Huwara

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For the town in north Jordan, see Huwwarah.
Huwara
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic حُوّاره
 • Also spelled Howwarah (official)
Huwara (unofficial)
Entrance to Huwara checkpoint
Entrance to Huwara checkpoint
Huwara is located in the Palestinian territories
Huwara
Huwara
Location of Huwara within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 32°09′09″N 35°15′24″E / 32.15250°N 35.25667°E / 32.15250; 35.25667Coordinates: 32°09′09″N 35°15′24″E / 32.15250°N 35.25667°E / 32.15250; 35.25667
Governorate Nablus
Government
 • Type Municipality
Area
 • Jurisdiction 7,982 dunams (7.982 km2 or 3.082 sq mi)
Population (2007)[1]
 • Jurisdiction 5,570
Name meaning "White marl"[2]

Huwara (Arabic: حُوّاره‎, ḥuwwarah, About this sound Arabic pronunciation ; Hebrew: חווארה)[3] is a Palestinian town located in the Nablus Governorate of the northern West Bank, 9 kilometres (6 mi) south of Nablus and forms an enclave between four Israeli settlements.[4] It is approximately 4 miles (6 km) from Jacob's Well.[3] As part of the West Bank Closures system, the town contained the main Israeli checkpoint, Huwwara Checkpoint, to enter the nearby city of Nablus, until 2011 when the IDF decided to dismantle it in order to ease traffic between Nablus and Ramallah.[5] According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 5,800 in 2006.[6]

The first elementary school was established in 1947, the school was converted into secondary school in 1962, the first female elementary school was established in 1957. Huwara Elementary as well as secondary schools serves infants from neighboring villages up to the present time.

Huwara contains four major clans. The main clan is the Odeh clan, which contains many families including the Mohammad, the Shaaweet, the Shhada, and Sleem. The second major clan is Ethmedeh.

History[edit]

Huwara is an ancient site, and cisterns and graves in rock have been found, together with remains of columns.[7]

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Hawara was inhabited by Muslims.[8]

Ottoman era[edit]

The village was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Jabal Qubal of the Liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 87 households, all Muslim. The villagers paid taxes on wheat, barley, summer crops, olives, goats and/or beehives, and a press for olives or grapes.[9]

In 1838, Robinson described Huwara as a "large and old village".[10]

In the 1850s the Ottoman rulers withdrew their soldiers from the district (to be used in the Crimean War), and hence open hostility could ensue between different Palestinian factions.[11] In 1853, Huwara was engaged in a battle with the neighboring villages of Quza and Beita which left ten men and seven women dead.[12]

The French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in 1870. He found the village, (which he called Haouarah), to have about 800 inhabitants, and that it was divided into two districts, each administered by a sheikh. A wali was dedicated to Abou en-Nebyh Sahin.[13]

In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Huwarah as a village "of stone and mud at the foot of Gerizim, just over the main road. It has an appearance of antiquity, and covers a considerable extent of ground".[14]

British Mandate period[edit]

In a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Huwara had a population of 921, all Muslims,[15] increasing slightly in the 1931 census, where Huwara (together with the smaller location Bir Quza) had 240 occupied houses and a population of 955, still all Muslims.[16]

In 1945 Huwwara had a population of 1,300, all Arabs, with 7,982 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[17] Of this, 607 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 4,858 used for cereals,[18] while 129 dunams were built-up land.[19]

1948-1967[edit]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Huwara came under Jordanian rule.

1967-present[edit]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Huwara has been under Israeli occupation. It has been the target of price tag policy, that is random acts violence against them by Israeli Jewish settlers. In April 2010, settlers torched three Palestinian vehicles in Huwara,[20] while on 27 February 2011, in a price-tag operation against the evacuation of Havat Gilad, settlers threw molotov cocktails at a house in the village.[21] In March 2012 a star of David was sprayed on a village mosque.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2007 PCBS Census. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p. 110
  2. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 229
  3. ^ a b Rix, Herbert (1907). Tent and Testament: A Camping Tour in Palestine. New York, London: Scribner. p. 25. 
  4. ^ Friedman, Robert I. (2001-12-06). "And Darkness Covered the Land". The Nation. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  5. ^ Sandercock, Josie; et al. (2004). Peace Under Fire: Israel/Palestine and the International Solidarity Movement. Verso. p. 110. ISBN 1-84467-501-7. 
  6. ^ "Projected Mid -Year Population for Nablus Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  7. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 804
  8. ^ Ellenblum, 2003, pp. 244, 263
  9. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 132
  10. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, p. 93
  11. ^ Schölch, 1993, pp. 211-227
  12. ^ Avneri, 1984, p.20, citing the English consul Finn, 1878, p. 298
  13. ^ Guérin, 1874, p. 460
  14. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 284
  15. ^ Barron, 1923, Table IX, Sub-district of Nablus
  16. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 62
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 60
  18. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 106
  19. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 156
  20. ^ Saed Bannoura, 'Settler Torch Olive Orchard In Silwan,' in International Middle East Media Center, 13 May 2010
  21. ^ Yair Altman, Price tag: Palestinian cars vandalized in Hebron.' in Ynet, 1 March 2011
  22. ^ Israeli firefighters: West Bank mosque fire likely arson, May, 06, 2010, Haaretz

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]