List of countries by research and development spending

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This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

List[edit]

Only those nations which annually spend more than 100 million dollars have been included. World's total nominal R&D spending was approximately one trillion dollars in 2010.[1]

Rank Country/Region Expenditures on R&D
(billions of US$, PPP),
 % of GDP PPP Expenditures on R&D per capita
(US$ PPP),
Year Source
1  United States 405.3 2.7% 1,275.64 2011 [2]
2  China 296.8 1.97% 217.69 2012 [3]
3  Japan 160.3 3.67% 1,260.42 2011 [4]
4  Germany 69.5 2.3% 861.04 2011 [2]
5  South Korea 55.8 3.74% 1,111.12 2011 [4]
6  France 42.2 1.9% 640.91 2011 [2]
7  United Kingdom 38.4 1.7% 602.78 2011 [2]
8  India 36.1 0.9% 29.07 2011 [2]
9  Canada 24.3 1.8% 688.47 2011 [2]
10  Russia 23.8n1 1.0% 165.62 2011 [2]
11  Brazil 19.4 0.9% 96.50 2011 [2]
12  Italy 19.0 1.1% 316.70 2011 [2]
13  Taiwan 19.0 2.3% 812.69 2011 [2]
14  Spain 17.2 1.3% 369.02 2011 [2]
15  Australia 15.9 1.7% 978.97 2011 [2]
16  Sweden 11.9 3.3% 1,232.97 2011 [2]
17  Netherlands 10.8 1.6% 641.23 2011 [2]
18  Israel 9.4 4.2% 1,153.90 2011 [2]
19  Austria 8.3 2.5% 975.91 2011 [2]
20   Switzerland 7.5 2.3% 924.53 2011 [2]
21  Belgium 6.9 1.7% 619.82 2011 [2]
22  Turkey 7.249 0.92% 94.55 2012 [2][5]
23  Poland 6.9 0.9% 179.21 2011 [2]
24  Mexico 6.4 0.4% 53.46 2011 [2]
25  Finland 6.3 3.1% 1,155.37 2011 [2]
26  Singapore 6.3 2.2% 1,166.84 2011 [2]
27  Denmark 5.1 2.4% 906.31 2011 [2]
28  Norway 4.2 1.6% 822.07 2011 [2]
29  Czech Republic 3.8 1.4% 361.43 2011 [2]
30  South Africa 3.7 0.7% 69.84 2011 [2]
31  Iran 3.5 0.42% 45.28 2012 [6]
32  Portugal 2.8 1.2% 266.99 2011 [2]
33  Ukraine 2.75 0.85% 60.54 2007 [7]
34  Pakistan 2.73n2 0.67% 14.68 2007 [7]
35  Argentina 2.7 0.4% 67.30 2011 [2]
36  Ireland 2.6 1.4% 566.07 2011 [2]
37  Malaysia 2.6 0.63% 86.54 2010 [8]
38  Saudi Arabia 1.8 0.25% 60.01 2012 [9]

[10]

39  Greece 1.7 0.6% 157.19 2011 [2]
40  Hungary 1.7 0.9% 171.61 2011 [2]
41  Thailand 1.46 0.25% 22.15 2010 [8]
42  New Zealand 1.4 1.2% 309.81 2011 [2]
43  Romania 1.3 0.5% 64.61 2011 [2]
44  Chile 1.22 0.53% 74.65 2007 [7]
45  Belarus 1.02 0.96% 107.73 2007 [7]
46  Egypt 0.91 0.23% 10.56 2007 [7]
47  Slovenia 0.8 1.4% 387.97 2011 [2]
48  Morocco 0.76 0.6% 22.89 2007 [7]
49  Indonesia 0.72 0.07% 2.88 2010 [8]
50  Croatia 0.7 0.81% 163.15 2007 [7]
51  Luxembourg 0.67 1.62% 1,247.67 2007 [7]
52  Tunisia 0.66 0.86% 60.63 2007 [7]
53  Colombia 0.6 0.16% 12.63 2007 [7]
54  Vietnam 0.52 0.19% 5.8 2010 [8]
55  Slovakia 0.5 0.4% 92.32 2011 [2]
56  Lithuania 0.47 0.82% 159.76 2007 [7]
57  Bulgaria 0.44 0.48% 60.40 2007 [7]
58  Kazakhstan 0.38 0.21% 22.11 2007 [7]
59  Estonia 0.36 1.11% 274.42 2007 [7]
60  Iceland 0.3 2.3% 921.18 2011 [2]
61  Philippines 0.29 0.09% 65.60 2007 [7]
62  Uruguay 0.272 0.42% 82.77 2007 [7]
63  Serbia 0.25 0.35% 34.81 2007 [7]
64  Peru 0.24 0.1% 7.88 2007 [7]
65  Latvia 0.23 0.59% 115 2007 [7]
66  Sudan 0.18 0.23% 4.74 2007 [7]
67  Algeria 0.16 0.07% 4.13 2007 [7]
68  Costa Rica 0.15 0.32% 32.14 2007 [7]
69  Uganda 0.13 0.39% 3.68 2007 [7]
70  Azerbaijan 0.11 0.17% 11.61 2007 [7]
71  Botswana 0.11 0.42% 54.32 2007 [7]
72  Ethiopia 0.1 0.17% 1.15 2007 [7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

1. ^ If you use Worldbank Data which gave Russia a higher GDP instead of the Data of the IMF which was used by Royal Society, Russia would spent 30.1 Billion instead of 23 with the 1% spending for R&D. The Worldbank counted Russias GDP in PPP terms at 3015 Billion Dollars in 2011.[11]
2. ^ Pakistan spends 0.67% of its GDP (PPP) on R&D equaling to 2.73 billion dollars excluding the R&D undertaken by its military. The combined R&D spending is 0.9% of GDP (PPP) equaling to 3.67 billion dollars.[7]

References[edit]