Judy Garland

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Judy Garland
Judy Garland - publicity.JPG
Garland in the 1940's
Born Frances Ethel Gumm
(1922-06-10)June 10, 1922
Grand Rapids, Minnesota, US
Died June 22, 1969(1969-06-22) (aged 47)
Chelsea, London, England
Cause of death
Barbiturate overdose
Resting place
Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York
Education Lawlor's Professional School
Bancroft Middle School
University High School
Occupation Actress, singer, vaudevillian
Years active 1924–1969 (singer)
1929–1967 (actress)
Height 4 feet 11 inches (150 cm)
Religion Episcopalian
Spouse(s) David Rose (m. 1941; div. 1944)
Vincente Minnelli (m. 1945; div. 1951)
Sidney Luft (m. 1952; div. 1965)
Mark Herron (m. 1965; div. 1967)
Mickey Deans (m. 1969)
Children
Parents Frank Gumm
Ethel Milne
Awards List of awards and honors

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American actress, singer and vaudevillian. Described by Fred Astaire as "the greatest entertainer who ever lived" and renowned for her contralto vocals,[1] she attained international stardom throughout a career which spanned more than 40 years, as an actress in musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist and on the concert stage.[2] Respected for her versatility, she received a Juvenile Academy Award and won a Golden Globe Award as well as Grammy Awards and a Special Tony Award.

She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in the remake of A Star Is Born and for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in the 1961 film Judgment at Nuremberg. She remains the youngest recipient (at 39 years of age) of the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the motion picture industry.

After appearing in vaudeville with her two older sisters, Garland was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. There, she made more than two dozen films, including nine with Mickey Rooney, and the 1939 film with which she would be most identified, The Wizard of Oz. After 15 years, she was released from the studio but gained renewed success through record-breaking concert appearances, including a return to acting, beginning with critically acclaimed performances.

Despite her professional triumphs, Garland struggled immensely in her personal life, starting when she was a child. Her self-image was strongly influenced by film executives, who said she was unattractive and constantly manipulated her onscreen physical appearance. She was plagued by financial instability, often owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes. She married five times, with her first four marriages ending in divorce. She also had a long battle with drugs and alcohol, which ultimately led to her death at the age of 47.

In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the ten greatest female stars in the history of American cinema.[3]

Early life[edit]

Garland's birthplace in Grand Rapids, Minnesota

Born Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Garland was the youngest child of Ethel Marion (née Milne; November 17, 1893 – January 5, 1953) and Francis Avent "Frank" Gumm (March 20, 1886 – November 17, 1935). Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a movie theatre that featured vaudeville acts.

Named after both her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church, "Baby" (as she was called by her parents and sisters) shared her family's flair for song and dance. Her first appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half when she joined her two older sisters, Mary Jane "Suzy/Suzanne" Gumm (1915–1964) and Dorothy Virginia "Jimmie" Gumm (1917–1977), on the stage of her father's movie theater during a Christmas show and sang a chorus of "Jingle Bells".[4] Accompanied by their mother on piano, The Gumm Sisters performed there for the next few years.

Following rumors that Frank Gumm had made sexual advances towards male ushers, the family relocated to Lancaster, California in June 1926.[5] Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, and Ethel, acting as their manager, began working to get her daughters into motion pictures. Garland attended Hollywood High School and later graduated from University High School.[6]

Early career[edit]

The Gumm Sisters[edit]

The Gumm Sisters, a.k.a. The Garland Sisters, circa 1935. From left to right: Mary Jane, Frances Ethel (Judy Garland) and Dorothy Virginia Gumm.

In 1928, The Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe. They appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show.[7] It was through the Meglin Kiddies that they made their film debut in a 1929 short-subject called The Big Revue, where they performed a song-and-dance number called That's the good old sunny south. This was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year, A Holiday in Storyland (featuring Garland's first on-screen solo) and The Wedding of Jack and Jill. They next appeared together in Bubbles. Their final on-screen appearance came in 1935, in another short entitled La Fiesta de Santa Barbara.[8]

In 1934, the trio, who by then had been touring the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters" for many years, performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel. He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience. According to theatrical legend, their act was once erroneously billed at a Chicago theater as "The Glum Sisters."[9]

Several stories persist regarding the origin of the name "Garland." One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, which was then playing at the Oriental; another is that the girls chose the surname after drama-critic Robert Garland.[10] Garland's daughter, Lorna Luft, stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that the trio "looked prettier than a garland of flowers."[11] Another variation surfaced when he was a guest on Garland's television show in 1963. He claimed that he had sent actress Judith Anderson a telegram containing the word "garland" and it stuck in his mind.[12]

By late 1934, the Gumm Sisters had changed their name to the Garland Sisters.[13] Frances changed her name to "Judy" soon after, inspired by a popular Hoagy Carmichael song.[14] By August 1935 they were broken up when Suzanne Garland flew to Reno, Nevada, and married musician Lee Kahn, a member of the Jimmy Davis orchestra playing at Cal-Neva Lodge, Lake Tahoe.[15]

Signed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer[edit]

Garland with Mickey Rooney in Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938)

Busby Berkeley was asked by Louis B. Mayer to go downtown to the Orpheum Theater, to watch the Gumm Sisters' vaudeville act, and to report back to him. Afterwards, Judy and her mother were brought into the studio for an interview with Louis B. Mayer and Busby Berkeley. In 1935, Garland was signed to a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, supposedly without a screen test, though she had made a test for the studio several months earlier. The studio did not know what to do with her, as at age 13 she was older than the traditional child-star but too young for adult roles.

