities at Mai Po, Ngau Tam Mei and Pat Heung, along with an emergency access point at Tai Kong Po.

The Regional Express Line originally envisaged in the Railway Development Strategy 2000 proposed by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (HKSAR Government), has now become the Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link (XRL). In April 2008, the HKSAR Government asked the MTR Corporation to carry out further planning and design of the Express Rail Link. Subsequently, the HKSAR Government gazetted the Scheme for the Express Rail Link under the Railways Ordinance to collect public views.

On 20 October 2009, the Chief Executive in Council authorized the Scheme and the Amendments of the Scheme of the Express Rail Link. On 16 January 2010, the Finance Committee of the Legislative Council approved the funding application for the construction of the Express Rail Link. The construction commenced in late January 2010[1] with a target opening by the end of 2017. In October 2014 an MTR report warned that the revised budget of HK$71.5 billion might be at risk.[23] This section had been expected to open in 2015, but severe storms flooded the tunnels and caused immense damage to the Tunnel Boring Machines in March 2014.[24] According to the Rail Merger Bill, MTR Corporation will lease the rights to conduct operations on this line, until December 1, 2057[25]。.

The corridor is expected to carry about 99,000 passengers a day by 2016. The estimated journey time after the construction of corridor will reduce to 14 minutes between WKT and Futian stations, 23 minutes between Hong Kong and Shenzhen North and 48 minutes between Hong Kong and Guangzhou South.

Construction[edit]

West Kowloon Terminus construct site
  • This commenced on December 30, 2004, in line with the overall commencement of the Wuhan-Guangzhou passenger line, building the new Guangzhou South station.
  • September 2005, the National Development and Reform Commission officially approved the "Shenzhen-Hong Kong railway passenger line from Guangzhou to Shenzhen section Feasibility Study"
  • December 18, 2005, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link's Guangzhou–Shenzhen section began formal construction.
  • January 2010, Construction commences on the Hong Kong section.
  • March 2011, Completion of the 10.8-km-long Shiziyang Tunnel to allow the railway to cross the Shiziyang Channel (Chinese: 狮子洋) of the Pearl River between the Dongchong and Humen Stations.[26][27]
  • December 26, 2011, the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Guangzhou–Shenzhen section opened to Shenzhen North.
  • March 30, 2014, Severe storm hits Hong Kong, flooding the tunnels and damaged the Tunnel Boring Machines. This has caused a two year delay to construction.
  • December 31, 2014, The tunnel linking Shenzhen North Railway Station and Futian Station was reported completed.[28] The construction of the tunnel, which runs about 10 kilometers, took about six years.

Operations[edit]

At present, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail operates around 65 pairs of trains a day, six pairs of separate lines on weekends and with a peak of 20 pairs, including:

  • Guangzhou South ↔ Chaozhou - eight pairs, a separate peak line two pairs
  • Guangzhou South ↔ Shenzhen North - 23 pairs, a separate line of six pairs of weekend and peak line 16 pairs
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Changsha South 10 pairs
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Huaihua South - 1 pair
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Nanchang - two pairs
  • Wuhan ↔ Shenzhen North - 12 pairs
  • Yichang ↔ Shenzhen North - 1 pair
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Zhengzhou East - 2 pairs, 1 extra pair of during peaks
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Xi'an North - 3 pairs, a separate peak line one pair
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Shijiazhuang - 1 pair
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Beijing West - 2 pairs
  • Shenzhen North ↔ Guilin North - 3 pairs

In December 2014, overnight high-speed sleeper trains were added to several long distance destinations, such as Beijing.

Stations[edit]

Shenzhen North Railway Station east square

Trains and Equipment[edit]

CRH380A EMU

Currently Railway Bureau using this line and the train types used are as follows:

Railway Bureau Train Type
Guangzhou Railway Bureau
CRH3CCRH380BKCRH380BL
Nanchang Railway Bureau
CRH380A
Wuhan Railway Bureau
CRH380AL
Zhengzhou Railway Bureau
CRH380AL
Xi'an Railway Bureau
CRH380AL
Beijing Railway Bureau
CRH380ACRH380AL

In Hong Kong, MTR announced their intention to purchase several high-speed EMU. The tender (contract number: 840) was for 9 trainsets, each with 8 cars and a maximum operating speed of 350 km. With three classes of service, the train will be fitted with ordinary seats, business seats and VIP seats. This resulted in Chinese company CSR Sifang as the successful bidder, based on the Harmony CRH380A model.[29] Purchase contract was signed on April 16, 2012 at the headquarters of MTR.[30]

Tickets[edit]

