List of Hindu temples in Indonesia

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This is a list of Hindu temples and their remains in Indonesia.

Some in temples Java have a mix of Hindu and Buddhist features which has made attribution and original purpose against later usage difficult to ascertain. Hindu in Indonesia is multi-ethnic, such as Bali, Java, Dayak, Karo, and other races. Hindu temples from one ethnic is different from Hindu temples from the other ethnic. We can see that Indian Hindu temples are usually known by gopuram above the main gate. Different from Hindu Bali temples which have not gopuram above the temples.

Hindu Bali is most concentrated in Bali and some other cities in Indonesia. In Bali, we can find Hindu Bali temples (Pura) easily. Outside Bali, we can find it too but not too many.

Tamil Hindus are most concentrated in North Sumatra. The capital city of North Sumatra is Medan. We can find about 40 Hindu temples in Medan and nearby. Hindu Bali temples is only 2 in North Sumatra (Pura Agung Raksa Bhuana, Medan Polonia and one again in Langkat). Balaji Venkateshvara Temple (Pasar IV Padang Bulan, Medan) is developed by Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam's committee. Punjabi is mostly Sikh and Hindu. Most of them mixed these religions and some of them can speak Punjabi. Hindi and Sindhi are concentrated in Jakarta and usually open textile and garment business.

Sikh temples is 12 in Indonesia.

Hindu Dayak is most concentrated in Middle-Kalimantan.

Bali[edit]

  • Mother Temple of Besakih, Karangasem Regency (the biggest Hindu temple in Indonesia)
  • Pura Ulun Danu Bratan
  • Pura Luhur Ulu Watu
  • Kehen Temple, southern slope of Bangli hill
  • Makori temple, Bali
  • Batur Temple (Ulun Danu temple), Kalanganyar Batur village, Kintamani
  • Watukaru Temple, Wangaya Gede village, Tabanan
  • Pucak Penulisan, Kintamani
  • Pancering Jagat, Trunyan village, Kintamani
  • Jagadnatha, Jalan Mayor Wisnu, Puputan Square
  • Maospahit Denpasar, Banjar Gerenceng
  • Tanah Lot, Marga
  • Goalawah
  • Tirtha Empul Temple
  • Pura Sakenan, Klungkung Regency
  • Taman Ayun
  • Pura Pengerebongan, Kesiman, Denpasar

Nusa Tenggara[edit]

  • Pura Atambuanantha, Atambua, East Nusa Tenggara

Java[edit]

Temples are commonly known as Candi in Java. The local belief is that Java valley had thousands of Hindu temples, which co-existed with Buddhist temples, most of which were buried in massive eruption of Mount Merapi in 1006 AD.[2][3] Between 1100 and 1700 additional Hindu temples were built, but abandoned by Hindus and Buddhists as Islam spread in Java. In last 200 years, some of these have been rediscovered mostly by farmers while preparing their lands for crops.

Majority of Hindu temples in Java were dedicated to Siva, who Javanese Hindus considered as the God who commands the energy to destroy, recombine and recreate the cycle of life. Small temples were often dedicated to Siva and his family (wife Durga, son Ganesha). Larger temple complexes include temples for Wishnu and Brahma, but the most majestic, sophisticated and central temple was dedicated to Siva. The 732 AD Cangal inscription found in South Java, written in Indonesian Sanskrit script, eulogizes Siva, calling him God par-excellence.[4] Historical scripts suggest Javanese recognized amongst themselves three sects of Siva - Mahesvara, Buddhist (Saugata) and Mahabrahmana (Rsi). The Hindu and Buddhist temples co-existed, people intermarried, with occasional couple featuring a Hindu king and Buddhist wife as evidenced by Candi Plaosan, the husband and wife maintaining their different religious beliefs after marriage. Most of the temples are laid out in perfect squares, with secondary temples or lingas arranged geometrically or circularly. However, midst of the perfect symmetries, is present a shift of the temple complex axis and primary statue enclosure axis; this asymmetry is believed to be deliberate because the shift is always to the north and the ratio of asymmetry is exactly the same in a dozen temples where this has been measured.[5] Some of sculptures and reliefs in the temples represent Hindu dance forms, currently seen in India but not in Java.

W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp has suggested that Java valley near Jogjakarta once had lakes, and the temples were arranged around these lakes in form of flowers and mathematical patterns considered to be auspicious, and that the temples were connected by paved brick roads lined by walls. These lakes and roads were later filled with meters of volcanic ashes in multiple eruptions of Mount Merapi. This theory is controversial, but recent geological evidence support Nieuwenkamp proposal.[6][7]

Some known Hindu temples in Java include:[8][9]

