List of Hindu temples in Indonesia
Hindu in Indonesia is multi-ethnic, adhered by different Indonesian ethnics, such as Balinese, Javanese, Indian and other ethnics. Majority of Indonesian Hindus are Balinese that inhabit the volcanic island of Bali and some of them has migrated elsewhere in Indonesia. While there are also a quite significant Indonesian Indian Hindus minorities settled in large cities. Numbers of Indonesian natives that adhere a form of native Austronesian ancestral and natural worship might also categorized as Hindus, such as Dayaks Kaharingan, Karo Parmalim and Sundanese Sunda Wiwitan. Hindu Dayak Kaharingan are concentrated in Central Kalimantan.
The design, style, layout, architecture and decoration of Hindu temples are differs among various ethnics. Balinese Hindu temples for example is differ quite significantly to Indian Hindu temples. Indian Hindu temples are usually known by gopuram above the main gate. Different from Hindu Bali temples which do not have gopuram above the temples. Indian temples are designed as indoor house of worship, while Balinese temples are designed as open-air temple within walled compound connected by series of intricately decorated roofed gates and split gates. In Indonesia, there are roughly three types of Hindu templesː
- Candi, the Javanese ancient Hindu temples
- Pura, the Balinese temples
- Kuil or Mandir, the Indian Hindu temples
Candi is Indonesian terms to refer ancient temples. Prior to the rise of Islam, between the 5th to 15th century Dharmic faiths (Hinduism and Buddhism) were the majority in Indonesian archipelago, especially in Java and Sumatra. As the result numerous Hindu temples, locally known as candi, constructed and dominated the landscape in Java. The local belief is that Java valley had thousands of Hindu temples, which co-existed with Buddhist temples, most of which were buried in massive eruption of Mount Merapi in 1006 AD.
Between 1100 and 1500 additional Hindu temples were built, but abandoned by Hindus and Buddhists as Islam spread in Java circa 15th to 16th century, most of these temples were abandoned and left to ruin.
In last 200 years, some of these have been rediscovered mostly by farmers while preparing their lands for crops. Most of these ancient temples were rediscovered and reconstructed between 19th to 20th century, and treated as the important archaeological findings and also as tourist attraction, but not as the house of worship. The local population mostly has converted to Islam or Christianity and practically has no connection nor recollection of Hindu rituals and traditions of their ancestors. Today, these ancient Hindu temples in Java are under the authority of Dinas Purbakala (Archaeological Authority) under the Ministry of Culture. Nevertheless, initiated by Balinese and local Hindu community, the Hindu rituals and festivals has been revived and performed in these ancient temples on certain Hindu holy days, such as those performed annually in Prambanan temple compound.
Majority of Hindu temples in Java were dedicated to Shiva, who Javanese Hindus considered as the God who commands the energy to destroy, recombine and recreate the cycle of life. Small temples were often dedicated to Siva and his family (wife Durga, son Ganesha). Larger temple complexes include temples for Vishnu and Brahma, but the most majestic, sophisticated and central temple was dedicated to Shiva. The 732 AD Canggal inscription found in Southern Central Java, written in Indonesian Sanskrit script, eulogizes Shiva, calling him God par-excellence. Historical scripts suggest Javanese recognized amongst themselves three sects of Siva - Mahesvara, Buddhist (Saugata) and Mahabrahmana (Rsi). The Hindu and Buddhist temples co-existed, people intermarried, with occasional couple featuring a Hindu king and Buddhist wife as evidenced by Candi Plaosan, the husband and wife maintaining their different religious beliefs after marriage. Most of the temples are laid out in perfect squares, with secondary temples or lingas arranged geometrically or circularly. However, midst of the perfect symmetries, is present a shift of the temple complex axis and primary statue enclosure axis; this asymmetry is believed to be deliberate because the shift is always to the north and the ratio of asymmetry is exactly the same in a dozen temples where this has been measured. Some of sculptures and reliefs in the temples represent Hindu dance forms, currently seen in India but not in Java. Some in temples Java have a mix of Hindu and Buddhist features which has made attribution and original purpose against later usage difficult to ascertain.
Central Java region consist of modern Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces. Most of Hindu temples in Cantral Java region are candi or ancient temples built between 8th to 15th century. Some known Hindu temples in Java include:
- Candi Cangkuang
- Candi Bojongmenje
Pura is Balinese Hindu temples. Balinese Hinduism is the continuation of Javanese Hindu Dharmic tradition developed in Java between the 8th to 15th century. After Islam toppled Hinduism in Java circa 15th century, the remnants of this ancient Indonesian Hinduism are confined in Bali. Balinese Hinduism incorporate native Austronesian spirit and ancestral worship next to Hinduism ideas of Vedic deities, terms and rituals imported from India. In Bali, a Pura (Balinese temple) is designed as an open-air worship place within a walled compound. The compound walls have a series of intricately decorated gates without doors for the devotee to enter. The design, plan and layout of the holy pura follows a square layout.
