Honda CX series
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1981 Honda CX500
|Successor||GL500 Silverwing, ST series (influenced)|
|Engine||500–673 cc water-cooled longitudinal OHV 80° V-twin, 4 valves per cylinder|
|Power||50-77 hp (97 hp turbo)|
The Honda CX series motorcycles, including the GL500 and GL650 variants, were developed and released by Honda in the late 1970s, with production ending in most markets by the mid 1980s. The design included innovative features and technologies that were uncommon or unused at the time such as liquid cooling, electric-only starting, low-maintenance shaft drive, modular wheels, and dual CV-type carburetors that were tuned for reduced emissions. The electronic ignition system was separated from the rest of the electrical system, enabling the motorcycle to be push-started and ridden in case of a total electrical system failure.
Power train 
The CX series feature a crankshaft configuration aligned longitudinally with the axis of bike, sometimes called a "flying" V-twin, because the cylinders point up on either side of the motorcycle but are not symmetrical. The CX was the first V-twin motorcycle that Honda ever built. Honda built a prototype CX350 but it was never released to the public. In that version the cylinder heads did not have the characteristic 22 degree twist. It was initially designed as a 90 degree V-twin. The crankshaft is located above the transmission, with both in the same housing. This keeps the engine short (length wise) but quite tall.
The engine design combines a 10.0:1 compression ratio and 9,650 rpm redline with overhead valves and a camshaft nestled at the base of the V between the cylinders. There are four overhead valves per cylinder, with forked rocker arms acting off each pushrod.
The transmission spins opposite the engine crank to counteract the engine torque's tendency to tip the bike slightly to one side when the throttle is opened or closed. Power is transferred via an enclosed splined driveshaft with one universal joint. The shaft drives a bevel gear to which the wheel is joined via a cush-drive, which absorbs and dampens driveline shocks and vibrations. The bevel drive spins in an oil bath, and a zerk fitting is provided for greasing the shaft bearing.
The Com-Star wheels combine the flexibility of spoked wheels with the strength and tubeless characteristics of one-piece wheels. Honda introduced the Com-Star wheels a year or so earlier on the CB250T/400T Dream as well as on the CB750F2 and GL1000 Gold Wing, although these featured standard rims that demanded inner tubes to be used.
Early versions had conventional suspension, consisting of hydraulically damped telescoping front forks and dual coil-over shocks at the rear. Later versions had air-assisted forks and featured Honda's Pro-Link monoshock rear suspension. US bikes (except GL500I, GL650I and Turbo) were equipped with a single front disc brake whereas all other bike possess dual front disc brakes. Models after 1980 sport dual piston calipers replacing the single piston caliper of the earlier models. For the Turbo and Eurosport models the rear drum was replaced with a dual piston caliper and disc. All models feature steel tube frames with a large backbone, with the engine used as a stressed member. The dual shock models use a single tube backbone whereas the later Pro-Link models employed a triple tube backbone.
The 1978 CX500 Standard had a large fuel tank, stepped seat, a round brake fluid reservoir and a plastic mini-fairing that was thought to look unusual at the time, and gave the bike the nickname "plastic maggot". Turn signals extend out through the mini fairing from the headlight's centerline. The CX500 Standard had silver Comstar wheels, 19 inch in front and 18 inch in the rear.[clarification needed]
While V-twins were nothing new, Moto Guzzi had been mounting them with the crankshaft inline with the frame with shaft drive for many years, this Honda was decidedly different. Not only was the 500 cc engine water-cooled, but it had four valves per cylinder that were operated by pushrods rather than the overhead cams favored by Honda on its previous four-stroke engine designs.
The styling was radical and upright forks and a short engine contributed to a stubby wheelbase on a bike that was rather tall. The CX500 was one of the first recipients of Honda's new Comstar wheels (and later, on B models, reverse Comstar and a square brake fluid reservoir), which measured 19 in (480 mm) in front and 16 in (410 mm) at the back.
The fuel tank tapered toward the front and a huge half-moon tail light jutted out from a short fairing behind the radically stepped seat. The end result was a mix of standard, sport, and cruiser features.
