Minimum wage in the United States
In the United States, workers are generally entitled to be paid no less than the statutory minimum wage. The federal government mandates a nationwide minimum wage level of $7.25 per hour, while some states and municipalities have set minimum wage levels higher than the federal level, with the highest state minimum wage being $9.19 per hour in Washington as of 2013.
Among those paid by the hour in 2012, 1.6 million were reported as earning exactly the prevailing federal minimum wage. About 2.0 million were reported as earning wages below the minimum. Together, these 3.6 million workers with wages at or below the minimum made up 4.7 percent of all hourly-paid workers.
Federal minimum wage 
Since it was last re-set on July 24, 2009, the federal minimum wage in the United States has been $7.25 per hour. Some U.S. territories (such as American Samoa) are exempt. Some types of labor are also exempt: employers may pay tipped labor a minimum of $2.13 per hour, as long as the hourly wage plus tipped income result in a minimum of $7.25 per hour.
The July 24, 2009 increase was the last of three steps of the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007. The wage increase was signed into law on May 25, 2007, as a rider to the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007. The bill also contained almost $5 billion in tax cuts for small businesses.
List of minimum wage levels by jurisdiction 
This is a list of the minimum wages (per hour) in each state and territory of the United States, for jobs covered by federal minimum wage laws. If the job is not subject to the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, then state, city, or other local laws may determine the minimum wage. A common exemption to the federal minimum wage is a company having revenue of less than $500,000 per year while not engaging in any interstate commerce.
Under the federal law, workers who receive a portion of their salary from tips, such as wait staff, are required only to have their total compensation, including tips, meet the minimum wage. Thus, often, their hourly wage, before tips, is less than the minimum wage. Seven states, and Guam, do not allow for a tip credit. Additional exemptions to the minimum wage include many seasonal employees, student employees, and certain disabled employees as specified by the FLSA.
In addition, some counties and/or cities within states may observe a higher minimum wage than the rest of the state in which they are located; sometimes this higher wage will apply only to businesses that are under contract to the local government itself, while in other cases the higher minimum will be enforced across the board.
|Tipped||$2.13||The Fair Labor Standards Act requires a minimum wage of $2.13 for tipped workers with the expectation that wages plus tips total $7.25 per hour. The employer must pay the difference if total income does not add up to $7.25 per hour.|
|Non-tipped||$7.25||Per the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 (FMWA) since July 24, 2009.|
|Alabama||None||Federal minimum applies.|
|Alaska||$7.75||In 2009, a state law was passed to keep the state minimum wage 50 cents above the federal level.|
|Arizona||$7.80||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Previous rate pursuant to Arizona Proposition 202. The state minimum wage increased to $7.80 at the start of 2013. The state tipped minimum wage is $4.65 per hour. This rate will be automatically adjusted annually based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index. This rate increase does not affect student workers in places such as libraries and cafeterias because those positions are given by universities, which are state entities.|
|Arkansas||$6.25||Applicable to employers of 4 or more employees.|
|California||$8.00||San Francisco: $10.55 since January 1, 2013. (San Francisco has the highest minimum wage in the United States.) San Jose: $10.00 since March 11, 2013. The Minimum Wage Ordinance states that exempt employees must make at least twice the state minimum wage.|
|Colorado||$7.78||Set to increase or decrease according to yearly changes in inflation. The state wage has been increased to $7.64 per hour on January 1, 2012. The tipped wage increases to $4.62 per hour. The rate increased to $7.78 at the start of 2013.|
|Connecticut||$8.25||This rate was increased by 25 cents to $8.25 on January 1, 2010. Tipped employees earn $5.69 per hour, which is a tipped rate that is 69% of the state minimum wage. |