  • Prambanan Temples - the largest Hindu temples complex uncovered so far in Indonesia; it is also known as Loro Jonggrang, and it includes 240 temples; the three central temples have intricate carvings on its walls to pictorially describe all major events from the Hindu epic Ramayana.[10]
  • Parahyangan Agung Jagat Kartta Temple, Warung Loak Village, Taman Sari, Bogor Regency (the second biggest Hindu temple in Indonesia)
  • Ijo Temple
  • Barong Temple
  • Sambisari Temple - located in village of Purwomartani (Kalasan), this temple is located below ground level, and is a perfect square of 13.65 x 13.65 meters and is 7 meters high; it is the most preserved and complete Hindu temple in Java from late 9th century AD. The large linga and yoni inside the temple is made of marble; the temple faces west and the yoni inside the temple faces north. The reliefs in the wall are well preserved and intricate. The temple is surrounded by a grid of 8 lingas in a precise symmetric arrangement. There is evidence that nearby farm fields are on top of walls and parts of this temple yet to be unearthed. The temple is still used by local Hindu minority community as a place of worship on their special days of the year.
  • Kedulan Temple
  • Gebang Temple
  • Pustakasala Temple
  • Gedong Songo Temple - built in early 8th century, on southern slopes of Gunung Ungaran overlooking central Java, by Wangsa Sanjaya dynasty
  • Selogriyo Temple - built in 8th century, on slopes of Mount Sumbing overlooking rice terraces of Java
  • Candi Wukir - built before 732 AD, dedicated to God Siwa, famous for the cangaal inscription discovered in one of its wells of secondary temple. It is located in Semin village (Salam). The temple's center still has yoni, but the linga is missing.
  • Candi Morangan - built in 9th century CE, with Siva's linga-yoni, has delicate carvings of tangled lovers and vegetation motifs on andesite stones; the temple is sometimes called fragrance-exuding temple
  • Candi Gunung Sari - located in village of Gulon (Muntilan), this is a Siva temple with barong relief suggesting a syncretic fusion of Hindu and pre-Hindu Javanese ideas
  • Candi Merak - a 10th-century Hindu temple, located east of Jogjakarta, like many other temples in Java has one main temple and three secondary temples with gupolo; the wall is carved with reliefs of Siwa's wife Durga, turtle, flowers and birds.
  • Dieng Temples
  • Sukuh Temple
  • Cetho Temple
  • Penataran Temple
  • Kidal Temple
  • Surawana Temple

North Sumatra[edit]

  • Shri Sithi Vinayagar Kuil, Karang Sari, Polonia Medan
  • Shri Balaji Venkateshwara Koil, Jln.Bunga Wijaya Kesuma/Pasar IV,Padang Bulan, Medan
  • Shri Mariamman Kuil, Jalan Teuku Umar, Kampung Madras, Medan
  • Thandayuthapani Temple, Medan
  • Shri Kaliamman Kuil, Jalan Zainul Arifin, Medan
  • Maha Muniswarar Temple, Medan
  • Arulmigu Shri Maha Mariamman Koil, Sampali
  • Shri Thendayudhabani Koil, Jln.Sultan Hasanuddin, Lubuk Pakam
  • Shri Subramaniam Nagarattar Kuil (Chettiar Kuil), Jalan Kejaksaan, Kebun Bunga, Medan
  • Shri Maha Shiva Shakti Kuil, Karang Sari, Medan
  • Shri Mariamman Kuil, Medan Helvetia
  • Shri Singgama Kali Kuil, Jalan Karya, Medan Barat
  • Shri Kaliamman Kuil, Jalan Karya, Medan Barat (persis di sebelah Vihara Manggala)
  • Shri Mariamman Kuil, Bekala, Medan Simalingkar B
  • Shri Rajarajeshvari Amman Kuil, Selesai, Binjai Barat
  • dan puluhan kuil lainnya namun berukuran kecil dan tersebar di hampir seluruh kota Medan
  • Shri Karrupa Veera Vigneswara Kuil Jalan Starban No.86 Medan Polonia
  • Shri Hanuman Kuil Jl.Teratai Ujung Karang Sari Polonia Medan

Jakarta[edit]

  • Sri Siva Temple, Pluit (Indian Hindu Style)
  • Shri Bathra Kaliamman Koil, Komplek Perumahan Puri Metropolitan, Jl. Krisan Asri V, Blok B3, No. 20-22, Gondrong Petir, Cipondoh - Tangerang
  • Pura Aditya Jaya, Jl. Daksinapati Raya 10, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Pura Agung Paspampres, Jalan Kesehatan Raya, Jakpus, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Ambe Mata Temple,(Indian Hindu style)build by Indian, Graha Essar steel,BFI Estate Industri 3 Area Kav.#B1, Cibitung, Bekasi - 17520

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/06/24/lombok.html
  2. ^ Taylor, K., & Altenburg, K. (2006). Cultural Landscapes in Asia‐Pacific: Potential for Filling World Heritage Gaps 1. International journal of heritage studies, 12(3), pages 267-282
  3. ^ Degroot, V. M. Y. (2009). Candi, space and landscape: a study on the distribution, orientation and spatial organization of Central Javanese temple remains (Doctoral dissertation, Leiden Institute for Area Studies, SAS Indonesie, Faculty of Arts, Leiden University)
  4. ^ Upendra Thakur (1986), Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture; ISBN 81-7017-207-1; pages 91-96
  5. ^ ONO, K. (2001). The Symbolism of Temple Sites on Old Javanese Temples. Asymmetrical Temple Sites of Hindu Candi. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, (36), pages 2-35
  6. ^ Murwanto, H.; Gunnell, Y; Suharsono, S.; Sutikno, S. and Lavigne, F (2004). “Borobudur monument (Java, Indonesia) stood by a natural lake: chronostratigraphic evidence and historical implications”. The Holocene 14 (3): 459–463
  7. ^ Newhall C.G., Bronto S., Alloway B., Banks N.G., Bahar I., del Marmol M.A., Hadisantono R.D., Holcomb R.T., McGeehin J., Miksic J.N., Rubin M., Sayudi S.D., Sukhyar R., Andreastuti S., Tilling R.I., Torley R., Trimble D., and Wirakusumah A.D. (2000). “10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java: archaeological and modern implications”. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 100 (1): 9–50
  8. ^ Dumarçay, J., & Smithies, M. (1986). The temples of Java. Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ Wendoris, T. (2008). Mengenal Candi-candi Nusantara. Pustaka Widyatama.
  10. ^ Prambanan Temple Compounds, UNESCO World Heritage Site Description