Special Region of Yogyakarta
|Yogyakarta Special Region
Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
Parangtritis Beach, Yogyakarta
|Motto: Memayu Hayuning Bawana (Javanese)
(The Vision to Perfect Society) written in Javanese Script
Location of Yogyakarta Special Region in Indonesia
|• Sultan & Paku Alam||Hamengkubuwono X
Paku Alam IX
|• Total||3,133.15 km2 (1,209.72 sq mi)|
|Population (2013)Provicial Estimate|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups||Javanese (96,82%), Sundanese (0,56%), Chinese Indonesians (0,32%) |
|• Religion||Islam (91.4%), Christianity (8.3%), Hinduism and Buddhism (0.3%)|
|• Languages||Indonesian, Javanese|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, although it is now a separate administrative entity. It is the only region in Indonesia that is still governed by a pre-colonial monarchy, the Sultan of Yogyakarta, who serves as the hereditary governor of the region. Excluding the special capital territory of Jakarta, it is the smallest region of Indonesia.
In 1942 the Japanese Empire invaded Dutch East Indies and ruled Java until they were defeated in 1945. Sukarno proclaimed the independence of Indonesian Republic on August 1945. In September 1945, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII promptly sent a letter to Sukarno expressing his support to the newly-born nation of Indonesia and acknowledge Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta also doing the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms realm are awarded special status as Special Region within Indonesian Republic. However because leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and absorbed into Central Java Province.
Yogyakarta's support was essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from January 1946 to December 1948 after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later, the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta causing the Indonesian Republic's capital to be transferred again to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. In return for Yogyakarta's support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and the region became its own region. Because of its significant contribution for the survival of the Indonesian Republic, Yogyakarta was given the status as Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia.
The Special Region was struck by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006. It killed 5,782 people and injured approximately 36,000. 600,000 people were left homeless. The region of Bantul suffered the most damage and deaths.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010|
The Special Region is located near the southern coast of Java, wholly within the province of Central Java. The population at the 2010 Census was 3,452,390. It has an area of 3,133.15 km2, making it the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. Along with surrounding areas in Central Java, it has some of the highest population densities of Java.
Mount Merapi is located to the immediate north of the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman Regency. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It last erupted in October–November 2010, killing and injuring many people and temporarily displacing approximately 100,000 residents.
|Gunung Kidul Regency||Wonosari||1,485.36||670,400||681,554||674,408|
|Kulon Progo Regency||Wates||586.30||371,000||373,757||388,755|
|Yogyakarta City||Yogyakarta City||32.50||396,700||433,539||388,088|
Located within the Yogyakarta Special Region, the city of Yogyakarta is known as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry and puppet shows. It is also one of Indonesia's most renowned centers of higher education. At the city's center is the Sultan's palace called the kraton. While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north.
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport. There are two train stations: Lempuyangan and Yogyakarta (also called Tugu station). Yogyakarta is considered one of the major hubs that links the west-east main railway route in Java island. To the south, in the Bantul region, is the Giwangan bus station, the largest bus station in Indonesia. The centre of metropolitan Yogyakarta is surrounded by a ring road.
Yogyakarta is home to more than 100 institutions of higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions of any province in Indonesia.
The Special Region is also the home of the first-established private university in Indonesia, the Islamic University of Indonesia, which was founded in 1945. The Indonesia Institute of Arts, the first-established university in fine arts, is also in the region. Other large universities include Gadjah Mada University, Institute of Science & Technology AKPRIND in Yogyakarta, University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa in Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta State University, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta and Atma Jaya University in Yogyakarta.
Yogyakarta has signed a sister relationship agreement with city/state:
- Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
- Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia Wilayah DIY (2010-03-15). "Kementerian Agama RI | Kantor Wilayah DI Yogyakarta". Yogyakarta.kemenag.go.id. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- "Yogyakarta | Define Yogyakarta at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
- "Indonesia lowers quake death toll". CNN. 2006-06-06. Archived from the original on 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
- "Update: Indonesia Volcano Death Toll Soars Past 100; 'Many Children Dead, by Gandang Sajarw". Jakarta Globe. 2010-11-05. Retrieved 2010-11-05.
- "Pictures: Indonesia's Mount Merapi Volcano Erupts". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- "Trans Jogja Busway: Yogyakarta, Central Java". Indonesialogue.com. 2008-02-26. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- "List of private higher education institutions in the Province of Yogyakarta". Kopertis4.or.id. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- "BILL NUMBER: SCR 23 CHAPTERED". Sen.ca.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- "Kyoto prefecture List of Friendly and Sister City". Pref.kyoto.jp. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- Department of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication Regional Office For Yogyakarta Special Region. (1997) Guide To Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Department of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication.
- Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200 (3rd ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 126–139, 269-271. ISBN 0-8047-4480-7
- Ricklefs, M.C. (1974) Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792: A history of the division of Java. London Oriental Series, vol. 30. London : Oxford University Press, (Revised Indonesian edition 2002)
- Soemanto, Bakdi (1992) Cerita Rakyat dari Yogyakarta Jakarta: Grasindo (In Indonesian)
- Soemardjan, S. (1962) Social Changes in Yogyakarta, Ithaca, N.Y. Cornell University Press.
- Yogyakarta travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Sochaczewski, Paul Spencer (1994-06-14). "A True Javanese Fairy Tale: The Sultan and the Mermaid". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yogyakarta.|