|Delaware||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Florida||$7.79||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Rate is increased annually based upon a cost of living formula. The rate increased to $7.79 at the start of 2013. Tipped employees earn $4.77 per hour.|
|Georgia||$5.15||Only applicable to employers of 6 or more employees. If fewer than six, then there is no minimum at all. Tipped employees earn $2.13. The state law excludes from coverage any employment that is subject to the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act when the federal rate is greater than the state rate.|
|Hawaii||$7.25||Tipped employees earn $7.00 (25 cents less than the current state minimum wage).|
|Idaho||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Illinois||$8.25||Employers may pay anyone under the age of 18 fifty cents less. Tipped employees earn $4.95 (employers may claim credit for tips, up to 40% of wage).|
|Indiana||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Iowa||$7.25||Most small retail and service establishments grossing less than 300,000 annually are not required to pay the minimum wage. Tipped employees can be paid 60% of the minimum wage, which is currently $4.35.|
|Kansas||$7.25||For many years, the minimum wage was set to $2.65, the lowest in the nation. The state wage was increased to match the federal level on January 1, 2010. Kansas also allows the "tipped minimum wage" for employees who receive tips, which is $2.13.|
|Kentucky||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Louisiana||None||Federal minimum applies.|
|Maine||$7.50||Tipped employees earn $3.75 (one-half of the current state minimum wage).|
|Maryland||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.Tipped employees earn $3.63.|
|Massachusetts||$8.00||$2.63 for service (tipped) employees, $1.60 for agricultural employees. With time-and-a-half on Sundays (for retail workers only) the Sunday minimum wage is $12.00/hr.|
|Michigan||$7.40||$2.65 for service (tipped) employees. Minors under 18 years of age may be paid a minimum hourly wage rate of $7.25 per hour. Training wage for new employees ages 16 to 19 of $4.25 per hour for first 90 days of employment.|
|Minnesota||$7.25 (see Note)||Small employers, whose annual receipts are less than $625,000 and who do not engage in interstate commerce, can pay their employees $5.25 per hour. (Note: The federal minimum wage for all employers grossing more than $500,000 is $7.25 an hour as of July 24, 2009, so the Minnesota large-employer rate of $6.15 an hour is obsolete as of that date.)|
|Mississippi||None||Federal minimum applies.|
|Missouri||$7.35||Raised pursuant to FMWA. This rate is automatically adjusted annually based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest five cents. In October 2011, the Missouri Department of Labor announced that the state minimum wage would not increase in 2012. The rate was increased to $7.35 at the start of 2013.|
|Montana||$7.80||Raised pursuant to FMWA. This rate is automatically adjusted annually based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index. Tip income may not be applied as an offset to an employee's pay rate. The minimum pay is $4/hour for business with less than $110,000 in annual sales. The indexed minimum wage was increased 10 cents to $7.35 per hour on January 1, 2011. Rate increased to $7.80 at the start of 2013.|
|Nebraska||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Nevada||$8.25||Rises with inflation. The minimum wage increased to $8.25 on July 1, 2010. Employers who offer health benefits can pay employees $7.25. In April 2011, Nevada's Labor Commissioner Michael Tanchek announced that the minimum wage would remain at $8.25 per hour for the July 2011-July 2012 period.|
|New Hampshire||$7.25||In June 2011, media reported that state lawmakers approved legislation that repeals the state minimum wage law and aligns it with federal law. The new law does not affect the tipped wage rate, which will remain at $3.27 per hour.|
|New Jersey||$7.25||$2.13 per hour for tipped employees.|
|New Mexico||$7.50||$10.51 in Santa Fe as of March 1, 2013. (Santa Fe has the second highest minimum wage in the United States after San Francisco.) Albuquerque's minimum wage is $8.50 as of January 1, 2013.|
|New York||$7.25 ||New York State also has a minimum for exempt employees of $536.10 per week as of January 1, 2007.
