Jagiellonian dynasty

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Jagiellonian dynasty
COA family pl Jagiellon.svg
Country Coat of Arms of the Polish Crown.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coa Hungary Country History (14th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Blason Boheme.svg Kingdom of Bohemia
Parent house Gediminids
Titles King of Poland
King of Hungary
King of Bohemia
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Founded 1386
Founder Władysław II Jagiełło
Final ruler Anna Jagiellon of Poland
Dissolution 1572
At the end of the 15th century, the Jagiellonians reigned over vast territories stretching from the Baltic to the Black to the Adriatic Sea.

The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen (strictly King[1]) Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526).

The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as the Eastern branch of the House of Habsburg.

Name[edit]

The name comes from Jagiełło, the first Grand Duke of Lithuania to become King of Poland. In Polish, the dynasty is known as Jagiellonowie and the patronymic form: Jagiellończyk; in Lithuanian it is called Jogailaičiai, in Belarusian Яґайлавічы (Jagajłavičy), in Hungarian Jagelló, and in Czech Jagellonci, as well as Jagello or Jagellon in Latin.

Pre-dynasty background[edit]

The rule of Piasts, the earlier Polish ruling house (c. 962–1370) had ended with the death of King Casimir III the Great. Gediminids, the immediate predecessors of the first Jagiellonian, were rulers of medieval Lithuania with the title of Grand Duke. Their realm, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was chiefly inhabited by Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

Jogaila, the eponymous first ruler of the Jagiellonin dynasty, started as the Grand Duke of Lithuania. As a result of the Union of Krewo he then converted to Christianity and married the 11-year-old Hedwig of Poland (Jadwiga in Polish) (daughter of King Louis I of Hungary from the Angevins Dynasty). Thereby he became King of Poland and founded the dynasty. Angevin rulers were the second and Jagiellonian third dynasty of Polish Kings.

Jagiellonian Kings of Poland[edit]

Jagiellon Family
Portrait Name Born Died Reign Spouse
Wladislaus II Jagiello of Poland.PNG Władysław II Jagiełło ca. 1362 1434 1386-1434 Jadwiga of Poland
Anne of Cilli
Elisabeth of Pilica
Sophia of Halshany
Bacciarelli - Władysław III.jpeg Władysław III of Poland 1424 1444 1434-1444 Poland
1440-1444 Hungary
none
Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG Casimir IV Jagiellon 1427 1492 1447-1492 Elisabeth of Austria
Jan olbracht.jpg John I Albert 1459 1501 1492-1501 none
Alexander of Poland.PNG Alexander I Jagiellon 1461 1506 1501-1506 Helena of Moscow
Sigismund I of Poland.PNG Sigismund I the Old 1467 1548 1507-1548 Barbara Zápolya
Bona Sforza
Sigismundus II Augustus of Poland.PNG Sigismund II Augustus 1520 1572 1530/1548-1572 Elisabeth of Austria
Barbara Radziwiłł
Catherine of Austria

After Sigismund II Augustus, the dynasty underwent further changes. Sigismund II's heirs were his sisters Anna Jagiellon and Catherine Jagiellon. The latter had married Duke John of Finland, who thereby from 1569 became King John III of Sweden, and they had a son, Sigismund III Vasa; as a result, the Polish branch of the Jagiellonians merged with the House of Vasa, which ruled Poland from 1587 until 1668. During the interval, among others, Stephen Báthory, the husband of the childless Anna, reigned.

Jagiellonian Kings of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia[edit]

At one point, the Jagiellonians established dynastic control also over the kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary (from 1490 onwards), with Vladislaus Jagiello whom several history books call Vladisla(u)s II. After being elected and crowned King of Hungary, Vladislaus moved his court to Hungary from where he ruled both countries and his children were born and raised. By Louis' sudden death in Battle of Mohács in 1526, that royal line was extinguished in male line.

Portrait Name Born Died Reign Spouse
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.jpg Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary 1456 1516 1471–1516 Bohamia
1490–1516 Hungary and Croatia
Barbara of Brandenburg
Beatrice of Naples
Anne of Foix-Candale
Lajos II.jpg Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia 1506 1526 1516–1526 Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia Mary of Austria

Other members of the Jagiellonian dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Born Died Spouse Offices and Titles
JadwigaJagiellonka.jpg Hedwig Jagiellon of Poland 1457 1502 George, Duke of Bavaria Duchess of Bavaria-Landshut
Schultz Saint Casimir.jpg Saint Casimir 1458 1484 none Saint of the Roman Catholic Church
Patron saint of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Zofia Jagiellonka 2.jpg Sophia Jagiellon of Poland 1464 1512 Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Margravine of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Fryderyk Jagiellończyk-epitaph.jpg Fryderyk Jagiellończyk 1468 1503 none Archbishop of Gniezno
Bishop of Kraków
Primate of Poland
Anna Jagiellonka Duchess of Pomerania.jpg Anna Jagiellon of Poland 1476 1534 Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania Duchess consort of Pomerania
Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Bildnis Barbara von Sachsen (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin).jpg Barbara Jagiellon of Poland 1478 1503 George, Duke of Saxony Duchess consort of Saxony
Margravine consort of Meissen
Hans maler anne jagelon.jpg Anne of Bohemia and Hungary 1503 1547 Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Queen consort of the Romans
Queen consort of Bohemia and Hungary
Jadwiga Jagiellonka.jpg Hedwig Jagiellon of Poland 1513 1573 Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg Electress consort of Brandenburg
Cranach the Younger Isabella Jagiellon.jpg Isabella Jagiellon of Poland 1519 1559 John Zápolya Queen consort of Eastern Hungary
Cranach the Younger Sophia Jagiellon.jpg Sophia Jagiellon of Poland 1522 1575 Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Duchess consort of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brienne claim
Martin Kober 002.jpg Anna Jagiellon of Poland 1523 1596 Stephen Báthory King of Poland
Queen consort of Poland
Brienne claim
Cranach the Younger Catherine Jagiellon.jpg Catherine Jagiellon of Poland 1526 1583 John III of Sweden Queen consort of Sweden

Legacy[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Małgorzata Duczmal, Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków 1996.
  • Stanisław Grzybowski, Dzieje Polski i Litwy (1506-1648), Kraków 2000. ISBN 83-85719-48-2
  • Paweł Jasienica, Polska Jagiellonów (1963), ISBN 978-83-7469-522-0
  • Wojciech Dominiak, Bożena Czwojdrak, Beata Jankowiak-Konik, Jagiellonowie
  • Marek Derwich, Monarchia Jagiellonów (1399-1586)
  • Krzysztof Baczkowski, Polska i jej sąsiedzi za Jagiellonów

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland — Hedvig Rex Poloniæ, not Hedvig Regina Poloniæ. Polish law had no provision for a female ruler (queen regnant), but did not specify that the King had to be a male. The masculine gender of her title was also meant to emphasize that she was monarch in her own right, not a queen consort.

External links[edit]