CX500 Custom 
The "Custom" variant, introduced in 1979, had a smaller, narrower tank and buckhorn handlebars. The headlight and gauges were similar to the CX500 Deluxe. Turn signals were now mounted along the fork tubes, below the level of the headlight. 1982 was the last model year for the CX500. In 1983 it was bumped up to 673 cc and became the CX650. The CX650's styling was different, and the engine was painted black instead of silver.
CX500 Deluxe 
The "Deluxe" model appeared in 1979. This bike looked nearly identical to the original CX500 Standard, with the exception of regular (85 mph) gauges and headlight (the mini fairing was removed) and black reversed Com Star wheels - 19 inch front and 16 inch rear. 1981 was the final year for the CX500 Deluxe model.
The CX500 met with a good degree of success. It proved to be reliable and economical, being the least-expensive shaft-drive bike. Many examples still exist today, and along with the GL Silverwings, are fast becoming cult bikes. There are owners clubs throughout Europe and the rest of the world.
CX500EC Eurosport 
Introduced in 1982 the EC variant is a much improved motorcycle compared to the original 500. Sharing many parts with the CX500 Turbo introduced the same model year, the Eurosport features air pre-load assisted front forks with an anti-dive mechanism, known as TRAC (Torque Reactive Anti-dive Control), and an air pre-load assisted prolink mono-shock rear suspension. The wheels were also modified, with an 18-inch-diameter (460 mm) restyled round hole comstar front with a 100–90H18 tyre, whilst on the rear is a 120–80H18 tyre. The brakes are vastly improved with much more effective twin pot calipers on the front and a new disc brake with twin pot caliper on the rear replacing the original drum. The Eurosport is also significantly restyled with a larger fuel tank, a nose fairing, side panels, seat, and tail unit that share much more modern lines. In the UK only two colour options were made: white metallic with blue and red striping, or black with orange and silver stripes. The instrumentation is improved with the introduction of a fuel gauge and like the rest of the bike a much updated appearance. Plastic mudguards replace the chromed steel versions on the earlier machines curing the associated rust problems. The round headlight of the early bikes is also replaced with a rectangular lens which gives improved night lighting.
The changes extended to the engine where Honda's early 1980s issues with cam chains were dealt with via the introduction of an automatic tensioner replacing the manual version on the earlier models. Other changes also meant that the standard valve clearances were reduced, possibly through tighter manufacturing control. Eurosport model engines are identifiable via the lack of a cam chain tensioner bolt and the revised valve covers which feature black painted stripes and satin alloy flat areas.
The changes made the 500 Eurosport significantly better to both look at and ride, and more reliable than the previous versions. The later CX650ED shared the majority of the cosmetic changes introduced by the 500EC, whilst in Japan a 400 cc version was introduced with the same styling to comply with licence rules.
GL500 and GL650 Silverwing 
|Engine||OHV, liquid-cooled V-twin engine
495 cc (GL500)
674 cc (GL650)
|Power||48 hp (36 kW; 49 PS) (GL500)
60 hp (45 kW; 61 PS) (GL650)
|Transmission||5-speed, shaft drive|
|Suspension||Front: Air-adjustable forks
|Brakes||Dual front disc|
|Wheelbase||1496 mm (58.9 in)|
|Seat height||775 mm (30.5 in)|
|Weight||217 kg (480 lb) (dry)
240 kg (530 lb) (wet)
|Fuel capacity||17.5 L (4.6 US gal)|
In 1981 Honda released the GL500 Silverwing, which was a mid-sized touring bike based on the CX500 engine. The GL500 engine was similar to the CX500 engine, but used the more reliable transistorized ignition system, which meant the stator would contain only charging windings and thus would put out more power for operating the lights and other devices commonly added to touring motorcylcles. The GL500 also used Honda's Pro-Link monoshock rear suspension and was available as either a naked bike or as an Interstate model with fairing. The Interstate included a large factory fairing, hard saddlebags, and a trunk. This made the Silverwing look like a miniature GL1100 Goldwing. The 1981 model had a small tail trunk, which was replaced by a larger trunk in 1982. The trunk was interchangeable with the back seat—the bike is rider-only with the trunk installed, although there was an aftermarket extender available to allow the trunk to be mounted behind the passenger seat.