|North Carolina||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|North Dakota||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Ohio||$7.85||This rate is adjusted annually on January 1 based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index and increased to $7.85 on January 1, 2013. There is also $3.85 plus tips for tipped employees ($3.93 in 2013); $7.25 for employees under 16 years old and employees whose employers gross less than $283,000 ($288,000 in 2013) per year.|
|Oklahoma||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Federal minimum wage used as reference; no actual amounts written in law. $2.00 per hour for work not covered by federal minimum wage (OK Statutes 40-197.5).|
|Oregon||$8.95||Rises with inflation since 2003 due to Oregon Ballot Measure 25 (2002). The wage increased 30 cents from $8.50 to $8.80 on January 1, 2012. Rate increased to $8.95 at the start of 2013.|
|Pennsylvania||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Rhode Island||$7.75||$2.89 for employees receiving tips. The rate increased to $7.75 at the start of 2013.|
|South Carolina||None||Federal minimum applies.|
|South Dakota||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA.|
|Tennessee||None||Federal minimum applies. The state does have a promised wage law whereby the employers are responsible for paying to the employees the wages promised by the employer.|
|Texas||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Federal minimum wage used as reference; no actual amounts written in law.|
|Utah||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Federal minimum wage used as reference after legislative action; no actual amounts written in law. Current rate took effect on September 8, 2007. $2.13 an hour for tipped employees.|
|Vermont||$8.60||Rises with inflation. Tipped employees are paid $4.10. The rate increased to $8.60 at the start of 2013.|
|Virginia||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Federal minimum wage used as reference.|
|Washington||$9.19||Employees aged 14 or 15 may be paid 85% of the minimum wage, which is $7.68 as of January 1, 2012. Minimum wage increases annually by a voter-approved cost-of-living adjustment based on the federal Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). The wage increased 37 cents from $8.67 to $9.04 on January 1, 2012. The minimum wage increased to $9.19 at the start of 2013.|
|West Virginia||$7.25||Applicable to employers of 6 or more employees at one location not involved in interstate commerce.|
|Wisconsin||$7.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA. Tipped employees are paid $2.33.|
|Wyoming||$5.15||$2.13 for employees receiving tips. FMWA.|
|American Samoa||$2.68-$4.69||Varies by industry. On September 30, 2010, President Obama signed legislation that delays scheduled wage increases for 2010 and 2011. On July 26, 2012, President Obama signed S. 2009 into law, postponing the minimum wage increase for 2012, 2013, and 2014. Annual wage increases of $0.50 will recommence on September 30, 2015 and continue every three years until all rates have reached the federal minimum.|
|District of Columbia||$8.25||Raised pursuant to FMWA. This rate is automatically set at $1 above the federal minimum wage rate if the District of Columbia rate is lower. The tipped wage in Washington, DC is $2.77 per hour.|
|Northern Mariana Islands||$5.55||Since May 25, 2010. Planned increases to $7.25 by 2015.|
|Puerto Rico||$7.25||Employers covered by the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) are subject only to the federal minimum wage and all applicable regulations. Employers not covered by the FLSA will be subject to a minimum wage that is at least 70 percent of the federal minimum wage or the applicable mandatory decree rate, whichever is higher. The Secretary of Labor and Human Resources may authorize a rate based on a lower percentage for any employer who can show that implementation of the 70 percent rate would substantially curtail employment in that business.
Puerto Rico also has minimum wage rates that vary according to the industry. These rates range from a minimum of $4.25 to $7.25 per hour.
|U.S. Virgin Islands||$7.25||Except businesses with gross annual receipts of less than $150,000, then $4.30. (In practice, the Virgin Islands adopts the federal per hour rate)|
Prior U.S. minimum wages laws 
In 1912, Massachusetts organized a commission to recommend non-compulsory minimum wages for women and children. Within eight years, at least thirteen U.S. states and the District of Columbia would pass minimum wage laws. The Lochner era United States Supreme Court consistently invalidated compulsory minimum wage laws. Such laws, said the court, were unconstitutional for interfering with the ability of employers to freely negotiate appropriate wage contracts with employees.
The first attempt at establishing a national minimum wage came in 1933, when a $0.25 per hour standard was set as part of the National Industrial Recovery Act. However, in the 1935 court case Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (295 U.S. 495), the United States Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional, and the minimum wage was abolished.
The minimum wage was re-established in the United States in 1938 (pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act), once again at $0.25 per hour ($4.10 in 2012 dollars). In United States v. Darby Lumber Co. (1941), the Supreme Court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act, holding that Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions.
The minimum wage had its highest purchasing value ever in 1968, when it was $1.60 per hour ($10.64 in 2012 dollars). From January 1981 to April 1990, the minimum wage was frozen at $3.35 per hour, then a record-setting wage freeze. From September 1, 1997 through July 23, 2007, the federal minimum wage remained constant at $5.15 per hour, breaking the old record.
Congress then gave states the power to set their minimum wages above the federal level. As of July 1, 2010[update], fourteen states had done so. Some government entities, such as counties and cities, observe minimum wages that are higher than the state as a whole. One notable example of this is Santa Fe, New Mexico, whose $9.50 per hour minimum wage was the highest in the nation, until San Francisco increased its minimum wage to $9.79 in 2009. Another device to increase wages, living wage ordinances, generally apply only to businesses that are under contract to the local government itself.
On November 7, 2006, voters in six states (Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, and Ohio) approved statewide increases in the state minimum wage. The amounts of these increases ranged from $1 to $1.70 per hour and all increases are designed to annually index to inflation.