Her physical appearance created a dilemma for MGM. At only 4 feet 11.5 inches (151.1 cm), her "cute" or "girl-next-door" looks did not exemplify the more glamorous persona required of leading ladies of the time. She was self-conscious and anxious about her appearance. "Judy went to school at Metro with Ava Gardner, Lana Turner, Elizabeth Taylor, real beauties," said Charles Walters, who directed her in a number of films. "Judy was the big money-maker at the time, a big success, but she was the ugly duckling  ... I think it had a very damaging effect on her emotionally for a long time. I think it lasted forever, really."[16] Her insecurity was exacerbated by the attitude of studio chief Louis B. Mayer, who referred to her as his "little hunchback."[17]

During her early years at MGM, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the "girl-next-door" image that was created for her. She was made to wear removable caps on her teeth and rubberized disks to reshape her nose.[18]

She performed at various studio functions and was eventually cast opposite Deanna Durbin in the musical-short Every Sunday. The film contrasted her vocal range and swing style with Durbin's operatic soprano and served as an extended screen test for the pair, as studio executives were questioning the wisdom of having two girl singers on the roster.[19] Mayer finally decided to keep both actresses, but by that time Durbin's option had lapsed and she was signed by Universal Studios.

On November 16, 1935, in the midst of preparing for a radio performance on the Shell Chateau Hour, Garland learned that her father, who had been hospitalized with meningitis, had taken a turn for the worse. Frank Gumm died the following morning, on November 17, leaving her devastated. Her song for the Shell Chateau Hour was her first professional rendition of "Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart," a song which would become a standard in many of her concerts.[20]

Garland next came to the attention of studio executives by singing a special arrangement of "You Made Me Love You (I Didn't Want to Do It)" to Clark Gable at a birthday party held by the studio for the actor. Her rendition was so well regarded that she performed the song in the all-star extravaganza Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937), singing to a photograph of him.[21]

MGM hit on a winning formula when it paired Garland with Mickey Rooney in a string of "backyard musicals."[22] The duo first appeared together in the 1937 B movie Thoroughbreds Don't Cry as supporting characters. Judy was then put in the cast of the fourth of the Hardy Family movies as a literal girl-next-door to Rooney's character, Andy Hardy in Love Finds Andy Hardy, although Hardy's love interest was played by Lana Turner. They teamed as lead characters for the first time in Babes in Arms. They starred together in five additional films, including two more of the Hardy films.

To keep up with the frantic pace of making one film after another, Garland, Rooney, and other young performers were constantly given amphetamines as well as barbiturates to take before going to bed.[23] For Garland, this regular dose of drugs led to addiction and a lifelong struggle, and contributed to her eventual demise. She later resented the hectic schedule and felt that her youth had been stolen from her by MGM. Despite successful film and recording careers, awards, critical praise and her ability to fill concert halls worldwide, she was plagued throughout her life with self-doubt and required constant reassurance that she was talented and attractive.[24] Rooney denied that their childhood studio was responsible for her addiction: "Judy Garland was never given any drugs by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Mr. Mayer didn't sanction anything for Judy. No one on that lot was responsible for Judy Garland's death. Unfortunately, Judy chose that path".[25]

The Wizard of Oz[edit]

Garland as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939)

In 1938, she was cast in the main role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939), a film based on the children's book by L. Frank Baum. In this film, she sang the song with which she would forever be identified, "Over the Rainbow." Although producers Arthur Freed and Mervyn LeRoy had wanted her from the start, studio chief Mayer tried first to borrow Shirley Temple from 20th Century Fox, but they declined. Deanna Durbin was then asked but was unavailable, resulting in Garland being cast.[26]

Garland was initially outfitted in a blonde wig for the part, but Freed and LeRoy decided against it shortly into filming. Her blue gingham dress was chosen for its blurring effect on her figure.[27]

Shooting commenced on October 13, 1938,[28] and was completed on March 16, 1939,[29] with a final cost of more than US$2 million.[30] With the conclusion of filming, MGM kept Garland busy with promotional tours and the shooting of Babes in Arms, directed by Busby Berkeley. She and Rooney were sent on a cross-country promotional tour, culminating in the August 17 New York City premiere at the Capitol Theater, which included a five-show-a-day appearance schedule for the two stars.[31]

The Wizard of Oz was a tremendous critical success, though its high budget and promotions costs of an estimated US$4  million, coupled with the lower revenue generated by children's tickets, meant that the film did not make a profit until it was rereleased in the 1940s.[32] At the 1940 Academy Awards ceremony, Garland received an Academy Juvenile Award for her performances in 1939, including The Wizard of Oz and Babes in Arms.[33] Following this recognition, she became one of MGM's most bankable stars.

