Jamma'in

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Jammain
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic جمّاعين
 • Also spelled Jamma'in (official)
Jamma'een (unofficial)
Jammain is located in the Palestinian territories
Jammain
Jammain
Location of Jammain within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 32°07′52″N 35°12′03″E / 32.13111°N 35.20083°E / 32.13111; 35.20083Coordinates: 32°07′52″N 35°12′03″E / 32.13111°N 35.20083°E / 32.13111; 35.20083
Governorate Nablus
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Head of Municipality 'Izzat Zeitawi
Area
 • Jurisdiction 19,821 dunams (19.8 km2 or 7.6 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 • Jurisdiction 6,225
Name meaning "Company"[1]

Jamma'in (Arabic: جمّاعين‎) is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank located 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) southwest of Nablus, 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) northwest of Salfit and 40 kilometers (25 mi) north of Ramallah. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 6,227 in 2007.[2]

History[edit]

Jamma'in is situated on a high hill on the ancient site. Carved stones have been reused in village houses, walls, fencing and agricultural terraces. Rock-cut cisterns have also been found. 400 meters north-west are tombs carved into rock which contains one loculi and caves (called I-Qubay'ah). Late Roman and Byzantine ceramics has also been found.[3]

In the 11th and 12th centuries, the village was a centre for Hanbali activity.[4]

The town has been inhabited since the mid-Islamic era of rule in Palestine and Saladin camped with his army in Jamma’in.[citation needed] The original inhabitants of the town were Bani Qudama[5][citation needed] who moved to Damascus and established Salihiyah suburb in 1156 AD. During their stay in the town, they constructed its first mosque.[citation needed]

Yaqut described the site as "A well in the hill of Nabulus, in the Filastin Province. It lies a day´s journey distant from Jerusalem, and belongs to that city."[4][6]

A village in the Crusader area (1123 CE), named Gemmail,[7] has been identified with Jamma'in.[4]

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Jamma'in was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers as being in the nahiya of Jabal Qubal in the liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 18 households and 5 bachelors, all Muslim. The inhabitants of the village paid taxes on wheat, barley, summer crops, olive trees, goats and/or beehives, and a press for grapes or olives[8]

In the 17th century, the Qasim family ruled Jamma'in and twenty nearby villages, including Awarta, Beit Wazan, Haris and Zeita Jamma'in. Jamma'in was the seat of the Jamma'in subdistrict of the District of Nablus. In 1834, when the Egyptians under Muhammad Ali conquered Palestine from the Ottomans, Ottoman-aligned Arab families in Palestine revolted under the leadership of Ahmad al-Qasim. The revolt, however, was crushed, and Ahmad al-Qasim and his two eldest sons were hanged.[9][10] Along with the Qasim tribe, the Zeitawi tribe also settled in the town from Zeita Jamma'in in the 17th century.

The French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village (which he called Djemma'in) in 1870, and he estimated it had fourteen hundred inhabitants. The houses were better built than many other places in Palestine, and some seemed newly rebuilt.[11]

In 1882 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described Jemmain as "the largest village in the district, on high ground, surrounded with olive groves. The water suppy is from a pool and a well east of the village."[12]

British Mandate of Palestine[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jammain had a population of 720, all Muslim,[13] increasing in the 1931 census to 957, still all Muslim, in 202 houses.[14]

In 1945 Jamma'in had a population of 1,240, all Arabs, with 19,821 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[15] Of this, 5,362 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 6,625 used for cereals,[16] while 77 dunams were built-up land.[17]

1948-1967[edit]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Jamma'in came under Jordanian rule.

1967-present[edit]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Jamma'in has been under Israeli occupation.

Like many other Palestinian localities in the West Bank, Jamma'in's residents have been involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and have been a target of several raids by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Since the First Intifada in 1987, six people from the town have been killed by the IDF and hundrerds of its residents have been imprisoned.

Economy[edit]

The two most prominent economic sectors of Jamma'in is stone-cutting and agriculture. Since the Second Intifada, the stone-cutting industry has grown weaker due to the cost of electricity increasing and the cost of stone, to Israel and Jordan, has decreased. Some people work in Palestinian government offices in Ramallah. Basket-weaving is not a major economic sector, but along with Zeita and az-Zawiya, Jamma'in is well known for producing baskets made from olive wood fronds.[18]

Olives are the primary crop grown. There are two or three sheep and cow farms in Jamma'in. Milk, yogurt and cheese are sold in the town. There are two mosques, a religious charity and a library in the town.

There are five schools in Jamma'in; Two boys' schools, two girls' schools and co-ed school. Over 90% of the population over the age of 10 is literate. Most university students attend the an-Najah National University.

Government[edit]

Jamma'in is mostly located in Area B, putting it under Israeli military control, but Palestinian administrative and civil control. It is governed by a municipal council of eleven members, including one reserved for females. In the 2005 Palestinian municipal elections, the Hamas-backed Al-Islamiya for Reform list won seven seats, the majority, and the Fatah-backed Martyrs list won three seats and an Independent list won the remaining seat. Female candidates won two seats.[19] 'Izzat Mahmoud Zeitawi succeeded Ahmad Mahmoud Zeitawi as head of the municipality of Jamma'in.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 229
  2. ^ 2007 PCBS Census. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p.110.
  3. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 807
  4. ^ a b c Finkelstein and Lederman, 1997, p. 506
  5. ^ ar:ابن قدامة
  6. ^ Le Strange, 1890, p. 462
  7. ^ Röhricht, 1893, RHH, p. 23, #101
  8. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 133
  9. ^ Beshara, Doumani. (1995). Rediscovering Palestine: Egyptian rule, 1831-1840 University of California Press.
  10. ^ Stuart Macalister, 1905, p. 355
  11. ^ Guérin, 1875, pp. 172-3
  12. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 284
  13. ^ Barron, 1923, Table IX, Sub-district of Nablus, p. 25
  14. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 62.
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 60
  16. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 106
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 156
  18. ^ PACE’s Exhibit of Traditional Palestinian Handicrafts Palestinian Association for Cultural Exchange.
  19. ^ Local Elections (Round two)- Successful candidates by local authority, gender and No. of votes obtained Central Elections Commission - Palestine, p.11.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]