Some politicians in the United States advocate linking the minimum wage to the Consumer Price Index, thereby increasing the wage automatically each year based on increases to the Consumer Price Index. So far, Ohio, Oregon, Missouri, Vermont and Washington have linked their minimum wages to the consumer price index. Minimum wage indexing also takes place each year in Florida, San Francisco, California, and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Economists' analysis 
According to a paper written in 2000 by Fuller and Geide-Stevenson, 73.5% (27.9% of which agreed with provisos) of American economists agreed that a minimum wage increases unemployment among unskilled and young workers, while 26.5% disagreed with this statement. As a policy question in 2006, the minimum wage has—to some extent—split the economics profession with just under half believing it should be eliminated and a slightly smaller percentage believing it should be increased, leaving few in the middle.
Some idea of the empirical problems of this debate can be seen by looking at recent trends in the United States. The minimum wage fell about 29% in real terms between 1979 and 2003. For the median worker, real hourly earnings have increased since 1979; however, for the lowest deciles, there have been significant decreases in the real wage without much decrease in the rate of unemployment. Some argue that an increasing minimum wage might reduce youth unemployment (since these workers are likely to have fewer skills than older workers). Furthermore, some economics research has shown that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases.
Overall, there is no consensus between economists about the effects of minimum wages on youth employment, although empirical evidence suggests that this group is most vulnerable to high minimum wages.
Reasons for economic controversy 
Classical economics argues that the quantity of labor demanded increases as the price of labor falls. Each firm must evaluate the potential to make a profit from each worker hired; if the workers cost less, then more profit can be made from hiring more workers at a lower price. Therefore, by setting a lower boundary to wages, a minimum wage law prevents firms from offering jobs below the minimum and increases unemployment. Some research suggests a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage lowers low-skill employment by 2 to 4 percent and total restaurant employment by 1 to 3 percent.
In Keynesian economics the perspective is different. Although employers and workers set their wages in nominal terms, they are unable to predict the exact purchasing power of those wages. The value of the real wage can only be known "ex post" -- long after the workers have been paid. Neither unions nor government authorities know the real wage and can only approximate it by regulating the nominal wage. The real wage is the purchasing power of wages when adjusted for inflation, but inflation--the purchasing power of money and therefore of wages--depends on total levels of investment.
Investment, in its turn, depends upon consumption, and consumption depends upon the marginal propensity to consume (savings rate) across all income categories. In an "underconsumption" scenario, the transfer of income from entrepreneurs and rentiers (those with higher incomes) to the working class (via union wage agreements and minimum wages) can actually lead to an increase in total consumption and higher demand for goods--leading to increased employment.
However, the resulting higher price levels may spur several forms of political and institutional responses that blunt or negate this tendency. For one, inflation tends to transfer income from bond holders (rentiers) to wage earners. For another, entrepreneurs may, under conditions of oligopoly be able to blunt the effect of rising wages by using their market power to raise prices fast enough to prevent real gains among workers. And finally, the central bank may intervene to defend price levels by increasing interest rates, which will tend to curb investment and decrease the demand for labor.
Without choosing from among these perspectives, it is sufficient to say that minimum wage increases are unlikely to have a simple linear effect on employment. The interconnection of price levels, central bank policy, wage agreements, total aggregate demand creates a situation where the conclusions to be drawn from macroeconomic analysis will be highly influenced by the underlying assumptions.
Jobs affected by the minimum wage 
The jobs that are most likely to be directly affected by the minimum wage are the ones that pay a wage close to the minimum.