Adult stardom[edit]

Garland performing "The Trolley Song" in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944). This was one of the first films in her career which gave her the opportunity to be the attractive leading lady, rather than the dowdy girl next door.

In 1940, she starred in three films: Andy Hardy Meets Debutante, Strike Up the Band, and Little Nellie Kelly. In the latter, she played her first adult role, a dual role of both mother and daughter. Little Nellie Kelly was purchased from George M. Cohan as a vehicle for her to display both her audience-appeal and her physical appearance. The role was a challenge for her, requiring the use of an accent, her first adult kiss, and the only death-scene of her career.[34] The success of these three films and a further three films in 1941, secured her position at MGM as a major property.

During this time, Garland experienced her first serious adult romances. The first was with bandleader Artie Shaw. She was deeply devoted to him and was devastated in early 1940 when he eloped with Lana Turner.[35] Garland began a relationship with musician David Rose, and on her 18th birthday he gave her an engagement ring. The studio intervened because he was still married at the time to actress and singer Martha Raye. They agreed to wait a year to allow for his divorce to become final and were wed on July 27, 1941.[36] Garland, who had aborted her pregnancy by him in 1942, agreed to a trial separation in January 1943, and they divorced in 1944.[37] She was noticeably thinner in her next film, For Me and My Gal, alongside Gene Kelly in his first screen appearance. She was top billed in the credits for the first time and effectively made the transition from teenage-star to adult actress.

Promotional image for Presenting Lily Mars (1943)

At the age of 21, she was given the "glamour treatment" in Presenting Lily Mars, in which she was dressed in "grown-up" gowns. Her lightened hair was also pulled up in a stylish fashion. However, no matter how glamorous or beautiful she appeared onscreen or in photographs, she was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the "girl-next-door" image which had been created for her.[38]

One of Garland's most successful films for MGM was Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), in which she introduced three standards: "The Trolley Song", "The Boy Next Door", and "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas". Vincente Minnelli was assigned to direct, and he requested that makeup artist Dorothy Ponedel be assigned to Garland. Ponedel refined her appearance in several ways, including extending and reshaping her eyebrows, changing her hairline, modifying her lip line and removing her nose discs and dental caps. She appreciated the results so much that Ponedel was written into her contract for all her remaining pictures at MGM.

During the filming of Meet Me in St. Louis, after some initial conflict between them, Garland and Minnelli entered into a relationship. They were married June 15, 1945,[39] and on March 12, 1946, daughter Liza was born.[40] In 1951, they divorced.[41]

The Clock (1945) was her first straight dramatic film, opposite Robert Walker. Though the film was critically praised and earned a profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. It would be many years before she acted again in a nonsinging dramatic role. Garland's other famous films of the 1940s include The Harvey Girls (1946), in which she introduced the Academy Award-winning song "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe", and Till the Clouds Roll By (1946).

Leaving Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer[edit]

During filming for The Pirate in April 1947, Garland suffered a nervous breakdown and was placed in a private sanitarium.[42] She was able to complete filming, but in July she undertook her first suicide attempt, making minor cuts to her wrist with a broken glass.[43] During this period, she spent two weeks in treatment at the Austen Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.[44] The Pirate was released in 1948 and was the first film Garland had starred in since The Wizard of Oz to not show a profit. The main reasons for its failure was not only its expense, but also the increasing cost of the shooting delays while Garland was ill, as well as the fact that the general public was not yet willing to accept her in a sophisticated vehicle. Following her work on The Pirate, she co-starred for the first and only time with Fred Astaire (who replaced Gene Kelly after Kelly had broken his ankle) in Easter Parade, which became her top grossing film at M-G-M and quickly re-established her as one of Metro's primary assets.

A pregnant Garland in Till the Clouds Roll By (1946)

Thrilled by the huge box-office receipts of Easter Parade, M-G-M immediately teamed Garland and Astaire in The Barkleys of Broadway. During the initial filming, Garland was taking prescription sleeping medication along with illicitly obtained pills containing morphine. It was around this time that she also developed a serious problem with alcohol. These, in combination with migraine headaches, led her to miss several shooting days in a row. After being advised by her doctor that she would only be able to work in four-to-five-day increments with extended rest periods between, MGM executive Arthur Freed made the decision to suspend her on July 18, 1948. She was replaced by Ginger Rogers.[45] When her suspension was over, she was summoned back to work and ultimately performed two songs as a guest in the Rodgers and Hart biopic Words and Music which was her last appearance with Mickey Rooney. Despite the all-star cast, Words and Music barely broke even at the box office. Having regained her strength as well as some needed weight during her suspension, Garland felt much better and in the fall of 1948, she returned to M-G-M to replace a pregnant June Allyson for the musical film In the Good Old Summertime co-starring Van Johnson. Although she was sometimes late arriving at the studio during the making of this picture, she managed to complete it five days ahead of schedule. Her daughter Liza Minnelli made her film debut at the age of two and a half at the end of the film. In The Good Old Summertime was enormously successful at the box office.