In 1983 the GL500 was upgraded to the GL650. Apart from the larger engine, the GL650 had a slightly different fairing mounts and front engine hanger mount than the GL500, and portions of the GL650 engine are painted black. The fuel economy of the GL650 was improved over that of the GL500 due to significantly taller gearing and the replacement of the CX/GL500's mechanical radiator fan with an electric fan.
The CX-based SilverWings were discontinued after the 1983 model year. Overproduction of the 1982 GL500 caused some to be sold new as late as 1984. These should still be titled as 1982 motorcycles, however in some cases they have mistakenly been titled as later models.
CX500 Turbo 
The CX500 Turbo was released in 1982. The CX500 Turbo (also known as the CX500TC) was only produced for the 1982 model year. It was superseded by the CX650TC (CX650 Turbo) for the 1983 model year, which was itself discontinued the same year. It had a complex for the time, programmed fuel injection system with redundant fail-safe systems working in tandem with a separate ignition system. Electronic system failures were reported to the driver through two dashboard displays: an issue with the fuel injection system would light a "Fuel System" light on the dashboard and an issue with the ignition would flash the "TURBO" indicator.
The CX500TC powerplant was based on the water-cooled V-twin with four pushrod-operated overhead valves per cylinder configuration used in the CX500 introduced a few years earlier. The engine case was retained nearly intact from the original CX500. The turbocharger, at peak boost providing approximately 19 psi boost nearly doubles the power output of the engine. The engine case is one of the few items carried over from the original CX500 to the Turbo; the suspension, brakes, frame and fairing all differ significantly from the earlier CX500, though the Pro-Link rear suspension and TRAC (Torque Reactive Andi-dive Control) were used on subsequent models.
The CX650 Custom was a one year model produced in 1983 for the US market. Its unique cruiser type styling sets it apart from all other CX variants. The frame is completely different, and the styling was marketed to accommodate the American desire for the low stretched look of American cruiser bikes. Its semi chopped fork, tear drop tank, low seat and truncated exhaust gave it a very rakish look. However, it was very similar in styling and price range to the 750 Shadow and Honda elected to have only one cruiser bike in that class, thus the reason for its short model life.
The CX650ED or Eurosport was also introduced in 1983 and was cosmetically very similar to the CX500 Eurosport produced the previous year. It was aimed at the UK, European, Canadian, and Australian markets. The brakes, suspension and handling were advanced in comparison to CX500 variants. The model shares many common features with the CX500TC. TRAC anti-dive forks, Pro-Link rear suspension, twin-pot brakes and disc front and back. Though this model was not sold in the US, some have been imported by private owners.
For the 1983 model year, the engine of the CX500 Turbo was increased to 673 cc, together with an increase in power. In addition to the increase in displacement, the compression ratio was increased and the maximum boost pressure was lowered thus making for a smoother transition from off-boost to on-boost. The fuel-injection control system was substantially revised for the CX650 Turbo, and the rear shock received an update as well by adding a manually operated damping control mechanism in addition to the "air" pre-load of the previous model.
Cosmetically, the CX650 Turbo differs little from its predecessor other than in colors and badging. However, in a cost-cutting exercise, Honda manufactured the 650 Turbo fairing from ABS plastic as opposed to the 500 turbo's GRP. Honda built 1,777 models, with fewer than 1,200 imported to the U.S. and Canada.
Other variants 
The Japanese and European market saw 400 cc versions of the CX and GL, aptly named the CX400 and GL400. In Japan the GL650 SilverWing Interstate was released as the Limited Edition GL700 Wing Interstate, although it used the same 674 cc engine that was used in the GL650. Also in Australia, the 1980-1982 CX500 'standard' models were known as the "CX500 Shadow".
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