According to the May 2006 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, the four lowest-paid occupational sectors in May 2006 (when the federal minimum wage was $5.15 per hour) were the following:
|Sector||Workers Employed||Median Wage||Mean Wage||Mean Annual|
|Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations||11,029,280||$7.90||$8.86||$18,430|
|Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations||450,040||$8.63||$10.49||$21,810|
|Personal Care and Service Occupations||3,249,760||$9.17||$11.02||$22,920|
|Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations||4,396,250||$9.75||$10.86||$22,580|
Two years later, in May 2008, when the federal minimum wage was $5.85 per hour and was about to increase to $6.55 per hour in July 2008, these same sectors were still the lowest-paying, but their situation (according to Bureau of Labor Statistics data) was:
|Sector||Workers Employed||Median Wage||Mean Wage||Mean Annual|
|Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations||11,438,550||$8.59||$9.72||$20,220|
|Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations||438,490||$9.34||$11.32||$23,560|
|Personal Care and Service Occupations||3,437,520||$9.82||$11.59||$24,120|
|Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations||4,429,870||$10.52||$11.72||$24,370|
In 2006, workers in the following 13 individual occupations received, on average, a median hourly wage of less than $8.00 per hour:
|Occupation||Workers Employed||Median Wage||Mean Wage||Mean Annual|
|Waiters and Waitresses||4,312,930||$3.14||$4.27||$11,190|
|Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food||2,461,890||$7.24||$7.66||$15,930|
|Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers||401,790||$7.36||$7.84||$16,320|
|Cooks, Fast Food||612,020||$7.41||$7.67||$15,960|
|Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers||101,530||$7.64||$8.41||$17,500|
|Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop||524,410||$7.76||$8.15||$16,950|
|Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop||340,390||$7.78||$8.10||$16,860|
|Amusement and Recreation Attendants||235,670||$7.83||$8.43||$17,530|
|Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse||230,780||$7.95||$8.48||$17,630|
In 2008, only two occupations paid a median wage less than $8.00 per hour:
|Occupation||Workers Employed||Median Wage||Mean Wage||Mean Annual|
|Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food||2,708,840||$7.90||$8.36||$17,400|
According to the May 2009 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, the lowest-paid occupational sectors in May 2009 (when the federal minimum wage was $7.25 per hour) were the following:
|Sector||Workers Employed||Median Wage||Mean Wage||Mean Annual|
|Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food||2,695,740||$8.28||$8.71||$18,120|
|Waiters and Waitresses||2,302,070||$8.50||$9.80||$20,380|
|Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers||402,020||$8.51||$9.09||$18,900|
|Cooks, Fast Food||539,520||$8.52||$8.76||$18,230|
See also 
- "Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2012". U.S. Department of Labor. Accessed March 6, 2013.
- Text of U.S. v. Darby Lumber Co., 312 U.S. 100 (1941) is available from: Justia · Findlaw
- "Employee Rights Under the Fair Labor Standards Act". US Department of Labor - Wage and Hour Division. Accessed: September 3, 2010.
- "Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees". U.S. Department of Labor.
- "Exemptions to the Minimum Wage and the FLSA". Minimum-Wage.org. Ased: May 25, 2011.
- "What is the minimum wage for workers who receive tips?What is the minimum wage for workers who receive tips?". eLaws. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Federal minimum wage will increase to $7.25 on July 24". United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "FAQs". State of Alabama Department of Labor. Accessed August 6, 2010.
- Alaska State Senate Majority Caucus Press Release
- "Minimum Wage Standard and Overtime Hours". Alaska Division of Labor Standards and Safety. Accessed November 8, 2010.
- Minimum Wage Laws in the States. From the United States Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration - Wage and Hour Division. The source page has a clickable US map with current and projected state-by-state minimum wage rates for each state.
- "State Minimum Wage Rates". Labor Law Center. Accessed August 6, 2010.
- Increased rates
- "Minimum Wage FAQs". Industrial Commission of Arizona. Accessed August 6, 2010.
- "Minimum wage". California Department of Industrial Relations. Accessed August 6, 2010.
- "Minimum Wage Ordinance". San Francisco Labor Standards Enforcement. Accessed Mar 21, 2012.
- "Minimum Wage". Colorado Department of Labor and Employment. Accessed August 6, 2010.
- "Colorado's minimum wage becomes first in the country to drop". Syracuse Post-Standard. January 1, 2010.
- "2012 Colorado State Minimum Wage". Colorado DOLE. Accessed October 10, 2011.
- "History of Minimum Wage Rates". Connecticut Department of Labor. Accessed January 31, 2013.
- "Florida's New Minimum Wage for 2013". Florida Department of Economic Opportunity. October 13, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- "Florida Minimum Wage Raised in 2012". Minimum-Wage.org. January 1, 2012.
- http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/gacode/Default.asp Go to Georgia Code Title 34, Chapter 4, § 34-4-3
- "State Labor Poster". Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations.
- Illinois Department of Labor - Minimum Wage Law
- "Wage and Hour Questions and Answers". Iowa Workforce Development.
- "Sebelius signs bill to raise Kansas minimum wage to $7.25 an hour". Kansas City Business Journal. April 23, 2009.
- "Minimum Wage Poster". Maine Department of Labor Standards. Accessed: September 3, 2010.