Garland was then cast in the film-adaptation of Annie Get Your Gun in the title role of Annie Oakley. She was nervous at the prospect of taking on a role strongly identified with Ethel Merman, anxious about appearing in an unglamorous part after breaking from juvenile parts for several years, and disturbed by her treatment at the hands of director Busby Berkeley. Berkeley was staging all the musical numbers, and was severe with Garland's lack of effort, attitude and enthusiasm. She complained to Louis B. Mayer, trying to have Berkeley fired from the feature. She began arriving late to the set and sometimes failed to appear. She was suspended from the picture on May 10, 1949, and was replaced by Betty Hutton, who stepped in performing all the musical routines as staged by Berkeley.[46]

Garland underwent an extensive hospital stay at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts in which she was weaned off her medication and, after a while, was able to eat and sleep normally. Garland returned to Los Angeles much heavier and in the fall of 1949, was cast opposite Gene Kelly in Summer Stock. The film took six months to complete. In order to lose weight, Garland went back on the pills and the familiar pattern resurfaced. She began showing up late or not at all. When principal photography on Summer Stock was completed in the spring of 1950, it was decided that Garland needed an additional musical number. She agreed to do it provided that the song should be Get Happy by Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler. In addition, she insisted that the director, Charles Walters choreograph and stage the number. By that time, Garland had lost fifteen pounds and looked much more slender. Get Happy was the last segment of Summer Stock to be filmed. It would be her last picture for M-G-M. When it was released in the fall of 1950, Summer Stock drew big crowds and racked up very respectable box office receipts, but because of the costly shooting delays caused by Garland, the film posted a loss of $80,000 to the studio.

Garland was next cast in the film Royal Wedding with Fred Astaire after June Allyson again became pregnant in 1950. She failed to report to the set on multiple occasions, and the studio suspended her contract on June 17, 1950. She was replaced by Jane Powell.[47] Reputable biographies following her death stated that after this latest dismissal, she slightly grazed her neck with a broken glass, requiring only a Band-Aid, but at the time, the public was informed that a despondent Garland had slashed her throat.[48] "All I could see ahead was more confusion," Garland later said of this suicide attempt. "I wanted to black out the future as well as the past. I wanted to hurt myself and everyone who had hurt me."[49] In September 1950, after fifteen years with the studio, Garland and M-G-M parted company.

Later career[edit]

Renewed stardom on the stage[edit]

In 1951, a year after her departure from M-G-M, Garland engaged Sid Luft as her manager. That same year she divorced Minnelli.[50] Luft arranged a four-month concert tour of the United Kingdom, where she played to sold-out audiences throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland.[51] It included her first appearances at the renowned London Palladium, for a four-week stand in April.[52] Although some in the British press chided her before her opening for being "too plump,"[53] she received rave reviews and the ovation was described by the Palladium manager as the loudest he had ever heard.[54]

In October 1951, Garland opened in a vaudeville-style, two-a-day engagement at Broadway's newly refurbished Palace Theatre. Her 19-week engagement exceeded all previous records for the theater and was described as "one of the greatest personal triumphs in show business history."[55] Garland was honored for her contribution to the revival of vaudeville with a Special Tony Award.[56]

In May 1952, her mother Ethel was featured in a Los Angeles Mirror story in which she revealed that while Garland was making a small fortune at the Palace, Ethel was working a desk job at Douglas Aircraft Company for $61 a week.[57] They had been estranged for years, with Garland characterizing her mother as "no good for anything except to create chaos and fear" and accusing her of mismanaging and misappropriating her salary from the earliest days of her career.[58] Garland's sister Virginia denied this, stating "Mama never took a dime from Judy."[59] On January 5, 1953, Ethel Gumm was found dead in the Douglas Aircraft parking lot. She was 59 years old.[60]

Garland and Luft were married on June 8, 1952, in Hollister, California.[61] Garland gave birth to Lorna Luft, herself a future actress and singer, on November 21, 1952, and to Joey Luft on March 29, 1955.[62]

Hollywood comeback[edit]

Garland in A Star Is Born (1954)

Garland filmed a musical remake of the film A Star is Born for Warner Bros. in 1954. Garland and Sidney Luft, her then-husband, produced the film through their production company, Transcona Enterprises, while Warner Bros. supplied the funds, production facilities, and crew.[63] Directed by George Cukor and co-starring James Mason, it was a large undertaking to which she initially fully dedicated herself.