Train fare table G numbered trains (VIP seat fare / Busiess Class fare / First Class fare / Second Class fare; Unit: yuan; tickets for children, disabled veterans half price tickets, student tickets seventy-five second seat discount)

Guangzhou South
64.5 / 44.5 / 34.5 / 24.5 Qingshen
99.5 / 59.5 / 49.5 / 34.5 39.5 /24.5 /19.5 / 14.5 Humen
169.5 / 99.5 /84.5 / 59.5 104.5 / 64.5 / 54.5 / 40 64.5 / 44.5 / 34.5 / 24.5 Guangmingcheng
199.5 / 119.5 / 99.5 / 74.5 139.5 / 84.5 / 69.5 / 49.5 104.5 / 64.5 / 54.5 / 39.5 39.5 / 24.5 / 19.5 / 14.5 Shenzhen North

Accidents and Incidents[edit]

  • At 6:30 on February 18, 2012, power supply equipment failure, resulting in train delays.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "High speed rail link project delayed". RTHK. 16 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "立法会参考资料摘要:铁路发展策略". 香港特别行政区立法会. 2000-05-16. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  3. ^ "广深港高速走东站还是番禺?". 金羊网. 2002-09-22. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  4. ^ "鐵路發展策略2000". 香港特别行政区运输局. 2000-05. Retrieved 2011-03-06.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ "香港研究在京港线、沪港线开通磁悬浮列车". 中新网. 2001-08-16. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  6. ^ "磁 浮 列 車 一 小 時 內 抵 廣 州". 星岛日报. 2001-09-29. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  7. ^ "新闻公报:政務司司長談話全文". 香港特别行政区新闻署. 2001-09-29. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  8. ^ "穗深港间建磁浮列车? 铁道部称视沪样板表现". 东方网. 2003-01-03. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  9. ^ 孙静惟 (2002-01-01). "港深穗研建高速铁路". 大公报. 
  10. ^ "港粵合作進入更高層次". 文汇报. 2002-02-02. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  11. ^ "广深港间拟建区域快线 可能采用磁悬浮列车". 新华网. 2002-02-01. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  12. ^ "立法会内务委员会 特别会议纪要". 香港特别行政区立法会. 2002-04-19. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  13. ^ "立法会十题:广深港高速铁路规划中". 香港特别行政区政府运输及房屋局. 2004-11-10. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  14. ^ "财务委员会审核二OO四至O五年度开支预算 管制人员的答覆". 香港特别行政区立法会. 2004-05-23. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  15. ^ "新闻公报:政务司司长促进内地与香港基建合作". 香港特别行政区政府新闻署. 2002-09-20. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  16. ^ "广深港高速铁路倾向于轮轨 40分钟广州到香港". 广州日报. 2003-08-07. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  17. ^ 地下高铁站广深港客运专线深圳福田站设计 杨芳龙 《山西建筑》2010年19期
  18. ^ 廣深港高速鐵路正式拍板 香港到深圳只需14分鐘
  19. ^ 广深港专线光明站施工 至中心区将仅10分钟
  20. ^ 广深港高铁全长142公里 龙华到达香港只需14分钟
  21. ^ 在广州南站候車廳展示的广州鐵路樞紐總平面布置示意圖,明確標出东涌站及光明站為廣深客運專線(即本線路)車站
  22. ^ 熊薇, 许晓蕾, 马强 (2011-07-25). "广深港高铁开通在即 "东涌站"更名"庆盛站"". 南方都市报. Retrieved 2011-07-25. 
  23. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent and Kao, Tsung-Chung and Budzier, Alexander, Report to the Independent Board Committee on the Hong Kong Express Rail Link Project (in MTR Independent Board Committee, Second Report by the Independent Board Committee on the Express Rail Link Project, MTR, Hong Kong, pp. A1–A122) (October 28, 2014).
  24. ^ Breakbulk Staff (2014-04-17). "Damaged TBM Delays Hong Kong to Guangzhou Rail Link". Break Bulk. Retrieved 2014-12-31. 
  25. ^ 立法會參考資料摘要:廣深港高速鐵路香港段(第11至16段),2008年4月22日,運輸及房屋局
  26. ^ China starts work on first underwater railway tunnel
  27. ^ China completes construction of world's fastest underwater railway tunnel, 2011-03-12
  28. ^ "Tunnel Completed". Shenzhen Daily. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  29. ^ 中国南车中标香港高铁列车合约
  30. ^ 中国南车获香港高铁13.6亿元订单
  31. ^ 广深港高铁供电设备故障 多趟车晚点

External links[edit]