- Maryland Department of Labor - Wage & Hour Fact Sheet
- "Minimum Wage Program". Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed March 28, 2012.
- "What is the Michigan Minimum Wage?". Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth. Accessed July 8, 2011.
- "How federal minimum-wage increase affects Minnesota businesses". Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
- Rate difference
- "Minimum wage". Missouri Department of Labor. Accessed January 1, 2011.
- "Montana minimum wage going up 10 cents in January". Business Week. October 1, 2010.
- "Montana's minimum wage climbs to $7.35". Billings Gazette. January 6, 2011.
- "Minimum Wage Rate Increasing". Las Vegas Review Journal. June 26, 2010.
- "2010 Annual Minimum Wage Bulletin". Nevada Office of the Labor Commissioner.
- "Nevada’s Minimum Wage and Daily Overtime Rates Will Not Change". KOLO TV. April 4, 2011.
- "Lawmakers override vetoed minimum wage bill; bill ties NH to federal law". Associated Press. June 22, 2011.
- Minimum wage proposal gets minimum attention, fizzles out during N.J. budget battle
- "Ohio minimum wage to go up 10 cents next week". Cleveland Plain Dealer. December 30, 2010.
- "Minimum wage in Ohio to rise to $7.85 in 2013". The Columbus Dispatch.
- "Oregon minimum wage gets 30-cent bump". The Oregonian. September 15, 2011.
- "Minimum Wage Increase For 2013". Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "Texas Minimum Wage Law Summary". Texas Workforce. Last updated July 24, 2009.
- "Vermont Minimum Wage - 2012". Minimum-Wage.org. January 1, 2012.
- "The Wisconsin's 2009 Minimum Wage Rates". Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development. Last updated July 24, 2009.
- "Wage Rate in American Samoa". Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division.
- "President Obama signs Minimum Wage delay into Law". US Dept of Labor. October 1, 2012.
- "District of Columbia Official Code". District of Columbia Department of Employment Services. Accessed: September 3, 2010.
- "Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees (January 1, 2010)". U.S. Department of Labor - Wage and Hour Division. Accessed November 29, 2010.
- William P. Quigley, "'A Fair Day's Pay For A Fair Day's Work': Time to Raise and Index the Minimum Wage", 27 St. Mary's L. J. 513, 516 (1996)
- Id. at 518.
- "CPI Inflation Calculator". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- Minimum Wage Laws in the States. From the United States Department of Labor. Employment Standards Administration. Wage and Hour Division. The source page has a clickable US map with current and projected state-by-state minimum wage rates for each state.
- "Ordinance 2003-8". City of Santa Fe. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
- "City's minimum pay requirement expands to small businesses; state minimum kicks in". By Julie Ann Grimm. Dec. 31, 2007. The Santa Fe New Mexican.
- Santa Fe Living Wage Network.
- Selna, Robert (December 26, 2008). "S.F. minimum wage rises to $9.79 in 2009". San Francisco Chronicle.
- ACORN and Unions Increase Working Wages Across the Country
- Colliver, Victoria (August 29, 2010). "Health plans dwindle in U.S. Number of firms offering insurance drops as costs rise". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "The Family Connection".
- Fuller, Dan and Doris Geide-Stevenson (2003): Consensus Among Economists: Revisited, in: Journal of Economic Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Seite 369-387 (PDF)
- "Minimum Wages and Youth Employment in France and the United States". Cornell. May 1997.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure, August 2007
- Ghellab, Youcef (1998): Minimum Wages and Youth Unemployment, ILO Employment and Training Papers 26 (PDF)
- "Product Market Evidence on the Employment Effects of the Minimum Wage," Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, April 2006
- For a review article which analyzes the classical, Keynesian, and underconsumptionist approaches to wages, see Sidney Weintraub, "A Macroeconomic Approach to the Theory of Wages," The American Economic Review, Vol. 46, No. 5 (Dec., 1956), pp. 835-856
- Bureau of Labor Statistics May 2006 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States
- Bureau of Labor Statistics - May 2008 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States
- Bureau of Labor Statistics May 2009 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States
- Minimum wage in the United States at the Open Directory Project
- Federal Minimum Wage. United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division. As of July 24, 2009.
- Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees. United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division. As of January 1, 2010.
- History of the FLSA and Federal Minimum Wage
- U.S. Minimum Wage History. Oregon State University - Wealth and Poverty (Anth 484). Last updated July 26, 2010.
- History of Federal Minimum Wage United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division.