As shooting progressed, however, she began making the same pleas of illness which she had so often made during her final films at MGM. Production delays led to cost overruns and angry confrontations with Warner Bros. head Jack Warner. Principal photography wrapped on March 17, 1954. At Luft's suggestion, the "Born in a Trunk" medley was filmed as a showcase for her and inserted over director Cukor's objections, who feared the additional length would lead to cuts in other areas. It was completed on July 29.[64]

Upon its September 29, 1954 world-premiere, the film was met with tremendous critical and popular acclaim. Before its release, it was edited at the instruction of Jack Warner; theater operators, concerned that they were losing money because they were only able to run the film for three or four shows per day instead of five or six, pressured the studio to make additional reductions. About 30 minutes of footage was cut, sparking outrage among critics and filmgoers. Although it was still popular drawing huge crowds and grossing over $6,000,000 in its first release, A Star is Born did not make back its cost and ended up losing money, As a result, the secure financial position Garland had expected from the profits did not materialize.[65] Transcona made no more films with Warner.[66]

Garland was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress and in the run-up to the 27th Academy Awards, was generally expected to win. She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to her son, Joseph Luft, so a television crew was in her hospital room with cameras and wires to broadcast her anticipated acceptance speech. The Oscar was won, however, by Grace Kelly for The Country Girl (1954). The camera crew was packing up before Kelly could even reach the stage. Groucho Marx sent her a telegram after the awards ceremony, declaring her loss "the biggest robbery since Brinks." TIME magazine labeled her performance as "just about the greatest one-woman show in modern movie history."[67] Garland won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Musical for the role.[68]

Garland's films after A Star Is Born included Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) (for which she was Oscar- and Golden Globe-nominated for Best Supporting Actress), the animated feature Gay Purr-ee (1962), and A Child Is Waiting (1963) with Burt Lancaster. Her final film was I Could Go on Singing (1963), co-starring Dirk Bogarde.

Television, concerts, and Carnegie Hall[edit]

Garland before a concert, circa 1957

Beginning in 1955, Garland appeared in a number of television specials. The first, the 1955 debut episode of Ford Star Jubilee, was the first full-scale color broadcast ever on CBS and was a ratings triumph, scoring a 34.8 Nielsen rating. She signed a three-year, $300,000 contract with the network. Only one additional special, a live concert-edition of General Electric Theater, was broadcast in 1956 before the relationship between the Lufts and CBS broke down in a dispute over the planned format of upcoming specials.[69]

In 1956, Garland performed for four weeks at the New Frontier Hotel on the Las Vegas Strip for a salary of $55,000 per week, making her the highest-paid entertainer to work in Las Vegas.[70] Despite a brief bout of laryngitis, her performances there were so successful that her run was extended an extra week.[71] Later that year she returned to the Palace Theatre, site of her two-a-day triumph. She opened in September, once again to rave reviews and popular acclaim.[72]

In November 1959, Garland was hospitalized, diagnosed with acute hepatitis.[73] Over the next few weeks several quarts of fluid were drained from her body until, still weak, she was released from the hospital in January 1960. She was told by doctors that she likely had five years or less to live, and that even if she did survive she would be a semi-invalid and would never sing again.[74] She initially felt "greatly relieved" at the diagnosis. "The pressure was off me for the first time in my life."[48] However, she recovered over the next several months and, in August of that year, returned to the stage of the Palladium. She felt so warmly embraced by the British that she announced her intention to move permanently to England.[75]

Her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a considerable highlight, called by many "the greatest night in show business history".[76] The two-record Judy at Carnegie Hall was certified gold, charting for 95 weeks on Billboard, including 13 weeks at number one. The album won four Grammy Awards including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal of the Year.[77] The album has never been out of print.

In 1961, Garland and CBS settled their contract disputes with the help of her new agent, Freddie Fields, and negotiated a new round of specials. The first, entitled The Judy Garland Show, aired in 1962 and featured guests Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin.[78] Following this success, CBS made a $24 million offer to her for a weekly television series of her own, also to be called The Judy Garland Show, which was deemed at the time in the press to be "the biggest talent deal in TV history." Although she had said as early as 1955 that she would never do a weekly television series,[79] in the early 1960s she was in a financially precarious situation. She was several hundred thousand dollars in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, having failed to pay taxes in 1951 and 1952, and the failure of A Star is Born meant that she received nothing from that investment.[80] A successful run on television was intended to secure her financial future.

Following a third special, Judy Garland and Her Guests Phil Silvers and Robert Goulet, Garland's weekly series debuted September 29, 1963.[81] The Judy Garland Show was critically praised,[82][83] but for a variety of reasons (including being placed in the time slot opposite Bonanza on NBC) the show lasted only one season and was canceled in 1964 after 26 episodes. Despite its short run, the series was nominated for four Emmy Awards, including Best Variety Series.[84] The demise of the program was personally and financially devastating for Garland.

Garland sued Luft for divorce in 1963, claiming "cruelty" as the grounds. She also asserted that he had repeatedly struck her while he was drinking and that he had attempted to take their children from her by force.[85] She had filed for divorce from Luft more than once previously, including as early as 1956, but had reconciled.[86]

Final years[edit]

Mickey Deans and Garland, at their wedding in March 1969, only three months before her death

With the demise of her television series, Garland returned to the stage. Most notably, she performed at the London Palladium with her then 18-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli in November 1964. The concert, which was also shown on the British television network ITV, was one of her final appearances at the venue. She made guest appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show and The Tonight Show. Garland guest-hosted an episode of The Hollywood Palace with Vic Damone. She was invited back for a second episode in 1966 with Van Johnson as her guest. Issues with Garland's behavior ended her Hollywood Palace guest appearances.[87]

A 1964 tour of Australia was largely disastrous. Garland's first concert in Sydney, held in the Sydney Stadium because no concert hall could accommodate the crowds who wanted to see her, went well and received positive reviews. Her second performance, in Melbourne, started an hour late. The crowd of 7,000, angered by her tardiness and believing her to be drunk, booed and heckled her, and she fled the stage after just 45 minutes.[88] She later characterized the Melbourne crowd as "brutish."[58] A second concert in Sydney was uneventful but the Melbourne appearance garnered her significant bad press.[89] Some of that bad press was deflected by the announcement of a near fatal episode of pleurisy.