Today, Balinese Hindus are concentrated in Bali island and some other cities in Indonesia. In Bali, Hindu Balinese temples (Pura) can be find quite easily, since they are the majority in the island. Outside Bali, they can be find too but not too many, for mostly these temples were followed the migration and only to accommodate Balinese people outside Bali, such as Balinese temples in Greater Jakarta.
- Pura Agung Jagat Karana, Surabaya
- Pura Tirta Wening, Tambak Sari, Surabaya
- Pura Ranu Ngudisari, Tlagan hamlet, Pohjejer village, Gondang subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency
- Pura Luhur Poten, Mount Bromo, Malang Regency
- Pura Agung Giri Natha, Jalan Sumbing No. 12, Semarang
- Pura Wira Buwana, Jalan Jendral Sarwo Edi Wibowo, Kompleks Akademi Militer, Magelang
- Pura Jagatnatha, Banguntapan (Janti), Yogyakarta
- Pura Bhakti Widhi, Jalan Ngawen, Km. 2.5, Beji, Ngawen, Gunung Kidul
- Pura Pita Maha, Karanganom, Klaten Utara, Klaten
- Pura Indra Prasta, Mutihan, Sondakan, Lawean, Surakarta
- Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagat Kartta, Taman Sari, Bogor Regency - the second largest Balinese Hindu temple in Indonesia.
- Pura Agung Wira Loka Natha, Cimahi, West Java
- Pura Agung Jati Pramana, Cirebon
- Pura Aditya Jaya, Jalan Daksinapati Raya 10, East Jakarta
- Pura Penataran Agung Kertabhumi, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, East Jakarta
- Pura Agung Wira Satya Buana, Kompleks Paspampres, Jalan Kesehatan Raya, Central Jakarta
- Pura Segara, Cilincing, North Jakarta
- Pura Agung Raksa Bhuana, Jalan Polonia 216, Medan
- Pura Jagadhita Toba, Jalan Toba 21118, Pematang Siantar
- Pura Penataran Agung Sriwijaya, Jalan Seduduk Putih No.19, Kecamatan Ilir Timur II, Palembang
Kuil or Mandir
Mandir or koil (kuil in Indonesian) are used to refer Indian Hindu temples. Because of the influx of Indian immigrants into Indonesia back in the 19th century, there are numbers of Indian-style temples erected in Indonesian cities, especially in Medan and Jakarta. The Indian Hindu temples in Indonesia followed closely the design, style, layout and architecture commonly found in India and neighboring Malaysia and Singapore. Tamil Hindus are most concentrated in Medan, North Sumatra. There are around 40 Hindu temples in Medan and nearby but only a few Balinese Hindu temples in North Sumatra. Balaji Venkateshvara Temple (Pasar IV Padang Bulan, Medan) is developed by Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam's committee. Punjabi is mostly Sikh and Hindu. Most of them mixed these religions and some of them can speak Punjabi. Hindi and Sindhi are concentrated in Jakarta and usually open textile and garment business. There are around 12 Sikh temples in Indonesia.
- Sri Siva Temple, Pluit, North Jakarta
- Shri Bathra Kaliamman Koil, Komplek Perumahan Puri Metropolitan, Jalan Krisan Asri V, Blok B3, No. 20-22, Gondrong Petir, Cipondoh - Tangerang
- Ambe Mata Temple, build by Indian, Graha Essar steel, BFI Estate Industri 3 Area Kav.#B1, Cibitung, Bekasi - 17520
- Taylor, K., & Altenburg, K. (2006). Cultural Landscapes in Asia‐Pacific: Potential for Filling World Heritage Gaps 1. International journal of heritage studies, 12(3), pages 267-282
- Degroot, V. M. Y. (2009). Candi, space and landscape: a study on the distribution, orientation and spatial organization of Central Javanese temple remains (Doctoral dissertation, Leiden Institute for Area Studies, SAS Indonesie, Faculty of Arts, Leiden University)
- Upendra Thakur (1986), Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture; ISBN 81-7017-207-1; pages 91-96
- ONO, K. (2001). The Symbolism of Temple Sites on Old Javanese Temples. Asymmetrical Temple Sites of Hindu Candi. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, (36), pages 2-35
- Dumarçay, J., & Smithies, M. (1986). The temples of Java. Oxford University Press.
- Wendoris, T. (2008). Mengenal Candi-candi Nusantara. Pustaka Widyatama.
- Prambanan Temple Compounds, UNESCO World Heritage Site Description