Help:IPA for Slovene

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Slovene pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

English approximations are in some cases very loose, and only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation. See Slovene phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Slovene.

Consonants
IPA Letter Tonal
orth.
Examples nearest English equivalent
b b bob bob
d d dan done
d͡z c brivec brije1 heads
d͡ʒ ez George
f f film film
ɡ g gora gore
ɣ h vrh drevesa1 Spanish razgo
j j jaz2 yaw
k k kolo cola
l l, lj2 luka Luke
m m morje more
n n, nj2 ne no
ŋ n banka3 bank
p p pet pet
r r robot robot (trilled)
s s stol stole
ʃ š šum shell
t t ti tattoo
t͡s c car shorts
t͡ʃ č čaj church
v f filozof Dolar1 van
ʋ v voda van (weaker)
w l, v ł cerkev4 we
x h harfa (Scottish) loch
z z zima zoo
ʒ ž žaba fusion
Combinations of vowels and tone5
Low tone (or "rising") vowels
IPA Letter Stress
orth.
Tonal
orth.6,7
Examples nearest English equivalent
àː a á danes father
ɛ̀ː e ê é zemlja British square
èː é ẹ́ cerkev late
ə̀ è ə̀ sem (stressed) about
ə̀r r ŕ vrba US: verb (trilled)
ìː i í hiša least
ɔ̀ː o ô ó poten more
òː ó ọ́ erotičen goat
ùː u ú trup scoop
High tone (or "falling") vowels
á a à ȁ brat father (shorter)
áː á ȃ grad father
ɛ́ e è ȅ met let
ɛ́ː ê ȇ adverb British square
éː é ẹ̑ kreda late
ə́ è ə̏ pes about
ə́r r ŕ ȓ trg US: verb (trilled)
í i ì ȉ bik list
íː í ȋ list least
ɔ́ o ò ȍ on lot
ɔ́ː ô ȏ alkova more
óː ó ọ̑ pot goat
ǿ ö ö̀ ö̏ [example needed]8 Somewhat like nurse (shorter)
ú u ù ȕ kruh foot
úː ú ȗ romunščina scoop
ý ü ǜ ü̏ Türk8 German Psychologie
Unstressed vowels
a a žena father (shorter)
ɛ e medved let
ə e ə danes about
ər er, r ər, r koder, potrditi US: verb (trilled)
i i biti list
ɔ o potok lot
u u mamut foot
Stress7
IPA Examples explanation
ˈ [ˈsə̀m] Primary stress

Notes[edit]

^1 In standard Slovenian [d͡z ɣ v] are allophones of /t͡s x f/ that occur before voiced consonants.[1]
^2 Orthographic sequences lj nj rj are pronounced /lj nj rj/ only if a vowel follows, otherwise the /j/ is not pronounced. In the case of rj it is reflected in the orthography, but for lj nj it is not.
^3 [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before /k g x/.[2][3]
^4 In standard Slovene [w] is an allophone of /v/ (also /l/ in some cases) before consonants and pause.[3] However, it is equally valid to consider it a phoneme because of minimal pairs like pọ̑l "pole" - pọ̑ł "half"
^5 Some scholars[4] have found that vowel length in standard Slovene is no longer distinctive,[3][5][6] and that the only differences in vowel length are that the stressed vowels are longer than the unstressed ones,[5][7] and that stressed open syllables are longer than stressed closed syllables.[5]
^6 Tonic marks are not part of the orthography, but are found in dictionaries, such as "Slovenski pravopis 2001".  Tone marks can also be found on r, which signifies the sequence /ər/.
^7 Wherever possible, one should transcribe Slovene with both tonic and stress marks. If the correct tones are unknown, it is acceptable to put only a stress-based transcription.
^8 Present only in loanwords and dialectal words; can be substituted by /ɛ́/ (in case of /ǿ/) and /í/ (in case of /ý/).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Herrity (2000:16)
  2. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  3. ^ a b c Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  4. ^ For example Srebot-Rejec (1988) and Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999)
  5. ^ a b c Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene". 
  6. ^ Srebot-Rejec (1988)
  7. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:137)

Bibliography[edit]