Garland's tour promoter Mark Herron announced that they had married aboard a freighter off the coast of Hong Kong; however, she was not legally divorced from Luft at the time the ceremony was performed.[90] The divorce became final on May 19, 1965,[85] and she and Herron did not legally marry until November 14, 1965; they separated six months later.[91]

In February 1967, Garland was cast as Helen Lawson in Valley of the Dolls for 20th Century Fox.[92] During the filming, she missed rehearsals and was fired in April, replaced by Susan Hayward.[93] Her prerecording of the song "I'll Plant My Own Tree" survived, along with her wardrobe tests.

Returning to the stage, Garland made her last appearances at New York's Palace Theatre in July, a 16-show stand, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. She wore a sequined pantsuit on stage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in Valley of the Dolls.[94]

By early 1969, Garland's health had deteriorated. She performed in London at the Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run[95] and made her last concert appearance in Copenhagen during March 1969.[96] She married her fifth and final husband, musician Mickey Deans, at Chelsea Register Office, London, on March 15, 1969,[97] her divorce from Herron having been finalized on February 11.[98]

Death[edit]

Garland's crypt at the Ferncliff Mausoleum

On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead by Deans in the bathroom of their rented house at 4 Cadogan Lane in Chelsea, London. At the subsequent inquest, coroner Gavin Thursdon stated that the cause of death was "an incautious self-overdose" of barbiturates; her blood contained the equivalent of ten 1.5-grain (97 mg) Seconal capsules.[99] Thursdon stressed that the overdose had been unintentional and that there was no evidence to suggest she had committed suicide. Her autopsy showed that there was no inflammation of her stomach lining and no drug residue there, which indicated that the drug had been ingested over a long period of time, rather than in one dose.

Her death certificate stated that her death had been "accidental".[100] Even so, a British specialist who had attended her autopsy said she had been living on borrowed time owing to cirrhosis.[101] She had turned 47 just twelve days before her death. Her Wizard of Oz costar Ray Bolger commented at her funeral, "She just plain wore out."

After her body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley,[102] Deans took Garland's remains to New York City on June 26, where an estimated 20,000 people lined up for hours at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Chapel in Manhattan to pay their respects. On June 27, James Mason gave a eulogy at the funeral, an Episcopal service led by the Rev. Peter A. Delaney of St Marylebone Parish Church, London, who had officiated at her marriage to Deans.[103] The public and press were barred. She was interred in a crypt in the community mausoleum at Ferncliff Cemetery, in Hartsdale, New York.[104]

Legacy[edit]

General[edit]

Mickey Rooney watches Garland put her handprint into cement at Grauman's Chinese Theatre, 1939.
Star for recognition of film work at 1715 Vine Street on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She has another for recording at 6764 Hollywood Boulevard.

Garland's legacy as a performer and a personality has endured long after her death. The American Film Institute named her eighth among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time.[105] She has been the subject of over two dozen biographies since her death, including the well-received Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir by her daughter, Lorna Luft, whose memoir was later adapted into the television miniseries Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows, which won Emmy Awards for the two actresses portraying her (Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis).[106]

Garland was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997.[107] Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame.[108] These include "Over the Rainbow", which was ranked as the number one movie song of all time in the American Film Institute's "100 Years...100 Songs" list. Four more Garland songs are featured on the list: "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" (#76), "Get Happy" (#61), "The Trolley Song" (#26), and "The Man That Got Away" (#11).[109] She has twice been honored on U.S. postage stamps, in 1989 (as Dorothy)[110] and again in 2006 (as Vicki Lester from A Star Is Born).[111]

Gay icon[edit]

Garland always had a large base of fans in the gay community and has become a gay icon.[112] Reasons often given for her standing, especially among gay men, are admiration of her ability as a performer, the way her personal struggles mirrored those of gay men in America during the height of her fame and her value as a camp figure.[113] When asked in the 1960s by a reporter about how she felt about having a large gay following, she famously said, "I couldn't care less. I sing to people."[114]

Some have also suggested a connection between the date of Garland's death and funeral on June 27, 1969 and the Stonewall riots, the flashpoint of the modern Gay Liberation movement,[115] which started in the early hours of June 28.[116] In a 2009 interview gay historian David Carter stated that this connection is untrue, and based on a mocking reference to the riot by an anti-gay writer in the Village Voice the next day. However the same historical documentary states that there were several patrons at the Stonewall bar that night, Garland fans who, according to bar patron Sylvia Rivera had come from the Garland funeral earlier in the day to drink and mourn. Rivera said that indeed there was a feeling in the air that something would happen that night: "I guess Judy Garland’s death just really helped us really hit the fan."[117]

Portrayals in fiction[edit]

Garland has been portrayed on television by Andrea McArdle in Rainbow (1978), Tammy Blanchard (young Judy) and Judy Davis (older Judy) in Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows (2001) and Elizabeth Karsell in James Dean (2001). Anne Hathaway is set to play Garland in a biopic titled Get Happy: The Life of Judy Garland which is in production and is set to be released in 2015.

On stage, Garland is a character in the musical The Boy from Oz (1998), portrayed by Chrissy Amphlett in the original Australian production and by Isabel Keating on Broadway in 2003. End of the Rainbow (2005) featured Caroline O'Connor as Garland and Michael Cumpsty as Garland's pianist. Adrienne Barbeau played Garland in The Property Known as Garland (2006) and The Judy Monologues (2010) featured male actors reciting Garland's words.

Filmography and performances[edit]

Discography[edit]

Awards[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Retrieved: July 15, 2012.
  2. ^ Louis Bayard, "Supernova", Washington Post, April 16, 2000, p. X9
  3. ^ http://www.afi.com/100Years/stars.aspx
  4. ^ Shipman 1992, p. 12.
  5. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 23.
  6. ^ "Judy Garland". NNDB. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  7. ^ Clarke 2001, pp. 29–30.
  8. ^ Finch 1975, pp. 43–47, 76.
  9. ^ Judy Garland, 47, Found Dead, The New York Times, June 23, 1969
  10. ^ "Judy: Beyond the Rainbow". Biography. January 1, 1999.
  11. ^ Luft 1999, p. 26.
  12. ^ "Episode 12". The Judy Garland Show. Season 1. Episode 12. November 1, 1963.
  13. ^ "Program of Comedy Due --- Eddie Conrad Will Head Ebell Vaudeville." Los Angeles Times. December 7, 1934. p. 15.
  14. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 27.
  15. ^ "Nuptials Turn Trio to Duet --- Cupid Robs Radio Team --- Suzanne Garland Flies to Reno to Become Bride of Musician." Los Angeles Times. August 15, 1935. p. A3.
  16. ^ "Judy: Impressions of Garland". Omnibus. 1972. http://imdb.com/title/tt0813809.
  17. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 204.
  18. ^ Frank 1975, p. 73.
  19. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 73.
  20. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 58.
  21. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 47.
  22. ^ "dOc DVD Review: Mickey Rooney & Judy Garland Collection (Babes in Arms/Strike Up the Band/Babes on Broadway/Girl Crazy) (1939–1943)". Digitallyobsessed.com. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Judy Garland: By Myself". American Masters. February 25, 2004.
  24. ^ Clarke 2001, pp. 135–36.
  25. ^ Stewart, Patrick (host). "The Lion in Winter". MGM: When the Lion Roars.
  26. ^ Juneau 1974, p. 37.
  27. ^ Finch 1975, pp. 134–35.
  28. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 95.
  29. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 100.
  30. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 61.
  31. ^ Clarke 2001, pp. 102–03.
  32. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 104.
  33. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 105.
  34. ^ Juneau 1974, pp. 55–56.
  35. ^ Frank 1975, pp. 148–49.
  36. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 155.
  37. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 211.
  38. ^ Frank 1975, p. 175.
  39. ^ Hopper, Hedda (September 1954). "No More Tears for Judy". Woman's Home Companion. 
  40. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 223.
  41. ^ "Judy Garland Files Suit for Divorce". U.P. February 22, 1952. 
  42. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 108.
  43. ^ Frank 1975, p. 231.
  44. ^ "Judy Garland – Career Timeline | American Masters". PBS. July 7, 2004. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  45. ^ Shipman 1992, p. 225.
  46. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 255.
  47. ^ Frank 1975, p. 271.
  48. ^ a b Alexander, Shana (June 2, 1961). "Judy's New Rainbow". Life. 
  49. ^ Hyams, Joe (January 1957). "Crack-Up". Photoplay. 
  50. ^ Juneau 1974, p. 108.
  51. ^ Frank 1975, p. 304.
  52. ^ MacPherson, Virginia (April 10, 1951). "Judy Garland in Comeback with Palladium Contract". U.P. 
  53. ^ Frank 1975, p. 326.
  54. ^ "British Give Judy Garland Big Ovation". Associated Press. April 10, 1951. 
  55. ^ Garver, Jack (February 24, 1952). "Judy Garland Ends Triumphant Vaudeville Run". UPI. 
  56. ^ "Judy Garland". American Theatre Wing. Retrieved December 24, 2007. 
  57. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 311.
  58. ^ a b Garland, Judy (August 1967). "The Plot Against Judy Garland". Ladies' Home Journal. 
  59. ^ Shearer, Lloyd (October 4, 1964). "Judy Garland's Sister: The Happy One in the Family". Parade. 
  60. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 309.
  61. ^ Garver, Jack (June 12, 1952). "Judy Garland Married With Simple Ceremony". U.P. 
  62. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 166.
  63. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 308.
  64. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 319.
  65. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 325.
  66. ^ Juneau 1974, p. 126.
  67. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 326.
  68. ^ "Judy Garland". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved December 24, 2007. 
  69. ^ Sanders 1990, p. 24.
  70. ^ "Judy Garland – About Judy Garland | American Masters". PBS. July 7, 2004. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  71. ^ Frank 1975, pp. 420–21.
  72. ^ "Judy Reigns in Palace as Queen of New York". UPI. October 31, 1952. 
  73. ^ "Judy Garland Said To Have Hepatitis". UPI. November 26, 1959. 
  74. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 347.
  75. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 349.
  76. ^ Cox, Gordon (May 28, 2006). "Rufus Over The Rainbow". Variety. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Grammy Awards for Judy at Carnegie Hall". The Recording Academy. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  78. ^ Sanders 1990, p. 29.
  79. ^ Parsons, Louella (September 23, 1955). "TV Spectacular Gives New Rainbow to Judy". The Daily Review. 
  80. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 175.
  81. ^ Sanders 1990, p. 391.
  82. ^ Sanders 1990, pp. 108–109.
  83. ^ Lewis, Richard Warren (December 7, 1963). "The TV Troubles of Judy Garland". The Saturday Evening Post. 
  84. ^ "Awards for The Judy Garland Show (1963)". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved December 14, 2007. 
  85. ^ a b "Judy Wins Divorce From Sid Luft". Wisconsin State Journal. May 20, 1965. 
  86. ^ Irwin, Elson (November 17, 1968). "Judy Garland: Femme Fatale". Stars and Stripes. 
  87. ^ DiOrio, Jr. 1973, p. 202.
  88. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 213.
  89. ^ "Judy Garland Locks Self in Hotel Room". Stars and Stripes (UPI). May 24, 1964. 
  90. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 214.
  91. ^ Frank 1975, p. 556.
  92. ^ Seaman 1996, pp. 292–93.
  93. ^ Seaman 1996, p. 343.
  94. ^ Shipman 1992, p. 494.
  95. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 412.
  96. ^ DiOrio, Jr. 1973, p. 204.
  97. ^ Steiger 1969, p. 88.
  98. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 275.
  99. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 422.
  100. ^ "Judy Garland The Live Performances. The End of the Rainbow". Retrieved February 1, 2008.  citing United Press International article "Judy Took Too Many Pills" and containing a copy of Garland's death certificate.
  101. ^ Times Wire Services, "Judy Garland Believed Killed by Overdose," St. Petersburg Times, June 24, 1969. [1]
  102. ^ "In memoriam Desmond C. Henley". Internet. Christopher Henley Limited 2008 – 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  103. ^ "End of the Rainbow". TIME. July 4, 1969. Retrieved December 18, 2007.  Van Gelder, Lawrence (June 28, 1969). "Judy Garland's Funeral Draws Her Colleagues". The New York Times: Books. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  104. ^ "Celebrities & Notables Interred at Ferncliff". Ferncliff Cemetery. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  105. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars". American Film Institute. June 16, 1999. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  106. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (November 5, 2001). "Subdued Patriotism Replaces Glitter as Television Finally Presents Its Emmys". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2009. 
  107. ^ "Lifetime Achievement Award". The Recording Academy. Retrieved December 25, 2007. 
  108. ^ "Grammy Hall of Fame Award". The Recording Academy. Retrieved December 25, 2007. 
  109. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs". American Film Institute. June 22, 2004. Retrieved December 25, 2007. 
  110. ^ Kronish, Syd (April 8, 1990). "Hollywood Film Legends Preserved on Latest Issue". The Sunday Capital (Washington, D.C.). 
  111. ^ "The 2006 Commemorative Stamp Program" (Press release). United States Postal Service. November 30, 2005. Retrieved December 25, 2007. 
  112. ^ Haggerty, George E. Gay Histories and Cultures. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. 
  113. ^ Murray, Raymond (1996). Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video. TLA Video Management. 
  114. ^ "Judy Garland Biography". Activemusician.com. Retrieved May 31, 2010. "During a press conference in San Francisco in the 1960s, a reporter asked Garland if she was aware of her loyal gay following. 'I couldn't care less,' she said. 'I sing to people.'" 
  115. ^ Bianco 1999, p. 194; Duberman 1993, p. ix.
  116. ^ Bianco 1999, p. 194.
  117. ^ "Stonewall Riots 40th Anniversary: A Look Back at the Uprising that Launched the Modern Gay Rights Movement," democracynow.org, June 26, 2009. Accessed November 29, 2011

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Ella Fitzgerald
for Ella in Berlin: Mack the Knife
Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance
1962
for Judy at Carnegie Hall
Succeeded by
Ella Fitzgerald
for Ella Swings Brightly with Nelson
Preceded by
Dave Brubeck, Marvin Gaye, Georg Solti, Stevie Wonder
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
1997
Succeeded by
Bo Diddley, Mills Brothers, Roy Orbison, Paul Robeson